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Weapons of Mass Destruction (WMD)

NATO HANDBOOK ON
THE MEDICAL ASPECTS
OF NBC DEFENSIVE
OPERATIONS
AMedP-6(B)

PART I - NUCLEAR

Table of Contents


LIST OF FIGURES

LIST OF TABLES

CHAPTER 1 - GENERAL INFORMATION

101. Purpose of AMedP-6(B), Part I

102. General Impact of Nuclear Weapons

CHAPTER 2 - CONVENTIONAL AND NUCLEAR WEAPONS - ENERGY PRODUCTION AND ATOMIC PHYSICS

SECTION I - GENERAL

201. Introduction

SECTION II - MECHANISMS OF ENERGY PRODUCTION

202. Definition of Explosion

203. Conventional Chemical Explosion

204. Nuclear Detonations

205. Elements and Atomic Structure

206. Isotopes

207. Atomic Mass Unit

208. Symbols and Notation

209. Fission

210. Critical Mass

211. Fusion

SECTION III - RADIOACTIVITY AND NUCLEAR RADIATION

212. General

213. Radioactivity

214. Measurement of Radioactivity

215. Nuclear Radiation

216. Interaction With Matter

217. Gamma Interaction

218. Interaction of Charged Particles

219. Specific Ionization

220. Stopping Power

221. Half-Value Layer

222. Neutron Interaction

223. Elastic Collisions

224. Inelastic Collisions

225. Neutron-to-Gamma Ratios

CHAPTER 3 - EFFECTS OF NUCLEAR EXPLOSIONS

SECTION I - GENERAL

301. Introduction

302. General Effects of Nuclear Explosions

303. Initial Energy Transfer and Formation of Fireball

304. Types of Bursts

SECTION II - BLAST

305. Formation of Blast Wave

306. Propagation of Blast Wave in Air

307. Static Overpressure and Dynamic Pressure

308. Blast Loading

309. Drag Loading

310. Shock Waves in Other Media

SECTION III - THERMAL RADIATION

311. Formation of Thermal Radiation

312. Propagation of Thermal Energy

313. Rate of Thermal Emission

314. Shielding

315. Yield and Altitude

316. Thermal Effects

SECTION IV - NUCLEAR RADIATION

317. Sources of Nuclear Radiation

318. Initial Radiation

319. Residual Radiation

320. Fallout

CHAPTER 4 - BIOLOGICAL EFFECTS OF A NUCLEAR EXPLOSION

SECTION I - GENERAL

401. Introduction

SECTION II - BLAST INJURY

402. General

403. Direct Blast Injury

404. Indirect Blast Wind Drag Forces

405. Missile Injury

406. Crush and Translational Injuries

SECTION III - THERMAL INJURY

407. Mechanism of Injury

408. Thermal Effects

409. Thermal Energy and Burns to Exposed Skin

410. Flash Burns Under Clothing

411. Flame Burns

412. Eye Injuries

CHAPTER 5 - BIOPHYSICAL AND BIOLOGICAL EFFECTS OF IONIZING RADIATION

SECTION I - GENERAL

501. Introduction

SECTION II - BASIC BIOPHYSICAL ACTION OF IONIZING RADIATION

502. Nuclear Radiation

503. Gamma Radiation

504. Neutron Radiation

505. Beta Radiation

506. Alpha Radiation

507. Radiochemical Action

SECTION III - CELLULAR EFFECTS OF IONIZING RADIATION

508. General

509. Relative Cellular Radiosensitivity

510. Relative Organ Radiosensitivity

511. Radiation-Induced Chromosome Damage

512. Genetic Effects

513. Cell Kinetic Effects

514. Bone-Marrow Kinetics

515. Erythropoietic

516. Myelopoietic

517. Thrombopoietic

518. Gastrointestinal Kinetics

SECTION IV - SYSTEMIC EFFECTS OF WHOLE-BODY IRRADIATION

519. General

520. Median Lethal Dose (LD50)

521. Reproductive Cell Kinetics and Sterility

522. Recovery

SECTION V - DELAYED EFFECTS

523. General

524. Carcinogenesis

525. Cataract Formation

526. Chronic Radiodermatitis

SECTION VI - INTERNAL IRRADIATION

527. Introduction

528. Incorporation of Radioactive Material

529. Elimination of Isotopes

CHAPTER 6 - GENERAL MEDICAL EFFECTS OF NUCLEAR WEAPONS: DIAGNOSIS, TREATMENT, AND PROGNOSIS

SECTION I - GENERAL

601. Introduction

SECTION II - BLAST INJURIES

602. General

603. Diagnosis

604. Treatment

SECTION III - THERMAL INJURIES

605. General

606. Diagnosis

607. Area of Burn

608. Involvement of Critical Organs

609. Depth of Burn

610. Treatment

611. Care of Burn Wound

SECTION IV - RADIATION INJURY AND COMBINED INJURY

612. General

613. Clinical Course of Radiation Sickness

614. Hematopoietic Syndrome

615. Gastrointestinal Syndrome

616. Neurovascular Syndrome

617. Diagnosis

618. Decontamination of Patient

619. Initial Treatment for Patients With Whole-Body Radiation Injury

620. Diagnosis and Treatment of Patient With Combined Injuries

621. Management of Infection

622. Future Concerns for Management of Radiation Injuries

623. Effect of Radiation Injury on Response to Trauma

624. Effect of Injuries on Response to Radiation Sickness

SECTION V - PUBLIC HEALTH ASPECTS OF NUCLEAR WARFARE

625. Epidemic Disease Hazards Caused by Nuclear War

626. Biomedical Impact of Nuclear Winter

SECTION VI - PSYCHOLOGICAL ASPECTS OF NUCLEAR WARFARE

627. General

628. Diagnosis

629. Factors Determining Response

630. Treatment

631. Prevention

CHAPTER 7 - MEDICAL PLANNING AND OPERATIONS IN NUCLEAR WAR

SECTION I - GENERAL

701. Introduction

SECTION II - STAFF-LEVEL MEDICAL PLANNING AND OPERATIONAL ACTIVITIES

702. General

703. Organization of the Medical Support System

704. Mobility of Medical Support

705. Coordination with other Allies

706. Casualty and Damage Assessment

707. Logistical Support System

708. Personnel and Medical Unit Requirements

709. Command Radiation Guidance

SECTION III - MEDICAL UNIT PLANNING AND OPERATIONAL ACTIVITIES

710. General

711. Unit Mobility

712. Rescue and Damage Control

713. Handling Large Numbers of Casualties

714. Unit Operations in Fallout

715. Performance of Mission in a Radiologically Contaminated Environment

716. Field Expedient Fallout Shelters

717. Handling of Radiologically Contaminated Patients

718. Patient Decontamination

ANNEX A - RADIATION DETECTION AND MEASUREMENT

ANNEX B - HAZARDS OF NUCLEAR WEAPONS ACCIDENTS

ANNEX C - GENERAL GUIDELINES FOR MEDICAL SUPPORT IN NUCLEAR ACCIDENTS

REFERENCES

GLOSSARY



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