This appendix provides the mission, capabilities, and major
equipment of chemical organizations to assist commanders and staffs
in effectively using chemical units. The organizations and equipment
depicted in this appendix are extracted from tables of organization
and equipment (TOEs) and are current as of 10 June 1993. Modified
tables of organization and equipment may be slightly different.
CHEMICAL UNIT EQUIPMENT
This section describes the major items of equipment found
in the various chemical units.
The M12A1 multipurpose, skid-mounted, power-driven decontamination
apparatus (Figure A-III-1) consists of three major assemblies:
pump unit, water tank and personnel shower assemblies, and an
M2 water heater.
The pump unit assembly's prime-detergent tank holds priming
water, detergent, or foaming liquids. The pump delivers up to
50 gallons of water or STB decontaminating agent slurry per minute
at a working pressure of about 105 pounds per square inch using
The skid-mounted, 500-gallon, stainless-steel tank has a working
capacity of 447 gallons of water or 317 gallons of slurry. The
hopper-blender assembly and fluid agitation system in the tank
are used to blend STB agent and water. The shower assembly is
used to form a field shower for showering up to 24 persons at
a time. The M2 water heater is used with the pump and tank units
to provide hot water for both decon and showering.
The M12A1 mixes and sprays decontaminating slurries and solutions
and hot, soapy water rinses during decon operations. It is also
used for fire fighting with water or foam, for de-icing operations,
washing vehicles, pumping various fliuds, and showering personnel
in the field. The M12A1 cannot apply defoliants, herbicides, or
The working pressure of the M12A1 is 60 to 120 pounds per
square inch. The discharge rate for slurry or water with one spray
gun is 25 gallons per minute; with two spray guns it is 50 gallons
per minute. Water can be heated to 100 degrees Fahrenheit at a
rate of 600 gallons per hour.
The M17 lightweight decon system, Figure A-III-2, consists
of a pumper/heating unit, an accessory kit, and a water storage
tank. The basic unit is a portable lightweight, compact gasoline-powered
2-stroke engine, with a belt-driven water pump and coil-type water
heating unit. This equipment is designed to draw water from 30
feet away and 9 feet below pump level and deliver it at controlled
temperatures up to 120 degrees Celsius and pressure up to 100
pounds per square inch. The 145-pound accessory kit contains hoses,
cleaning jets, and shower hardware. The rubberized fabric self-supporting
tank weighs 70 pounds empty and has a fill capability of 1,580
gallons. The entire unit is independent of outside power and provides
a showering capability for up to 12 persons at a time.
The M1059 mechanized smoke carrier, Figure A-III-3, consists
of an M113A2 armored personnel carrier with an M157 smoke generator
set. The M157 is mounted on the carrier and cannot be dismounted.
The M157 smoke generator set consists of two M54 smoke generator
assemblies, a fog oil tank, air compressor assembly, fog oil pump
assembly, and a control panel assembly. The M54 smoke generator
assembly is a gasoline-operated pulse jet engine that vaporizes
fog oil. The fog oil tank, mounted inside the carrier, holds up
to 120 gallons of fog oil. The tank also acts as the mount for
the fog oil pump assembly. This assembly contains two in-line
fog oil pumps. The fog oil is drawn from the fog oil tank and
flows to the smoke generators. The air compressor assembly uses
a pressure tank to store the compressed air needed for starting
and purging the pulse jet engine. The control panel assembly contains
the necessary switches, control, and indicators for operating
and monitoring each smoke generator, fog oil pump, and the air
The M1059 has a crew of three; vehicle commander, driver, and smoke generator operator. The vehicle commander also acts as the gunner for the M2 machinegun.
The motorized smoke system, Figure A-III-4, consists of the
same components as the M1059 mechanized smoke carrier, except
the components are mounted on a M998/M1037/M1097 HMMWV chassis.
The system has a typical crew of two and is normally equipped
with a M60 machinegun. The M157 smoke generator system cannot
The M3A4 pulse jet mechanical smoke generator, Figure A-III-5,
is designed to generate large-area smoke screens using fog oil.
The M3A4 operates on the same principle as the M54 smoke generator,
except that the M3A4 can be dismounted. The M3A4 consists of two
assemblies: fuel tank and engine. The fuel tank supplies gasoline
by gravity feed to the engine. The engine is started by a manually operated air
pump. The M3A4 can be carried by two soldiers. Fog oil is drawn
from its own container by a fog oil pump mounted on the engine
The M93 NBC reconnaissance system (NBCRS) (Fox) (Figures A-III-6
and A-III-7, can locate, mark, and report NBC agent contamination
on the battlefield. The crew can operate in a contaminated environment
in an environmentally controlled suite inside the vehicle.
The M93 NBCRS is equipped with various chemical and nuclear
detection devices. The MM1 mobile mass spectrometer is capable
of identifying approximately 960 chemical compounds, but is programmed
to monitor for 22 agents at any one time. All known chemical warfare
agents are programmed in the MM1 for rapid identification. A pair
of sampling wheels alternate contact with the ground, absorbing
liquid contamination. The wheels alternate contact with the extended
probe of the MM1. The heated probe draws vapor from the respective
wheel and surrounding air for the MM1 to analyze.
The crew can obtain samples of soil, vegetation, or munitions
fragments without dismounting the vehicle or exposing themselves
to contamination. The samples are stored in a sampling tray at
the rear of the vehicle. The vehicle is also equipped with an
M8A1 automatic chemical agent alarm and CAM as back-up detection
For radiological contamination, the M93 NBCRS is equipped
with the ASG1 and AN/VDR2 radaic meters. These devices can measure
radiation from .02 to 1,000 cGyph.
The vehicle is also equipped with the vehicle orientation
system (VOS1). The VOS1 maintains a grid map location of the vehicle,
allowing for accurate NBC surveys.
The vehicle is crewed by four soldiers: vehicle commander, driver, MM1 operator (operator #l), and probe and sample arm operator (operator 2). The vehicle weighs 19.2 tons combat loaded. The vehicle is armed with an M240E1 7.62mm machinegun and two M250 smoke grenade launchers. The M93 NBCRS can enter the water and swim without stopping for external preparation. A pair of propellers at the rear of the vehicle steer and move the vehicle in the water. Vehicle speed in the water is a constant 6.5 mph; however, the vehicle wheels enable it to swim at 2.5 mph without use of the propellers.
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