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Weapons of Mass Destruction (WMD)

[CRS Issue Brief for Congress]

95110: DOE Laboratory Restructuring Legislation

Updated December 4, 1996

William C. Boesman
Science Policy Research Division

CONTENTS

SUMMARY

MOST RECENT DEVELOPMENTS

BACKGROUND AND ANALYSIS

The DOE Laboratories
Proposals to Restructure DOE and Its Laboratories
DOE Laboratory Restructuring Legislation
Restructuring Proposals
Funding Proposals
First Session
Second Session

LEGISLATION

CONGRESSIONAL HEARINGS, REPORTS, AND DOCUMENTS

FOR ADDITIONAL READING


SUMMARY

Interest in restructuring (including eliminating) the Department of Energy (DOE) and its laboratories has increased since the end of the Cold War, and especially since the beginning of the 104th Congress. A number of non-legislative proposals and activities to this end are reviewed, including DOE's own proposals for "alignment and downsizing" of the Department and its laboratories.

A number of bills have been introduced in the 104th Congress to restructure DOE and its laboratories. These include bills to, among other things, eliminate DOE, transfer some of its research and development (R&D) programs and laboratories to other agencies, and terminate other R&D programs and laboratories. Other bills address other restructuring issues, such as establishing a commission to make recommendations about closing or reconfiguring the laboratories, reducing their personnel, and establishing missions for the laboratories. None of this restructuring legislation was enacted in the 104th Congress. The FY1996 and FY1997 DOE R&D appropriations acts fund most DOE R&D budget components at levels significantly below their respective requests, with the general exception of fundamental science and defense core stockpile stewardship. However, even parts of these areas (for example, fusion energy R&D) are funded at lower levels. The FY1997 appropriations, however, fund fossil energy R&D and energy conservation above the Administration's request. Decreased R&D funding could adversely affect individual laboratories.

Any major restructuring of DOE likely would have significant impacts on DOE's four major R&D mission areas (nuclear weapons and related defense R&D, fundamental scientific research, applied energy R&D, and environmental restoration and waste management-related R&D) and its nine major multiprogram and 18 smaller laboratories. It also likely would have significant impacts on certain areas of national R&D and the federal R&D budget. This is briefly discussed.


MOST RECENT DEVELOPMENTS

In the second session, a provision of the Fiscal Year 1997 House Budget Resolution (H.Con.Res. 178) and a Senate bill (S. 1678) would have eliminated DOE, but were not enacted. The National Defense Authorization Act for FY1997 (including DOE's defense R&D activities); the Energy and Water Development Appropriations Act, 1997; and the Department of the Interior and Related Agencies Appropriations Act, 1997 (part of Making Omnibus Consolidated Appropriations for Fiscal Year 1997) were enacted.


BACKGROUND AND ANALYSIS

The DOE Laboratories

The Department of Energy (DOE) has nine large multiprogram laboratories, employing almost 50,000 persons, which are operated by contractors as Federally Funded Research and Development Centers (FFRDCs). DOE also has 18, generally smaller, single- purpose or program-directed laboratories which employ an additional 9,800 persons. Together these laboratories employ over 25,000 scientists and engineers. Four of the 18 smaller laboratories are staffed by about 740 federal employees, or just over 1% of the total DOE laboratory work force; the remaining 14 are managed and staffed by contractors, 10 as FFRDCs. Employees of contractor-operated laboratories are the contractors' private sector employees, not federal employees. DOE also funds several other laboratories, operated by industry or academia, including two large nuclear energy laboratories. These several laboratories conduct research and development (R&D) in DOE's four major laboratory mission areas: nuclear weapons R&D, fundamental scientific research, applied energy R&D, and environmental restoration and waste management (ERWM)-related R&D. DOE's proposed FY1996 budget includes an estimated $6.6 billion in obligations for the laboratories, just slightly less than the estimated FY1995 level. DOE's proposed FY1997 budget request includes an estimated $6.4 billion in obligations for the laboratories.

Proposals to Restructure DOE and Its Laboratories

There has been increasing interest in restructuring DOE and its laboratories since the end of the Cold War and particularly since the beginning of the 104th Congress. This section provides a brief review of non-congressional proposals to restructure DOE and its laboratories.

The "Galvin Task Force", an independent body established by the Secretary of Energy Advisory Board, submitted its final report, Alternative Futures for the Department of Energy Laboratories, in February 1995 (see For Additional Reading and Congressional Hearings, Reports, and Documents at the end of the issue brief for cited and related materials). It found that DOE's laboratory system is "oversized" and recommended that DOE not search for ""new missions" when there remains a compelling agenda of important work to be performed in their traditional mission areas" of national security, energy, environmental science and technology, and fundamental science. It also proposed a number of changes in DOE's laboratory management. While not accepting all of its recommendations, DOE has adopted most of them, and has initiated a number of organizational reforms, legislative proposals, and cost-cutting measures aimed at fulfilling its 1994 commitment to reduce its budget by $14.1 billion over 5 years while maintaining most of its science and technology programs and all of its laboratories. This would be about a 15% reduction from the FY1995 level. Up to $1.4 billion of that commitment would be taken from the laboratory complex under the direction of the newly established Laboratory Operations Board. Recently completed DOE reports, including Strategic Alignment and Downsizing, Stockpile Stewardship and Management Program, the independent "Yergin Task Force" report on strategic energy R&D, and the Strategic Laboratory Missions Plan -- Phase I are inputs to DOE's continuing planning process.

These DOE initiatives were summarized in the testimony of Secretary of Energy Hazel O'Leary at the June 12, 1995, hearing of the House Subcommittee on Energy and Power of the Committee on Commerce. She also said that DOE's plans for restructuring would avoid the threats to DOE's existing missions and programs represented by the several congressional and other proposals to dismantle DOE or to combine it with other agencies in a Department of Science.

Other proposals, on the other hand, such as those included in studies by the Heritage Foundation, American Enterprise Institute, and the Cato Institute (the latter given as testimony before the House Subcommittee on Government Management, Information, and Technology of the Committee on Government Reform and Oversight), recommend that DOE be eliminated and its laboratories be transferred to other federal departments and agencies, academia, or the private sector.

In addition to the proposals and activities noted above, a number of congressional measures have been introduced and hearings held in the 104th Congress on the subject of the restructuring of DOE. These are discussed in the following subsection and each bill is individually listed in the Legislation section. All these proposals and bills raise issues of how the existing DOE laboratory complex would be affected and what would happen to the missions that the laboratories currently support. Such changes also might substantially affect some important areas of national R&D to which the laboratories contribute significantly, such as high energy physics.

Overall federal budget savings would depend mainly upon downsizing or eliminating DOE's R&D programs and laboratories, not just transferring them to other governmental agencies. The three nuclear weapons laboratories, however, which currently account for about one-third of the DOE laboratory budget and personnel, would not be eliminated under any current proposal and probably would not decrease much, if at all, in funding in the near future.

Other DOE R&D programs could be decreased and the laboratories transferred to other federal agencies, sold to academia or the private sector if buyers could be found, which is questionable in many cases, or closed. However, federal support for much of the fundamental scientific research currently conducted in these laboratories is likely to continue wherever the laboratories are located because such research is considered, by most science policymakers, to be of national importance and it probably would not, or could not, be funded by academia or the private sector. On the other hand, much applied energy R&D appears to be vulnerable because many policymakers believe that the government should not support such R&D. Many of these R&D programs, con-sequently, may be terminated and the laboratories transferred, sold (if buyers exist), or terminated. DOE and other policymakers, however, believe that the government should continue to support these R&D programs for long-term strategic and other reasons. These matters are discussed in considerably more detail in CRS Report 95-988 SPR, The DOE Laboratories: Issues of DOE Restructuring, Missions, National R&D, and Budget.

DOE Laboratory Restructuring Legislation

From the beginning of the 104th Congress, there have been proposals to eliminate or otherwise restructure DOE and its laboratories. Freshmen Republicans, for example, on February 14, 1995, called for the elimination of DOE, along with the Departments of Commerce, Education, and Housing and Urban Development. A similar call was made by Senate majority leader Dole. These and other proposals are either direct proposals to restructure DOE and its laboratories, or funding measures that, in effect, restructure them.

Restructuring Proposals

The current budget resolution (H.Con.Res. 67), although a funding bill, proposes the termination of DOE and the reduction of many of its programs. The Senate version (S.Con.Res. 13), on the other hand, retains DOE, as does the conference report on H.Con.Res. 67 (H.Rept. 104-159). In the second session, the House Budget Committee again proposed the elimination of DOE, but, in the conference report, the parties "agree to disagree."

Representative Tiahrt introduced a bill (H.R. 1993) to, among other things, abolish DOE and redesignate it as the Energy Programs Resolution Agency, and to terminate that organization in 3 years; establish an Energy Laboratory Facilities Commission to reduce "the number of energy laboratories and programs at those laboratories, through reconfiguration, privatization, and closure" (similar to H.R. 87); transfer DOE's nuclear weapons and other defense programs, including the three nuclear weapons laboratories (Los Alamos, Livermore, and Sandia), to the Defense Nuclear Programs Agency, which the bill establishes within DOD (similar to H.R. 1628; DOD opposes such a transfer according to Secretary of Defense William Perry); and reduce energy supply R&D and terminate some fossil energy programs currently supported by DOE. In the second session, Senator Grams introduced a bill (S. 1678) to abolish DOE which, while similar to H.R. 1993, would transfer some DOE R&D programs to the Interior Department and some to the National Science Foundation (NSF).

A hearing on the reorganization of DOE was held on June 21, 1995, before the Subcommittee on Energy and Power of the House Committee on Commerce. The principal witnesses were Representative Tiahrt and Secretary of Energy O'Leary. Similar hearings were held on May 16 and 23, 1995, by the Subcommittee on Government Management, Information and Technology of the House Committee on Government Reform and Oversight.

Other bills have been introduced on some aspects of these matters. Representative Bartlett introduced a bill (H.R. 87) to establish an independent DOE Energy Laboratory Facilities Commission to make "recommendations to the congressional energy committees for the closure or reconfiguration of departmental laboratories." A similar provision subsequently was included in H.R. 1993 (see above). Representative Schiff introduced a bill (H.R. 2142) to establish the post-Cold War missions of DOE's laboratories so that any decision to restructure the laboratories can be made on a sound basis. Representative Hoke has introduced legislation (H.R. 1628) to establish a Defense Nuclear Programs Agency, "under the direction of the Secretary of Defense," which, among other things, would include DOE's current defense, nonproliferation, and defense-related environmental management programs and the three nuclear weapons laboratories. A similar provision subsequently was included in H.R. 1993 (see above). Representative Roemer has introduced a bill (H.R. 1510) to reduce the personnel at DOE's non-weapons laboratories by one-third within 10 years, terminate inferior or duplicate facilities, and consolidate other R&D at major facilities or centers of expertise. A hearing on H.R. 87, H.R. 1510, H.R. 1993, and H.R. 2142 was held in the House Committee on Science on September 7, 1995.

The prospect for eliminating DOE or significantly restructuring its laboratory complex is less likely now than at the beginning of the 104th Congress, although the issue is likely to continue into the 105th Congress. There also is a continuing interest of some Members in establishing a Department of Science. A bill to that end has not yet been introduced in the 104th Congress, although the House Committee on Science, on June 28, 1995, held a hearing on the idea of creating a Cabinet-level Department of Science which would include all of DOE, including its laboratories, as well as nine other R&D agencies. Representative Walker, chairman of the Committee, is a principal proponent of this type of reorganization.

Funding Proposals

First Session. Inroads on DOE laboratory funding were first made in the FY1995 rescission bill (H.R. 889, P.L. 104-6), which rescinds $200 million for DOE's defense-related environmental restoration and waste management (one of DOE's four major mission areas). The second FY1995 rescission bill (H.R. 1158), vetoed by the President, would have rescinded $74 million for DOE's Energy Supply R&D activities, $18.1 million for Fossil Energy R&D, and $49.6 million for energy conservation. The third FY1995 rescission bill (H.R. 1944, P.L. 104-19) contains the same rescission amounts for DOE as in the vetoed bill.

The DOE Civilian R&D Act of 1995 (H.R. 1816) authorizes appropriations for FY1996. Upon its approval by the full committee, Chairman Walker stated that it "embodies the most dramatic change in civilian energy R&D policy in nearly 50 years." The bill authorizes major cuts in solar and renewable energy, nuclear energy, fossil energy (including zero authorization for Clean Coal Technology), and energy conservation. There also are significant cuts in energy research (particularly fusion research). In the major areas of fundamental science, Basic Energy Sciences and High Energy and Nuclear Physics fare well, while Biological and Environmental Research is more than 14% below the Administration's request. The total civilian R&D authorization of $4.25 billion is about $1.1 billion, or 20%, below the adjusted FY1995 level and about 25% below the FY1996 request. There was no Senate DOE civilian R&D authorization bill for FY1996. The Omnibus Civilian Science Authorization Act of 1995 (H.R. 2405) includes the provisions of H.R. 1816, plus authorizations for other R&D agencies. As passed by the House on October 12, 1995, the amounts for fossil energy R&D and energy conservation were increased to the levels of the Interior appropriations act conference reports.

The National Defense Authorization Act bills (H.R. 1530 and S. 1026) authorize more for the science-based Stockpile Stewardship program of DOE, which is its nuclear weapons R&D and testing program, than the Administration's request, except, in the House bill, for the technology transfer program, which is authorized at only $25 million. The Senate bill, as amended (Amendment 2111), contains the $229.4 million requested. These bills reflect the two committees' concerns with DOE's handling of its Defense Program, including R&D, testing, and the nuclear weapons laboratories. The Senate bill, as introduced, included a requirement that DOE and DOD prepare "Notional Plans" for the potential transfer of DOE's national security programs, including the weapons production facilities, the three multiprogram nuclear weapons laboratories, three program-dedicated laboratories (Bettis, INEL, and Knolls), and the Nevada Test Site to either DOD or an independent organization to be established in the executive branch. This provision was dropped in the amended Senate bill.

The amounts provided in the Energy and Water Development Appropriations Bill (P.L. 104-46, H.R. 1905) for DOE's Energy Supply R&D, General Science and Research, and Stockpile Stewardship are close to the authorizations shown above. The remaining programs were covered in the Interior and Related Agencies Appropriations Bill (H.R. 1977), which was vetoed by the President. The Balanced Budget Downpayment Act, II, (P.L. 104-134, H.R. 3019) now includes these appropriations. This appropriation is like the authorization in providing no funds for DOE's Clean Coal Technology program. It also appropriates significantly higher amounts for the Fossil Energy and Energy Conservation programs than were in the original version of the authorization bill, although the amounts appropriated are still major cuts from the amounts in the Administration's request. The authorization bill (H.R. 2405) as amended, however, subsequently increased these amounts to the appropriation bill levels.

The appropriations acts for FY96 funded most DOE R&D budget components at levels significantly below the DOE request, with the general exception of fundamental science (the shaded area in Table 1) and defense core stockpile stewardship. Even some fundamental science programs, however, are lower. This is true, for example, of fusion energy, and especially of university and science education and technology partnerships with industry, which received zero appropriations. The technology transfer programs of the defense core stockpile stewardship budget component also were reduced drastically. Such reductions likely will affect significantly the laboratories' technology partnerships with industry in some R&D areas.

Second Session. DOE civilian R&D authorization bill was included, along with authorizations for other civilian R&D agencies, in the Omnibus Civilian Science Authorization Act of 1995 (H.R. 2405), which passed the House in the first session, but was not acted on by the Senate. For FY1997, the bill also includes gross amounts for Energy Supply R&D, General Science and Research, Fossil Energy R&D, and Energy Conservation R&D. A similar bill, but without a DOE authorization, was introduced in the second session. No specific DOE civilian R&D authorization bill has been enacted into law since FY1978.

In the second session, the National Defense Authorization Act for FY1997 (P.L. 104-201) exceeds the Administration's request for Core Stockpile Stewardship and meets the request for the technology transfer program.

The amounts of the Energy and Water Development Appropriations Act, 1997 (P.L. 104-206) are substantially less than the Administration's request for most areas of Energy Supply R&D, except Biological and Environmental Research, and are generally slightly less than the request for General Science and Research. The amounts for Defense Core Stockpile Stewardship exceed the Administration's request.

***TABLE or GRAPHIC not shown here***

The Department of the Interior and Related Agencies Appropriations Act, 1997 (P.L. 104-208), exceeds the Administration's request for Fossil Energy R&D and for Energy Conservation.

Table 1 sets forth the authorizations and appropriations, either as reported, passed by one or both Houses, or signed into law for selected parts of DOE's budget that impact directly on its laboratories.

At about the same time that an initial action to eliminate DOE in the House budget resolution failed (in the conference report), H.R. 1993 was introduced to eliminate DOE and transfer (for example, to DOD), reduce the number of, and/or close DOE laboratories. This bill and three others, to (1) establish a commission to make recommendations about closing or reconfiguring the laboratories (H.R. 87), (2) reduce laboratory personnel by one-third over 10 years (H.R. 1510), and (3) establish missions for the laboratories (H.R. 2142) were the subject of a House Science Committee hearing on September 7, 1995.


LEGISLATION

P.L. 104-6, H.R. 889
Emergency Supplemental Appropriations and Rescissions for the Department of Defense to Preserve and Enhance Military Readiness Act of 1965. Reported as an original measure by Committee on Appropriations February 10, 1995 (H.Rept. 104-29). Passed House, amended, February 22, 1995. Reported to Senate March 3, 1995 (S.Rept. 104-12). Passed Senate, amended, March 16, 1995. On April 4, 1995, the House and Senate agreed to the Conference report (H.Rept. 104-101). As signed by the President on April 10, 1995, the measure rescinds $200 million for DOE's defense-related environmental restoration and waste management program.

P.L. 104-19, H.R. 1944
Makes emergency supplemental appropriations for additional disaster assistance, for anti-terrorism initiatives, for assistance in the recovery from the tragedy that occurred at Oklahoma City, and makes rescissions for the fiscal year ending September 30, 1995. Introduced June 28, 1995; referred to Committees on Appropriations and Budget. Makes the same rescissions in DOE's FY1995 programs as H.R. 1158, vetoed by the President (see below). Passed House June 29, 1995. Received in the Senate June 30, 1995 and passed July 21, 1995. Signed into law July 27, 1995.

P.L. 104-46, H.R. 1905
Makes appropriations for energy and water development for the fiscal year ending Sept. 30, 1996. Introduced June 20, 1995; referred to Committee on Appropriations. The amounts appropriated for DOE's civilian R&D program are close to the amounts authorized in H.R. 1816. Reported June 20, 1995 (H.Rept. 104-149). As passed the House, amended, July 12, 1995, includes $20 million less for Energy Supply, R&D, than as introduced. As reported to Senate, with amendments, July 27, 1995 (S.Rept. 104-120), includes $20 million less for General Science, but about $222 million more for Energy Supply, R&D, than the bill as passed by the House. This includes about $17 million more for solar and renewable energy than the House bill. As passed by the Senate, amended, August 1, 1995, the amount for Energy Supply, R&D, was further increased by $37 million. The difference between the two bills for Energy Supply, R&D as passed by the House and Senate is thus about $260 million. The Senate version as passed includes full funding of the Administration's request for $249.4 million for technology transfer programs in support of Stockpile Stewardship. The conference committee report (H.Rept. 104-293), filed October 26, 1995, generally provides amounts between the House and Senate versions, except that, in some cases in which the House had provided no funding (e.g., laboratory technology transfer, university and science education, and the National Ignition Facility), the conference report provides funding. On October 31, 1995, the House and Senate agreed to the conference report and cleared it for the White House. Signed into law November 13, 1995.

P.L. 104-99, H.R. 2880
Balanced Budget Downpayment Act, I. Introduced January 25, 1996; passed the House. Passed the Senate and signed into law January 26, 1996. Among other things, makes appropriations for the Department of the Interior at FY1995 levels through March 15, 1996. This act was extended four times through April 25, 1996.

P.L. 104-134, H.R. 3019
Balanced Budget Downpayment Act, II makes appropriations for FY1996 to make a further downpayment toward a balanced budget. Includes funds for DOE's fossil energy R&D and energy conservation programs in almost the same amounts as those in the vetoed H.R. 1977. Introduced March 5, 1996; referred to more than one committee. Passed House, amended, March 7, 1996. Passed Senate, amended, March 19, 1996. Conferences held. On April 25, 1996, the House and Senate agreed to the conference report (H.Rept. 104-537). Signed into law April 26, 1996.

P.L. 104-201, H.R. 3230
National Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 1997; Title XXXI is the DOE National Security Programs. Introduced April 15, 1996; referred to Committee on National Security. Reported May 7, 1996 (H.Rept. 104-563); passed the House on May 15, 1996. As received in the Senate on May 17, 1996, the bill authorizes more for DOE's science-based Core Stockpile Stewardship program (including nuclear weapons R&D and testing) than the Administration's request and meets the Administration's request for the technology transfer program and for funds for the construction of the National Ignition Facility. Passed Senate July 10, 1996 after substitution of the language of S. 1745. Conference report (H.Rept. 104-724) agreed to by House August 1, 1996. Agreed to by Senate and cleared for the President September 10, 1996. Signed into law September 23, 1996.

P.L. 104-206, H.R. 3816
Energy and Water Development Appropriations, 1997. Reported as an original measure July 16, 1996 (H.Rept. 104-679) by the Committee on Appropriations Passed House July 25, 1996. The amounts for Energy Supply R&D, except for Biological and Environmental Research, are substantially less than the Administration's request; for General Science and Research, less than the request; and for Defense Core Stockpile Stewardship, more than the request. Passed Senate on July 30, 1996 after substitution of the language of S. 1959. Conference report (H.Rept. 104-782) filed and agreed to by House September 12, 1996. Agreed to by Senate and cleared for the President September 17, 1996. Signed into law September 30, 1996.

P.L. 104-208, H.R. 3610
Department of the Interior and Related Agencies Appropriations Act, 1997 (H.R. 3662). Reported as an original measure June 18, 1996 (H.Rept. 104-625) by Committee on Appropriations. As passed by House June 20, 1996, the amount for Fossil Energy R&D was decreased, and for Energy Conservation was increased, over the committee's recommendations. As such, the amount exceeds the Administration's request for Fossil Energy R&D, but is substantially less than its request for Energy Conservation. Received in Senate June 21, 1996. As reported to Senate July 16, 1996 (S.Rept. 104-319), these amounts exceed the Administration's request. This appropriation was included in H.R. 4278, Making Omnibus Consolidated Appropriations for Fiscal Year 1997, which, upon adoption of the conference report (H.Rept. 104-863) for the DOD Appropriations Act, 1997 (H.R. 3610) on September 28, 1996, was considered passed by the House. It was passed by the Senate September 30, 1996, clearing the measure for the President, who signed it on that date. As enacted, the amounts for Fossil Energy R&D and Energy Conservation exceed the Administration's request.

H.Con.Res. 178 (Kasich)
Concurrent Resolution on the Budget for Fiscal Year 1997. As reported as an original measure by the Committee on the Budget on May 14, 1996 (H.Rept. 104-575), it calls for the termination of DOE. Agreed to in House May 16, 1995; agreed to in Senate May 23, 1996 after the substitution of the language of S.Con.Res. 57 (S.Rept. 104-271), which fully funds DOE programs which support science and basic research. In the conference report (H.Rept. 104-612), "The conferees agree to disagree on the future status of the Department of Energy."

H.R. 87 (Bartlett)
Department of Energy Laboratory Facilities Act of 1995. Establishes an independent DOE Energy Laboratory Facilities Commission to make "recommendations to the congressional energy committees for the closure or reconfiguration of departmental laboratories." A similar provision is included in H.R. 1993. Introduced January 4, 1995; referred to Committees on Science, National Security, and Rules. A similar provision is included as part of H.R. 1993.

H.R. 1510 (Roemer)
Department of Energy Laboratories Efficiency Improvement Act. Introduced April 7, 1995; referred to Committee on Science. Reduces the personnel at DOE's government- owned, contractor-operated non-weapons laboratories by one-third within 10 years, consistent with specified objectives, including termination of inferior or duplicate facilities and consolidation of R&D at major facilities or centers of expertise.

H.R. 1628 (Hoke)
Defense Nuclear Programs Agency Organization Act. Introduced May 12, 1995; referred to Committee on National Security. Establishes a Defense Nuclear Programs Agency, "under the direction of the Secretary of Defense," which, among other things, would include DOE's current defense, nonproliferation, and defense-related environmental management programs and the three nuclear weapons laboratories. A similar provision is included in H.R. 1993.

H.R. 1816 (Rohrabacher)
Department of Energy Civilian Research and Development Act of 1995. Introduced June 13, 1995; referred to Committees on Science and Commerce. Authorizes appropriations for DOE's civilian R&D, demonstration, and commercial activities for FY1996. On June 22, 1995, ordered to be reported in the nature of a substitute. As reported, amended, (H.Rept. 104-236, Part 1) August 4 1995, measure contains major cuts in solar and renewable energy, nuclear energy, fossil energy (including zero authorization for Clean Coal Technology), and energy conservation; and significant cuts in energy, particularly fusion, research. In the major areas of fundamental science, authorizations for Basic Energy Sciences slightly exceeded the request, for High Energy and Nuclear Physics were slightly below the request, and for Biological and Environmental Research was more than 14% below the request. Overall, measure authorizes $4.25 billion, which is about $1.1 billion, or 20%, lower than the adjusted FY1995 level and 25% below the Administration's request. For further action, see H.R. 2405.

H.R 1993 (Tiahrt)
Department of Energy Abolishment Act. Introduced June 30, 1995; referred to Committees on Commerce, National Security, Science, Resources, Rules, and Government Reform and Oversight. Abolishes DOE and redesignates it as the Energy Programs Resolution Agency, which is to be terminated in 3 years; establishes an Energy Laboratory Facilities Commission to reduce the number of energy laboratories and programs at those laboratories, through reconfiguration, privatization, and closure, (similar to H.R. 87); transfers DOE's nuclear weapons and other defense programs, including the three nuclear weapons laboratories (Los Alamos, Livermore, and Sandia), to the Defense Nuclear Programs Agency, which the bill establishes within DOD (similar to H.R. 1628); and reduces energy supply R&D and terminates some fossil energy programs currently supported by DOE.

H.R. 2142 (Schiff)
Department of Energy Laboratory Missions Act. Sets forth DOE's core missions as national security, energy supply, fundamental science, environmental restoration, and other missions as assigned by the President; and establishes a procedure for assigning missions to DOE's laboratories and streamlining the laboratories if necessary. Introduced July 31, 1995; referred to Committees on Science and National Security.

H.R. 2405 (Walker)
Omnibus Civilian Science Authorization Act of 1995. A bill to authorize appropriations for FY1996-FY1997 for civilian science activities of the Federal Government, including DOE as included in the Department of Energy Civilian Research and Development Act of 1995 (H.R. 1816). Introduced September 27, 1995; referred to Committees on Science, Resources, and Commerce. As passed by the House, amended, October 12, 1995, the amounts for fossil energy R&D and energy conservation were increased to the amounts included in the two conference reports (H.Rept. 104-259 and H.Rept. 104-300) of the Interior appropriations bill (H.R. 1977). On October 17, 1995, received in Senate and referred to Committee on Commerce, Science, and Transport-ation. For FY1997, the bill includes only gross amounts for Energy Supply R&D, General Science and Research, Fossil Energy R&D, and Energy Conservation R&D (see table 1). A new bill for 1996 (H.R. 3322) was marked up on April 24, 1996, but it does not include DOE. (The Brown amendment, in the nature of a substitute, included detailed authorizations for DOE's programs in amounts substantially greater than H.R. 2405. It was defeated on May 29, 1996.) A separate bill for DOE may be introduced in the second session.

S. 1678 (Grams)
Department of Energy Abolishment Act. Introduced April 16, 1996; referred to Committee on Energy and Natural Resources. While similar to H.R. 1993, it transfers some DOE R&D programs to the Interior Department, with subsequent transfer, if appropriate, to NSF. Other programs are transferred directly to NSF. Hearing on this bill held September 4, 1996 by Committee on Energy and Natural Resources.

S. 1745 (Thurmond)
National Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 1997; Title XXXI is the DOE National Security Programs. As reported as an original measure by the Committee on Armed Services May 13, 1996 (S.Rept. 104-267), authorizes more for DOE's science- based Core Stockpile Stewardship program (including nuclear weapons R&D and testing) and the technology transfer program than the Administration's request and meets the Administration's request for funds for construction of the National Ignition Facility. Passed Senate July 10, 1996.

S. 1763 (Thurmond)
Department of Energy Security Act for FY1997, an original bill to authorize appropriations for FY97 for the defense activities of DOE; referred to Committee on Armed Services. Passed Senate July 10, 1996 after substitution of the language of S. 1745.

S. 1959 (Domenici)
Energy and Water Development Appropriations, 1997. Reported as an original measure July 16, 1996 (S.Rept. 104-320) by Committee on Appropriations. The amounts for Energy Supply R&D, except for Biological and Environmental Research, are substantially less than the Administration's request; for General Science and Research, roughly the same as the request; and for Defense Core Stockpile Stewardship, more than the request. In most cases, the amounts are larger than in the House version (H.R. 3816) of the bill. On July 30, 1996, the Senate incorporated the language of this bill into H.R. 3816, which was then passed. Action on S. 1959 was indefinitely postponed.


CONGRESSIONAL HEARINGS, REPORTS, AND DOCUMENTS

U.S. Congress. House. Committee on Appropriations. Subcommittee on Energy and Water Development. Department of Energy. Hearings, 104th Congress, 1st session. Part 5. Washington, U.S. Govt.Print. Off., 1995. 1,184 p.

U.S. Congress. House. Committee on Appropriations. Subcommittee on the Depart- ment of the Interior and Related Agencies. Department of Energy. Hearings, 104th Congress, 1st session. Part 10. Washington, U.S. Govt. Print. Off., 1995. 848 p.

U.S. Congress. House. Committee on Commerce. Subcommittee on Energy and Power. DOE proposed FY1996 budget. Hearing, 104th Congress, 1st session. February 8, 1995. Washington, U.S. Govt. Print. Off., 1995. 77 p.

----- Reorganization of the Department of Energy. Hearing, 104th Congress, 1st session. June 21, 1995. Washington, U.S. Govt. Print. Off., 1995. 163 p.

----- Department of Energy's proposed budget for fiscal year 1997. Hearing, 104th Congress, 2d session. March 22, 1996. Washington, U.S. Govt. Print. Off., 1996. 117 p.

U.S. Congress. House. Committee on Government Reform and Oversight. Subcommittee on Government Management, Information and Technology. Consolidating federal programs and organizations. Hearings, 104th Congress, 1st session. May 16 and 23, 1995. (Not yet published.)

U.S. Congress. House. Committee on Science. Restructuring the federal scientific establishment. Hearing, 104th Congress, 1st session. June 28, 1995. Washington, U.S. Govt. Print. Off., 1995. 65 p.

U.S. Congress. House. Committee on Science. Subcommittee on Basic Research and Subcommittee on Energy and Environment. Alternative futures for the Department of Energy national laboratories, "The Galvin Report," and National Laboratories Need Clearer Missions and Better Management, a GAO report to the Secretary of Energy. Joint Subcommittee hearing, 104th Congress, 1st session. Mar. 9, 1995. Washington, U.S. Govt. Print. Off., 1995. 1,240 p.

----- Restructuring the federal scientific establishment: Future missions and governance for the Department of Energy National laboratories. Joint Subcommittee hearing (on H.R. 87, H.R. 1510, H.R. 1993, and H.R. 2142), 104th Congress, 1st session. September 7, 1995. (Not yet published.)

U.S. Congress. House. Committee on Science. Subcommittee on Energy and Environ- ment. FY1996 DOE, EPA, and NOAA R&D budget authorizations. Hearings, 104th Congress, 1st session. February 13-16, 21, 1995. Washington, U.S. Govt. Print. Off., 1995. 1,278 p.

----- Budget hearing on FY1997 request for DOE, NOAA and EPA's Office of Research and Development (ORD); and Safe Drinking Water Act R&D reauthorization. Hearing, 104th Congress, 2d session. March 21, 1996. (Not yet published.)

U.S. Congress. Senate. Committee on Energy and Natural Resources. Subcommittee on Energy Research and Development and Committee on Appropriations. Subcommittee on Energy and Water Development. Alternative futures for the Department of Energy national laboratories. Joint committee hearings, 104th Congress, 1st session. February 28, 1995. Washington, U.S. Govt. Print. Off., 1995. 73 p.

U.S. Congress. Senate. Committee on Energy and Natural Resources. Proposed fiscal year 1996 budget requests for the Department of Energy and FERC. Hearing, 104th Congress, 1st session. February 9, 1995. Washington, U.S. Govt. Print. Off., 1995. 144 p.

----- Proposed fiscal year 1996 budget request for the Department of the Interior. Hearing, 104th Congress, 1st session. February 16, 1995. Washington, U.S. Govt. Print. Off., 1995. 129 p.

----- Department of Energy realignment and downsizing. Hearing, 104th Congress, 1st session. July 11, 1995. Washington, U.S. Govt. Print. Off., 1995. 146 p.

----- S. 1678, to abolish the Department of Energy. Hearing, 104th Congress, 2d session. Sept. 4, 1996. (Not yet published.)


FOR ADDITIONAL READING

Hodge, Scott A. Rolling back government: A budget plan to rebuild America.Washington, The Heritage Foundation, 1995. 283 p.

National Academy of Sciences. Allocating federal funds for science and technology. Washington, National Academy Press, 1995. 97 p.

National Science and Technology Council. Interagency Federal Laboratory Review Final Report. [Washington] May 15, 1995. 22 p.

Stelzer, Irwin M. The Department of Energy: An agency that cannot be reinvented. Washington, The American Enterprise Institute, June 1995. 46 p.

U.S. Department of Energy. Fueling a competitive economy: Strategic plan. April 1994. 37 p.

----- Alternative futures for the Department of Energy national laboratories. 2 volumes. ("Galvin Task Force Report") February 1995. Vol. I, 66 p. plus appendix; and Vol. II: White Papers, 74 p. plus charts.

----- Energy R&D: Shaping our Nation's future in a competitive world. 3 volumes.("Yergin Task Force Report") June 1995. Vol. 1: Final Report, 55 p. plus appendices; Vol. 2: Annex 1: Technology Profiles, 156 p.; and Vol. 3: Annexes 2-4, 217 p.

----- Report of the Department of Energy for the Interagency Federal Laboratory Review in response to Presidential Review Directive/NSTC-1. March 8, 1995. 42 p.

----- Saving dollars and making sense: Strategic alignment and downsizing. May 1995. 18 p.

----- Secretary of Energy Advisory Board. Report of the external members of the Department of Energy Laboratory Operations Board. October 26, 1995. 18 p.

----- Stockpile stewardship and management program. May 1995. 20 p.

----- Laboratory Operations Board. Draft strategic laboratory missions plan. March 1996. Vol. I., 90 p.; Vol. II, various pagination.

----- Laboratory Operations Board. Strategic laboratory missions plan -- phase I. July 1996. Vol. I., 112 p.; Vol. II, various pagination.

U.S. General Accounting Office. Department of Energy: National laboratories need clearer missions and better management. (GAO/RCED-95-10) January 1995. 45 p.

----- Department of Energy: A framework for restructuring DOE and its missions. (GAO/RCED-95-197) August 21, 1995. 40 p.

----- Department of Energy: Observations on the future of the department. (GAO/T- RCED-96-224) September 4, 1996. 20 p.

CRS Issue Briefs

CRS Issue Brief 96020. The Department of Energy's FY1997 budget, Coordinated by Marc Humphries.

CRS Reports

CRS Report 95-988. The DOE laboratories: Issues of DOE restructuring, missions, national R&D, and budget, by William C. Boesman.

CRS Report 96-127. Federal R&D budget changes, agency restructuring proposals, and the federal laboratories, by William C. Boesman.

CRS Report 93-752. Department of Energy laboratories: Capabilities and missions, by William C. Boesman.

CRS Report 93-844. Department of Energy laboratories: A new partnership with industry? by Wendy H. Schacht.

CRS Report 94-916. The DOE multiprogram nuclear weapons laboratories, by William C. Boesman.

CRS Report 95-1020. Department of Energy abolition?: Implications for the nuclear weapons program, by Jonathan Medalia.

CRS Report 95-235. A Department of Science and Technology: A recurring theme, by William C. Boesman.

CRS Report 95-508. Department of Energy programs: History, status, options, Coordinated by Carl E. Behrens and Richard E. Rowberg.






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