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Weapons of Mass Destruction (WMD)



This appendix discusses the staff operations of chemical brigades and battalions. Brigade and battalion staff members need to be familiar with FM 101-5 and FM 101-5-1.



Brigade/Battalion Commander

Commands all subordinate chemical units. Provides subordinates with missions, taskings, and a clear statement of his concept for support. Allows his subordinates freedom of action in implementing his orders. Provides planning guidance for future operations. Positions himself to follow and influence operations and maintains communications with higher, lower, and adjacent units. Reacts immediately to direction from his higher commander to release and receive forces.

Deputy Brigade Commander

Assists the brigade commander. Keeps informed of operations, plans, intentions, and problems so he can assume command at anytime. Normally operates within specific areas defined by the commander. These may include responsibility for logistic support of the operation and execution of rear area operations.

Executive Officer (XO)

Principal assistant to the battalion commander. The battalion "chief of staff" is second in command. Principal coordinator of CSS in support of the subordinate units. During the commander's absence, he represents the commander and directs operations in accordance with established policies and guidance.

During operations, he is normally in the battalion TOC to monitor subordinate units, reports to higher headquarters, and the NBC situation throughout the command. Moves to any point in the area of operations to accomplish his duties and responsibilities.

Command Sergeant Major (CSM)

Advises the commander on matters concerning the soldiers of the unit. Understands the administrative, logistics, and operational requirements of the unit. As the most experienced enlisted soldier in the brigade or battalion, he keeps track of the command. Receives taskings from the commander and acts as a troubleshooter. Focuses attention on functions critical to the success of the operation.


S1 (Adjutant)

A principal staff officer with responsibility for exercising staff functions and coordination for personnel service support. Personnel service support encompasses the areas of personnel service, administrative services, health service support, finance support, postal services, chaplain activities, legal service support, morale, welfare support activities, and public affairs.

S2 (Intelligence Officer)

A principal staff officer with responsibility for advising the commander on military intelligence and counterintelligence. Advises the commander and subordinate units on enemy situation and capabilities, weather and terrain. Coordinates with and provides information to the G2 element at the next higher headquarters.

S3 (Operations and Training Officer)

The S3 is the principal staff officer in matters pertaining to the organization, training, and execution of primary mission operations. Assists other staff officers and is responsible for planning and executing brigade operations.

S2/S3 (Intelligence and Operations Officer)

At the battalion level a single officer performs the functions of both the S2 and S3.

S4 (Logistics Officer)

The S4 is the principal staff officer for logistical matters in the unit. Responsible for all maintenance, transportation and logistical services to the unit. Assists the commander in coordinating and providing CSS. Determines CSS requirements and priorities. Interfaces with the G4 section at the next higher headquarters.


Brigade/Battalion Signal Officer (BBSO)

The staff officer responsible for communications activities within the brigade. Coordinates communications requirements and supervises communications personnel.

Headquarters and Headquarters Company/Detachment Commander

The HHC/HHD commander ensures the command facilities have logistical support. Supervises the support, security, and movement of the TOC. Provides administrative, food service and logistical support to the brigade or battalion headquarters.


The chaplain serves as both a personal and special staff officer. As a personal staff officer, the chaplain advises the commander on the unit's religious welfare, moral climate, and morale as affected by religion. In addition, he advises the commander on the impact of local religions in the area of operations. As a special staff officer, the chaplain coordinates with the S1 to provide comprehensive religious support to soldiers and their families. This support includes providing or coordinating for worship services, sacramental rites, ordinance, pastoral care and counseling, memorial ceremonies or services, and ministry to battle-fatigued soldiers. Together, the chaplain and his enlisted chaplain assistant constitute a Unit Ministry Team (UMT).

Staff Judge Advocate

Advises the brigade commander and staff on all legal matters including DOD directives, Army regulations, command policies, domestic, foreign and international law, status of forces agreements, and the UCMJ.


Assists the brigade commander in apportioning his time and coordinating personal activities and command responsibilities. Provides for personal and security needs of the commander. Supervises other personnel provided for the commander's personal use (for example, chauffeur and executive administrative assistant).


Liaison officers and NCOs (LNOs) represent the commander at other headquarters. Through personal contact they promote cooperation, coordination, and the exchange of essential information. It may be necessary to dispatch several liaison personnel to different headquarters during an operation.

Prior to departing to effect coordination, the LNOs will be thoroughly briefed by the TOC shift leader. They need to understand the concept of the operation, the status of all subordinate units, and subordinate unit locations. They also will be briefed on what information is needed and who they should coordinate with. The LNOs must have a vehicle with a radio.

Upon arriving at the headquarters to effect coordination, the LNO will report to the chief of staff or executive officer. They should keep an accurate record of their coordination. If necessary, they should communicate up dated critical information to their headquarters. They also should check with the chemical staff section.

After completing their mission, they must report promptly back to their headquarters and brief the commander or his representative. The LNO should brief each staff section on the detailed information received. They keep abreast of the situation and are prepared to respond to future liaison requirements.



Responsible for all matters pertaining to maintenance of unit strength, personnel management, manpower maintenance, morale, health services, and discipline of the command. Supervises the correspondence and mail activities of the unit. Operates the message center. Records the proceedings of boards and court-martials.


Assists the commander and brigade staff on all matters pertaining to combat and NBC intelligence.


Responsible for planning and directing all activities of the brigade relating to security, defense, training, plans and operations. This section publishes all OPLAN/OPORDs.


Directs activities relating to the receipt, storage and issue of supplies; food services; and maintenance. Inspects and/or surveys operations and records of subordinate units. Advises on regulatory requirements; prepares instructions and technical guidance for subordinate elements.



The TOC facilitates tactical control and plans operations. The TOC stays abreast of the situation and ease the flow of information. Communications is maintained with lower, higher, and adjacent units. It answers command net calls so the commander need only monitor radio traffic. It posts maps, maintains records, monitors the status of subordinate units, and sends reports to higher headquarters as required. The TOC assists the higher and supported units with terrain management by coordinating the use of terrain by subordinate units.

The TOC receives, processes, and analyzes information; maintains historical journals; and updates the S3, XO, deputy commander, and commanders. The TOC also maintains liaison to the supported unit's chemical staff section.


The TOC location is selected by the S3 with the communications section NCOIC. The HHC/HHD commander selects the exact position.


The TOC must be able to communicate with subordinate and supported units and higher headquarters on all required nets. The availability of MSE wire nodes will generally dictate the location of the TOC on the battlefield.


The TOC should be near, but not next to a road. The physical presence of the TOC should not interfere with the tactical maneuver of friendly units. When possible, a helicopter LZ should be nearby.


The TOC is organized and trained to conduct continuous operations. Shifts are established to operate the TOC and have the required expertise to make decisions on major issues. Tables B-1 and B-2 show a recommended shift schedule for brigade and battalion TOCs. Off-duty shift personnel from the TOC can be used for security duties along with other personnel from the HHD.


The brigade and battalion staffs use the military decisionmaking process outlined in Annex D to develop their support plans. The chemical brigade and battalion staffs normally conduct parallel planning. Parallel or concurrent planning is planning conducted simultaneously at all command and staff levels. For example, while the corps staff is planning the next operation, the chemical brigade staff is concurrently planning to support that operation. This requires significant interface between the headquarters. The use of liaison personnel and the supported unit chemical staffs is essential.

Warning orders allows subordinate units to begin preparing for the next operation. Critical time is wasted if warning orders are not issued as soon as possible. There is no format for warning orders; however, they should contain five minimum essential elements (shown in Figure B-l).

Time is a critical resource that must be managed by all staffs. A time plan for each operation is developed to ensure subordinate units get enough time to plan, rehearse and prepare their orders. The backward planning process, where time is planned from the point of plan execution back to the present should be used.

The amount of time available for planning will dictate the level of detail in the operations order (OPORD) and how the order is issued (oral or written). OPORDs are as detailed as time allows. Matrix type orders can substitute for detailed written orders when there is a limited amount of planning time involved. Formats for orders are in Appendix F


Headquarters operate on a continuous basis during combat operations. It is impossible to staff the headquarters with sufficient personnel to operate 24 hours without any degradation in operations. Performance and efficiency begin to deteriorate after 14 to 18 hours of continuous work and reaches a low point after 22 to 24 hours. Operations under NBC conditions quicken this deterioration. Soldiers cease to be effective after 72 hours without sleep.

Commanders and leaders must recognize the signs of sleep loss to minimize its effects. These are--

  • Slower reaction time.

  • Increased time to perform a known task.

  • Short-term memory decrement.

  • Impairment in learning speed.

  • Errors in omission.

  • Lapses of attention.

  • Irritability.

  • Depression.

  • Erratic performance.

A strictly enforced sleep plan is used when possible. Each soldier should get a minimum of four hours rest each 24-hour period. Leaders also must realize that soldiers require time to recover from sleep loss. After an operation of 36 to 48 hours without sleep, a soldier needs about 12 hours of sleep or rest to return to normal functioning. After more than 72 hours without sleep, an individual may require as much as two or three days of rest to recover.

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