PERSPECTIVES OF WORLD NUCLEAR ENERGY DEVELOPMENT
Sh. N. Movsumov
International Ecoenergy Academy, Azerbaijan
At present energy production causes great damages to people health, changes natural processes, makes environmental protection much more expensive. The further development of power engineering on the basis modern economy principles will result in its incompatibility with the principles of sustainable development.
Sustainability of energy development (stability, reliability, and safety) should be based on the following preconditions:
- The rate of fossil resources' consumption should not exceed the rate of development of the resources, replacing them;
- The level of the use of renewable resources should not break their renewal mechanisms and should not result in inadmissible infringement of natural cycles (forest degradation and soil fertility, amplification of climatic changes and disasters);
- The amount of waste products should be to such a degree to not break the ability of nature to assimilate them by suitable way.
The nuclear power carries on itself a heavy cargo the last times (test of the nuclear weapon, accidents at nuclear energy enterprises) that reflected in the suffered people and infected territories.
Sustainability of nuclear energy development is defined by reservation of the stored experience and knowledge, experimental and theoretical bases, technology and production, which assumes:
- Direct technological continuity;
- Continuity of development and realization processes, when new is created in parallel with the development mastered earlier;
- Consecutive development of the concept of safety in connection with the growing requirements of nuclear power sources' application.
Following the end of the cold war, in all countries having the nuclear weapon, including USA and Russia, there were surpluses of nuclear funds - people, technology, installations and materials. Beginning from peaceful use of atomic energy (since 1953) more than 400 nuclear power reactors are created in the world. Learned in these, and other leading nuclear countries the lessons of hydrogen obtaining is a basis for large-scale development of nuclear energy. Production of hydrogen and use of renewable energy resources (wind, sun, small rivers, biomass, etc.) in many respects can help to mitigate technogenic impact on the environment.
In order to organise effective and environmental friendly technology of hydrogen production, it is necessary to create worldwide large centers of hydrogen fuel cycle on the basis of technological experience of the leading nuclear states. Being subject to international control these centers could develop technology and equipment for hydrogen production, and realize leasing delivery of the equipment and technologies and also return waste products to processing and utilization.
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