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Weapons of Mass Destruction (WMD)



This appendix provides the mission, capabilities, and major equipment of chemical organizations to assist commanders and staffs in effectively using chemical units. The organizations and equipment depicted in this appendix are extracted from tables of organization and equipment (TOEs) and are current as of 10 June 1993. Modified tables of organization and equipment may be slightly different.






This section describes the major items of equipment found in the various chemical units.


The M12A1 multipurpose, skid-mounted, power-driven decontamination apparatus (Figure A-III-1) consists of three major assemblies: pump unit, water tank and personnel shower assemblies, and an M2 water heater.

The pump unit assembly's prime-detergent tank holds priming water, detergent, or foaming liquids. The pump delivers up to 50 gallons of water or STB decontaminating agent slurry per minute at a working pressure of about 105 pounds per square inch using both hoses.

The skid-mounted, 500-gallon, stainless-steel tank has a working capacity of 447 gallons of water or 317 gallons of slurry. The hopper-blender assembly and fluid agitation system in the tank are used to blend STB agent and water. The shower assembly is used to form a field shower for showering up to 24 persons at a time. The M2 water heater is used with the pump and tank units to provide hot water for both decon and showering.

The M12A1 mixes and sprays decontaminating slurries and solutions and hot, soapy water rinses during decon operations. It is also used for fire fighting with water or foam, for de-icing operations, washing vehicles, pumping various fliuds, and showering personnel in the field. The M12A1 cannot apply defoliants, herbicides, or insecticides.

The working pressure of the M12A1 is 60 to 120 pounds per square inch. The discharge rate for slurry or water with one spray gun is 25 gallons per minute; with two spray guns it is 50 gallons per minute. Water can be heated to 100 degrees Fahrenheit at a rate of 600 gallons per hour.


The M17 lightweight decon system, Figure A-III-2, consists of a pumper/heating unit, an accessory kit, and a water storage tank. The basic unit is a portable lightweight, compact gasoline-powered 2-stroke engine, with a belt-driven water pump and coil-type water heating unit. This equipment is designed to draw water from 30 feet away and 9 feet below pump level and deliver it at controlled temperatures up to 120 degrees Celsius and pressure up to 100 pounds per square inch. The 145-pound accessory kit contains hoses, cleaning jets, and shower hardware. The rubberized fabric self-supporting tank weighs 70 pounds empty and has a fill capability of 1,580 gallons. The entire unit is independent of outside power and provides a showering capability for up to 12 persons at a time.


The M1059 mechanized smoke carrier, Figure A-III-3, consists of an M113A2 armored personnel carrier with an M157 smoke generator set. The M157 is mounted on the carrier and cannot be dismounted. The M157 smoke generator set consists of two M54 smoke generator assemblies, a fog oil tank, air compressor assembly, fog oil pump assembly, and a control panel assembly. The M54 smoke generator assembly is a gasoline-operated pulse jet engine that vaporizes fog oil. The fog oil tank, mounted inside the carrier, holds up to 120 gallons of fog oil. The tank also acts as the mount for the fog oil pump assembly. This assembly contains two in-line fog oil pumps. The fog oil is drawn from the fog oil tank and flows to the smoke generators. The air compressor assembly uses a pressure tank to store the compressed air needed for starting and purging the pulse jet engine. The control panel assembly contains the necessary switches, control, and indicators for operating and monitoring each smoke generator, fog oil pump, and the air compressor.

The M1059 has a crew of three; vehicle commander, driver, and smoke generator operator. The vehicle commander also acts as the gunner for the M2 machinegun.


The motorized smoke system, Figure A-III-4, consists of the same components as the M1059 mechanized smoke carrier, except the components are mounted on a M998/M1037/M1097 HMMWV chassis. The system has a typical crew of two and is normally equipped with a M60 machinegun. The M157 smoke generator system cannot be dismounted.


The M3A4 pulse jet mechanical smoke generator, Figure A-III-5, is designed to generate large-area smoke screens using fog oil. The M3A4 operates on the same principle as the M54 smoke generator, except that the M3A4 can be dismounted. The M3A4 consists of two assemblies: fuel tank and engine. The fuel tank supplies gasoline by gravity feed to the engine. The engine is started by a manually operated air pump. The M3A4 can be carried by two soldiers. Fog oil is drawn from its own container by a fog oil pump mounted on the engine assembly.

M93 NBCRS (Fox)

The M93 NBC reconnaissance system (NBCRS) (Fox) (Figures A-III-6 and A-III-7, can locate, mark, and report NBC agent contamination on the battlefield. The crew can operate in a contaminated environment in an environmentally controlled suite inside the vehicle.

The M93 NBCRS is equipped with various chemical and nuclear detection devices. The MM1 mobile mass spectrometer is capable of identifying approximately 960 chemical compounds, but is programmed to monitor for 22 agents at any one time. All known chemical warfare agents are programmed in the MM1 for rapid identification. A pair of sampling wheels alternate contact with the ground, absorbing liquid contamination. The wheels alternate contact with the extended probe of the MM1. The heated probe draws vapor from the respective wheel and surrounding air for the MM1 to analyze.

The crew can obtain samples of soil, vegetation, or munitions fragments without dismounting the vehicle or exposing themselves to contamination. The samples are stored in a sampling tray at the rear of the vehicle. The vehicle is also equipped with an M8A1 automatic chemical agent alarm and CAM as back-up detection devices.

For radiological contamination, the M93 NBCRS is equipped with the ASG1 and AN/VDR2 radaic meters. These devices can measure radiation from .02 to 1,000 cGyph.

The vehicle is also equipped with the vehicle orientation system (VOS1). The VOS1 maintains a grid map location of the vehicle, allowing for accurate NBC surveys.

The vehicle is crewed by four soldiers: vehicle commander, driver, MM1 operator (operator #l), and probe and sample arm operator (operator 2). The vehicle weighs 19.2 tons combat loaded. The vehicle is armed with an M240E1 7.62mm machinegun and two M250 smoke grenade launchers. The M93 NBCRS can enter the water and swim without stopping for external preparation. A pair of propellers at the rear of the vehicle steer and move the vehicle in the water. Vehicle speed in the water is a constant 6.5 mph; however, the vehicle wheels enable it to swim at 2.5 mph without use of the propellers.

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