Force projection is key to power
projection and central to our national security strategy. Combatant
commanders will attempt to resolve crises within their AORs with
forward-presence forces. If forces are insufficient to meet the
crisis, it will be necessary to project forces from CONUS or another
Force projections may be deliberate
or time sensitive. The Army's response to a regional crisis may
be time sensitive and may occur in areas of the world where the
Army does not have a significant presence. With the proliferation
of weapons of mass destruction, it could be that regional crises
will involve nations which have an offensive NBC capability. An
NBC weapons will make and operation more difficult, detailed planning
is crucial. Chemical units and staffs must be prepared across
the range of military operations will play an increasing role
in force projection operations.
Early entry forces are those operational
deploying forces required to support the Commander in Chief's
(CINC) or other Joint Force Commander's (JFC) concept of operations
in a pre-crisis or crisis situation. Early entry forces must possess
capabilities to deploy rapidly, enter the operational area, secure
the lodgment, and either immediately have decisive effect or create
conditions for the arrival of substantial follow on forces that
then conduct decisive operations. Early entry forces must consist
of lethal and survivable units tailored to support or carry out
the operational intent of the JFC. Chemical staffs and units will
be integral parts of early entry forces.
In addition, force projection operations
involving US forces may involve response to operations other than
war, such as peacetime contingency, peacekeeping, insurgency/couterinsurgency,
or terrorist incidents. The commander's PIRs include focus on
enemy, insurgent, or terrorist capability to use chemical or biological
weapons. Feedback supports the commander's decisions on MOPP and/or
decisions on chemical unit deployment. A critical element of combat
power, maintaining force protection, is crucial in these situations.
Austerity will characterize our operations; unneeded losses can
be offset by realistic training based on our mission-essential
task lists or by taking needed actions to neutralize an enemy's
This section describes early entry
in the context of the first five phases of force projection operations:
mobilization (if necessary), pre-deployment activities, deployment,
entry operations, operations, postconflict/postcrisis operations,
redeployment, and demobilization. These stages occur whenever
missions require the projection of US forces from CONUS or elsewhere.
Force projection operations often overlap in space and time and
are not distinct, requiring commanders and units to deal with
them simultaneously and/or sequentially. Force projection operations
seldom begin with a clear identification of what the entire force
package will be, or even with the ultimate purpose clearly in
focus. Nonetheless, it helps to conceptualize a logical flow from
phase to phase, as long as the force remains physically and mentally
prepared to adjust as the operation evolves.
Following receipt of a mission requiring
projection of US forces, commanders must conduct mission analysis
and force preparation. During this phase, military forces are
selected and a force is tailored for deployment to meet the needs
of the crisis. The type of crisis will dictate if chemical staffs
and units are involved. Intelligence concerning the threat's capability
to use NBC or the type of commercial chemical hazards in the area
of operations is critical to properly tailor the force.
Selected chemical units are alerted.
Units recall and assemble personnel, upload equipment
and prepare for movement to the marshaling area. The amount of
time the unit has available may be limited. Thus, premobilization
training and preparation is critical. Units must review their
load plans and deployment plans to ensure that all mission-essential
equipment deploys with the unit. Review mission essential task
list (METL) and develop a training program to correct identified
deficiencies as time permits.
Peacetime planning, combined and
joint training opportunities, and pre-positioning of chemical
materials and equipment improve our preparedness for NBC and smoke
operations. Contingency plans must include host nation support
(HNS) to substitute for chemical forces not available in the early
phases of an operation.
Crisis response may consist primarily
of active Army early entry forces. Developing METT-T may require
the mobilization of resources to handle unique situations and
requirements resulting from the crisis. Mobilization may include
activating all or part of the Reserve Components as well as assembling
and organizing personnel, supplies and materiel. A significant
portion of the Chemical Corps force structure is maintained in
the Reserve Component. To maintain quick response time, select
Reserve elements may require higher levels of deployment readiness.
The amount and type of reserve forces
mobilized depends on the crisis. This includes assisting in organizing
personnel, material, and supplies and certifying the proficiency
of individuals and units.
During this phase of the operation
the force actually deploys to the area of operations. Carefully
tailoring early entry forces to the situation at hand requires
consideration of METT-T, available strategic lift, the capabilities
of the joint, combined and host nation forces, and facilities
in theater. During peacetime, deployment will normally be to the
host nation directly by air or sea movement. In operations conducted
during hostilities, or war, occupation and expansion of the lodgement
areas may require a forced entry and immediate combat operations.
If the threat has the capability of using NBC weapons, the use
of these weapons during this phase may provide him with the greatest
payoff against US forces. Combat forces and supporting forces
will be sequenced into the area of operations to gain and sustain
the initiative while protecting the force.
A tailored chemical force consisting
of smoke/decon and NBC recon elements should be considered for
early deployment if the threat warrants. If the threat has no
offensive NBC capability, smoke/decon units could deploy without
their decon equipment to minimize transportation requirements.
When deploying elements include units such as light infantry divisions,
they require chemical unit augmentation from corps assets.
The requirements for entry operations
following deployment will vary with each operation. Unopposed
entry is favored. Here deploying units flow through air or sea
ports into lodgement areas. Typically entry operations during
operations other than war will be unopposed An opposed entry would
require combat in order to land the deploying forces in the theater.
The vulnerability of entry forces to weapons of mass destruction
are acute during the initial entry stage. Force protection is
critical. Chemical staffs and units will play a key role in providing
The objective during this phase is
to rapidly build the capability of the force in the area of operations.
Proper sequencing of forces into the area will contribute to the
stabilization of the situation and allow the commander to conduct
decisive operations as early as possible. Combat may or may not
occur. In either case the emphasis is on developing the preconditions
for executing decisive operations.
Principal tasks during this phase
include-establishing a forward operating base, closing the force,
expanding the lodgement, linking up with other forces, securing
the lodgement by expanding the security area, and striking out
to engage enemy forces in offensive operations. If the enemy has
NBC weapons, a minimal decon capability needs to be available.
Smoke elements provide force protection with large-area smoke.
Protection of the force is primary.
Early entry forces must protect themselves from numerous threats
to include biological/chemical attack, tactical ballistic missiles
(TBMs), and terrorism. Smoke units can provide large area screens
over vital areas or as part of a deception operation. NBC recon
units are positioned to react to any report of NBC hazards or
attacks. Decon units are prepared to rapidly decontaminate contaminated
units or facilities. Terrain decon of vital areas, such as ports
or air field may be necessary.
Unopposed Entry When No Combat
is Taking Place
In this situation the intent of early
entry force maybe to serve as a deterrent, to act as the advanced
detachment for a much larger deployment that will follow, or to
participate in non-combat operations such as disaster relief or
humanitarian assistance. The composition of the early entry force
will depend on a careful mission, enemy, terrain, troops, and
time available (METT-T) analysis prior to deployment sequencing.
In some cases, though combat is not expected, the composition
of the early entry force should include smoke generator elements
and non-lethal systems to enhance force protection.
Unopposed Entry Under Combat Conditions
In this case the early entry force
is deploying units into the area of operations where combat is
underway, or imminent, but ports and airfields are under friendly
control. The composition of the early entry force may vary widely
depending on the situation. For example, if the Host Nation armed
forces are on the verge of being overwhelmed, US early entry forces
may include maneuver units that can control terrain and prevent
the enemy from seizing ports of debarkation. However, if the Host
Nation's armed forces are conducting effective resistance but
lack deep attack capabilities such as sensors and attack systems,
early entry forces may require tailoring to satisfy that need.
Each situation is different and will require force tailoring based
on METT-T considerations. A chemical force package consisting
of NBC recon, biological detection, and decon should deploy when
their is a threat from weapons of mass destruction. The deployment
of smoke elements must be considered for their force protection
Forcible entry is the riskiest type
of early entry. The early entry force is designed to either--
- Secure a lodgement for the subsequent
arrival of huger forces that will conduct decisive operations
- Immediately have decisive effect
by collapsing the enemy's center of gravity and accomplishing
In either case, the early entry force
will consist predominately of maneuver units.
Secure the Initial Lodgement Area
Early entry forces must be prepared
for simultaneous deployment and use. This will require that, at
a minimum, they have the capability to seize and control the lodgement,
develop the theater and, to the extent possible, establish the
preconditions for decisive operations. In a combat situation early
entry forces may initially be outnumbered, requiring them to task
organize and echelon to arrive in the area of operation sin a
sequence appropriate to the combat situation. Joint NBC defense
operations will be critical. There will not be sufficient NBC
defense resources to meet the needs of all deploying forces, regardless
of Service. The objective during the early entry phase is to quickly
integrate all elements of combat power and to disrupt or destroy
the enemy force ensuring survivability of the early entry force
and promoting success of the overall operations.
In the event combat has not begun,
entry may entail gaining positional and/or political advantage
or building up overwhelming force to deter a potential aggressor.
Even if the strategic intent is to deter an opponent, the operational
focus must be on seizing the initiative and creating an offensive
capability to fight and win should deterrence fail.
Deploying chemical units focus on
immediate support for NBC needs and the subsequent expansion of
this support. Combat operations can coincide with development
of the theater, so chemical forces organize to support combat
and buildup requirements simultaneously. For example, the situation
could require commitment of both division and corps chemical units
early in the deployment sequence to conceal engineer construction
of an assault airstrip and to decontaminate a port. At the same
time, chemical units may be required to support the reduction
of enemy chemical obstacles.
Under many circumstances, early entry
operations conclude prior to the conduct of decisive operations.
However, early entry forces could engage in decisive operations
immediately to accomplish the mission, in effect conducting a
coup de main. The operations are intended to produce an immediate,
decisive effect. In these circumstances, early entry forces seek
to rapidly collapse the enemy's center of gravity, then achieving
the desired end-state of the operation simultaneously with deployment
of forces. They will include predominantly combat forces with
only a relatively limited sustainment capability. These operations
require extensive planning and rehearsing.
During this phase, the commander
synchronizes elements of power to Successfully conclude the contingency.
In operations involving combat, chemical units and staffs will
perform their normal combat support roles. In peacetime engagement,
the force completes its mission. If the enemy has an offensive
NBC capability, it will likely be used during this phase. Chemical
units establish themselves in the theater. Early deployed chemical
elements will support combat forces with smoke, decon, NBC staff,
and NBC recon support as necessary. Decon sites will be identified
and prepared. If time permits, conduct training to correct any
The objective in this phase is to
identify post-crisis and post-conflict requirements as early as
possible. Units and assets no longer required are redeployed.
Depending on the NBC situation, chemical units may be required
to remain in the area of operations longer than other forces.
Chemical units may remain in the
area of operations to identify areas of contamination, locate
NBC weapon storage sites, provide decon support, or perform other
tasks and missions. A command and control element needs to be
present until all chemical units have redeployed. Once the units
have redeployed, they must quickly prepare for possible future
missions in other theaters or areas of operations.
During this stage, units that are
no longer required are redeployed. Chemical assets may be required
to remain in the area of operations to provide support. Captured
NBC weapons and NBC defense equipment must be properly handled
and disposed. Decon units may be required to perform thorough
decon operations to allow for the retrograde of equipment contaminated
during operations. Peacetime and wartime acceptable exposure levels
vary and federal laws must be followed. Chemical units will assist
in the redeployment by establishing and supervising wash racks
to clean vehicles and equipment before loading onto ships and
Reserve component units are returned
to reserve status. The demobilization of NBC logistical material
and supplies is also part of this operation. During this phase,
units must conduct after action reviews and prepare written summaries
of their observations. By documenting what went right and what
went wrong, lessons learned can be developed.
Force projection operations will
challenge chemical staffs and units. To set the conditions for
a successful mission accomplishment, commander's must make decisions
early. These key considerations apply.
The commander must balance lethality
against supporting forces. If the commander chooses only to project
lethal forces early, he may create a window of vulnerability to
allow the enemy to use weapons of mass destruction.
The type of crisis will determine
the duration of the operation. Chemical units and staffs must
be prepared for sustained operations. Supply and maintenance support
requirements must be included in the initial planning stages.
Force tailoring configures forces
for the mission. The force must be appropriate and based on METT-T,
lift capability, pre-positioned assets, and host nation support.
Contingency operations require forces tailored for the specific
crisis. The type of force and the NBC threat will dictate the
required chemical support.
Task organization is the process
of forming task forces. The composition is determined by the situation
and the available transportation assets. Chemical company
teams may be formed to provide the necessary chemical support
with a controlling headquarters.
Accurate, timely, and detailed intelligence
is critical during contingency operations. Chemical staffs must
determine the enemy's offensive NBC capability. Additionally,
potential commercial NBC hazards should be assessed.
NBC defense equipment places a great
burden on the logistics system. Chemical staff officers must advise
the commander when to initiate MOPP along with a risk assessment.
Coordinate logistics support for the chemical units in the area
Chemical command and control elements deploy early during the operation. They can lessen the burden on the chemical staffs. Chemical command and control elements are allocated based on the number and type of subordinate elements. A chemical company headquarters is allocated if two or more chemical platoons deploy. A chemical battalion HHD deploys if there are two or more nondivisional chemical companies in the force. A brigade chemical HHC deploys if there are two or more chemical battalions in the force.
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