Chinese Academy of Launch Vehicle Technology - CALT
As the leading launch vehicle producer in China, China Academy of Launch Vehicle Technology (CALT) is subordinate to CASC. The Long March launch vehicles, designed and manufactured by CALT, can send various payloads to LEO, SSO and GTO with low cost and high reliability. As one of the major competitors in the launch service market, CALT has succeeded in sending over 70 spacecraft into the given orbits since 1970. CALT has conducted the test launches of manned spacecraft, which makes China become one of the few countries having the advanced space launch technology. CALT will explore the advanced launch vehicle technology ceaselessly and develop new-generation launchers to meet the customers' launch service requirements.
ChinaRocket Co. Ltd, a subsidiary of China Academy of Launch Vehicle Technology, the country's largest developer of ballistic missiles and carrier rockets, was established on 19 October 2016, marking the commercialization of China's space industry, the Xinhua News Agency reported. "Chinese commercial space enterprises are lagging behind the global market due to lack of complete production chain in the commercial space industry and experience in commercial space activities like space tourism," Li Hong, president of the academy, said at a press conference.
"Commercializing rocket launches will help develop the industry as many private companies will be interested in the sector," Jiao Weixin, a professor at the School of Earth and Space Science of Peking University, told the Global Times. Jiao said the establishment of the company signals that State-controlled space industry is stepping into ordinary people's daily life.
Han Qingping, president of ChinaRocket, said at the press conference that the company would focus on keeping the cost 30 percent lower than an average launch through the "standardization of the interface between satellite and rocket as well as advance preparation." According to Han, China will develop reusable sub-orbital vehicles in five to 10 years. Han said the company will launch individual space travel services like "space taxi, free space ride and space shuttle bus" to promote the space economy.
According to Xinhua, ChinaRocket's individual space travel package would cost about $200,000.
China Academy of Launch Vehicle Technology (CALT), subordinate to China Aerospace Corporation (CASC), was established in 1957 by Dr. Xue-Sen Qian. In 1958, production of the Russian R-2 missile (Project 1059) commenced at Academy 1, which later became the BWYIC [Beijing Wan Yuan Industry Corp.], then the CALT [Chinese Academy of Launch-Vehicle Technology]. It is the largest complex in China mainly devoted to the research and development of liquid-propellant ballistic missiles and launch vehicles derived from these missiles. CALT designs, develops, produces and tests missiles and launch vehicles, and provide commercial launch services for worldwide customers.
CALT is headquartered in Nanyuan, adjacent to the PLAAF Nanyuan Airfield in the southern suburbs of Beijing.
The primary Wanyuan (or Wan Yuan) missile research and development center is located approximately 30 miles southwest of Beijing. Construction of the center probably began in 1959. The facility was initially capable of developing liquid fueled guided missiles from the drawing board through the fabrication of prototypes to engine static test and finally captive or hold-down testa of the conplete missile. As of the early 1960s the facility covered some six hundred acres, and was functionally divided into four distinct subareas: a static test area, a propellants/cold flow test area, a development and engineering area, and an administration / housing/ logistics area.
As of the early 1960s the static test area contained tbree test stands. These included an engine static test stand, a coldflow test facility, and a captive or hold-down test stand. Construction of the facility commenced some time in 1959, and Soviet assistance was available during the initial stages of construction. On the basis of the state of construction in August 1962, it was believed by US intelligence that the facility as a whole was not completed before early 1963, although individual portions could have been activated somewhat earlier. The stands are rail-served and are comparable to some of the largest stands identified in the USSR. Nearby buildings could support some missile and engine fabrication as well as the processing of units produced elsewhere. These stands provided the most significant indicator of the scope of Chinese ambitions and the priority they had assigned to the guided missile program. As of 1987 the facility encompassed at least 100 acres, with six large factory complexes in the compound. China's Long March 2 space boosters are also built at the site. At that time the facility was said to be known as the Capital Machinery Co. and Wan Yuan Industry Corp.
The company was sanctioned by the United States in August 1993 for its missile assistance to Pakistan. Among the Chinese entities sanctioned was the "Beijing Wan Yuan Industry Corporation" (BWYIC). CALT managed the development of the CZ-2C space launch vehicle and hypergolic and cryogenic engines, while SAST was responsible for the CZ-2D booster. The CALT Wan Yuan facility also produced the DF-5 ICBM through the end of the 1990s, at which time production was shifted to a new plant near Chengdu in central China.
CALT has 27,000 employees, of whom thirty percent are engineers and seven percent are senior engineers or scientists. Facilities include some 5,400,000 square meters.
The CALT organization consists of thirteen research institutes [other reports suggest as many as 20 affiliated institutes], six or seven factories and some additional management departments.
|1st Planning Department||Beijing Institute of Astronautical Systems Engineering||Liquid systems missile & launcher general design and production|
|4th Planning Department||Beijing Institute of Electro-mechanical Systems Engineering||Solid systems engineering|
|11th Research Institute||Beijing Institute of Liquid Rocket Engines [AKA Beijing Fengyuan Machinery Company]||900||Liu Guoqiu||Engine development - operates 067 Base liaison office and test site in southwest suburbs of Beijing.|
|12th Research Institute||Beijing Institute of Automatic Control||Colocated with 2nd Academy facilities on Yongding Road in western Beijing||800||Dong Ruohuan||Engaged in R&D of missile related navigation & guidance system technology, to include GPS exploitation. Established in 1958.|
|13th Research Institute||Beijing Institute of Control Devices||700||Sun Zhaorong||R&D of attitude control systems, including inertial instrument technology such as gyros and accelerometers|
|14th Research Institute||Beijing Special Electromechanical Institute||800||Wu Zhaozong||Warhead and re-entry vehicle development. Closely associated with CAEP in effort to miniaturize warheads.|
|15th Research Institute||Beijing Institute of Special Engineering Machinery||Bao Yuanji||Ground communication equipment, to include launch control and missile launcher survivability|
|702nd Research Institute||Beijing Institute of Structures and Environmental Engineering||Yang Yongxin|
|703rd Research Institute||Beijing Research Institute of Materials and Technology||Mao Huamin|
|704th Research Institute||Beijing Research Institute of Telemetry (BRIT)||1000||Li Bingchang||Telemetry devices. Since 1991, engaged in exploitation of GPS.|
|China Carrier Rocket Technology Research Institute|
|Shanghai Institute of Satellite Engineering||Shanghai|
|200 Factory||Guanghua Radio Factory||Control system electronic components|
|210 Factory||Beijing Jianhua Electronic Instrument Factory||Nanyuan||1200||Inertial components. Close association with 13th Research Institute.|
|211 Factory||Capital Space Machinery Corporation||Nanyuan complex||General Assembly Plant (Liquid systems)|
|230 Factory||Beijing Xinghua Machinery Factory||Yongding Road|
|7107 Factory||Inertial Devices Factory||Baoji||Associated with 230 Factory|
|Beijing Experimental Factory||Muxidi, West Beijing||Electronic hydrolic servo systems|
|Beijing Wan Yuan Industry Corporation||launch service & space equipment|
|Beijing Wanyuan Sealing Factory|
The Beijing Institute of Structures and Environment is a professional institute for research and experimentation in structural strength and environmental engineering for aerospace systems. Its primary research fields include strength, stiffness, dynamic properties, stability and damage mechanism analysis of spacecraft structures under static, dynamic, thermal and special environment loading. It also conducts work on the influence of mechanical and natural environment on structures and electronic products, control methods for system reliability, vibration, and other environment, structure reinforcing technology, and the development of load testing system for experiments of structural strength and environment.
The Beijing Institute of Material Technology is a comprehensive center for material performance testing centre, nondestructive testing and failure analysis. The institute is engaged in research of materials and special technology for spacecraft, focusing on research and small batch production of structural and thermal protective composites, including functional and multi-functional composites. Research on civil products focuses on synthetic cardiac valves, graphite products, and rubber and other composite products.
The Shanghai Institute of Satellite Engineering, which was moved from CAST to CALT in a 1993 reorganization, was founded in 1969. It has developed the FY-1 polar orbiting remote sensing satellites, and the FY-2 geostationary weather satellites.
The National Engineering Research Center for Specific Pump & Valve, supported by the 11th Research Institute of the China Aerospace Corporation, was established in 1991. The center has 209 employees and five major departments: science management department; pump engineerig department; valve engineering department; test & inspection department and a plant for manufacturing pumps and valvers. Activities include cryogenic, high pressure, high speed, anti-corrosion, high cavitation pumps, such as cryogenic pumps, high head small flowrate centrifugal pumps, and vertical and horizontal high speed centrifugal pumps.
The Long March launch vehicles and liquid-propellant East Wind missiles are the major products of the company.