Chemical units operate throughout
the theater of area operations. Numbers, types, and locations
of chemical units and headquarters within the organization reflect
their intended missions (see Figure 7-1). Figure 7-2 lays out
a typical picture of the chemical support available in a theater
of operations. Unites are identified by living TOE (LTOE) number.
Allocation of some chemical assets is theater-dependent. Exact
numbers of chemical units in a specific corps may vary from the
figure shown because of the theater-specific differences in NBC
Rear areas are not a haven safe from
combat. Enemy forces may present a significant NBC threat to rear
area operations. Because of this, echelons above corps require
smoke, NBC recon, biological detection, decon, and NBC staff support
in the COMMZ. In the COMMZ of the theater of operations depicted
in Figure 7-2, an enhanced chemical battalion controls two decon
companies, one recon company, and one biological detection company.
Additionally, the senior logistics headquarters receive an NBC
center team to perform NBC staff functions.
The corps has an assigned
chemical brigade. The number and type of chemical units assigned
to the chemical brigade depend upon the corps mission and its
organization. The corps depicted in Figure 7-2 has 3 chemical
battalions that control a total of 16 chemical companies. A biological
detection company operates directly under the chemical brigade.
This force is a mix of recon, mechanized smoke, smoke/decon, and
biological detection units beyond those that are organic to the
divisions. It allows the corps commander to send augmentation
where it is needed.
The planning allocation for
a corps chemical brigade is--
- The brigade headquarters and
- One NBC recon company.
- Six or more smoke/decon companies
(six per corps plus one per division).
- Two or more chemical battalion
headquarters to command and control assigned companies.
- One mechanized smoke company
per heavy division.
- One biological detection company.
Chemical units perform their
vital combat role throughout the theater of operations, from the
FLOT back through the COMMZ. Chemical units provide recon, decon,
biological detection, and smoke capabilities to accomplish different
tasks throughout the theater. The chemical command and control
structure forms these units into an organization that is responsive
to commanders at all echelons.
Figure 7-2 shows the mechanized
and armor heavy divisions with their organic chemical companies.
These companies each provide one mechanized smoke platoon, one
NBC recon platoon, four decon platoons, and NBC staff support
for the division. The division commander (normally with the recommendation
of the G3 and the division chemical officer) places these elements
in a command or support relationship to his brigades or separate
battalion task forces.
The light infantry division
does not have an organic chemical company. It relies upon corps
augmentation for smoke, decon, and/or NBC recon. The light division
has a chemical officer, chemical staff, and NBCC. Maneuver brigades
in divisions have a brigade chemical officer and chemical staff
NCO. Separate heavy maneuver brigades have a chemical officer,
staff, and chemical platoon (smoke/decon/recon) in the brigade
headquarters and headquarters company.
Each separate brigade has
unique augmentation requirements depending upon its mission. As
an example, the separate brigade in Figure 7-2 has been augmented
by an NBC element and an NBC recon team. TOE of separate heavy
maneuver brigades are being modernized to provide each with a
chemical staff and a platoon capable of providing NBC recon and
smoke or decon.
The armored cavalry regiment
(ACR) is highly versatile and may operate at extended distances.
Therefore, it must be able to operate fairly independently for
extended periods. The ACR chemical company is shown in Figure
7-2. The ACR chemical company provides smoke, NBC recon, decon,
and NBC staff support to the ACR. Its smoke/decon platoon normally
supports a cavalry squadron with either large-area smoke or equipment
decon. However, smoke and decon operations cannot be done simultaneously.
The light armored cavalry regiment (LACR) operate in much the
same way as the ACR and also has an assigned chemical company.
The LACR chemical company provides NBC recon, decon, and NBC staff
support to the regiment.
The corps structure normally
includes a chemical brigade. This brigade provides chemical units
to perform NBC recon, decon, and smoke support throughout the
The corps chemical brigade
commands and controls two or more chemical battalions and separate
units. The brigade headquarters is organized to provide operational,
intelligence, administrative, and logistical support to subordinate
chemical battalions. The brigade provides NBC recon, decon, biological
detection, and smoke support throughout the corps area.
A chemical battalion consists
of three to seven chemical companies. The battalion provides command
and control of these companies in the corps and division areas.
Battalions are task organized to provide smoke, decon, biological
detection, and/or recon support with a mix of chemical companies.
At corps, motorized smoke and decon companies are being replaced
by dual-purpose smoke/decon companies.
Several types of chemical
companies are located in the corps and are organized into chemical
battalions. These include both motorized and mechanized smoke
companies, decon companies, NBC recon companies, biological detection,
and dual-purpose smoke/ decon companies.
Motorized smoke companies
operate from the main battle area (MBA) rearward in the defense
and as far forward as the line of departure in the offense. Typical
missions include screening obstacle emplacement, vital rear-area
installations, or river crossings, and deception operations. A
company can screen areas up to approximately 7 kilometers in width
and several kilometers in depth.
Mechanized smoke companies
have light armor (i.e., ballistic)protection. They have the mobility
to operate in support of maneuver forces but are vulnerable to
enemy weapons when operating with forward elements. Typical missions
include screening battle positions, flanks, and river crossings;
obstacle breaching; and deception operations. A company can produce
smoke screens up to approximately 3 kilometers in width and several
kilometers in depth. Both motorized and mechanized smoke companies
assist in deception operations.
Decon companies provide equipment
decon support to elements of the corps and division. Decon operations
forward of the brigade rear must be augmented with maneuver combat
forces for security and survivability. Decon missions are conducted
on or as close to the original site of contamination as possible.
They operate independently by platoon or in conjunction with other
elements in the corps or division area of operations.
Biological detection companies
support the corps and ASCC. Each company is equipped with 35 Biological
Integrated Detection Systems (BIDS), which are capable of providing
a near-real time indication of specific biological agents. The
company is arrayed to provide coverage through the supported units
area of operations or to protect specific high risk biological
Smoke/decon companies support
both light and heavy divisions. Each of these dual purpose companies
has the ability to set up equipment decon sites in support of
brigades and division rear or provide a smoke screen up to 7 kilometers
Each heavy division has an
organic chemical company. This company provides smoke, decon,
recon, and chemical staff support. It is normally under the operational
control of the division chemical officer.
Airborne/Air Assault Division
Airborne and air assault divisions
have organic chemical companies. These companies provide smoke,
decon, and chemical staff support under the operational control
of the division chemical officer.
Light infantry divisions do
not have organic chemical companies. Light divisions have a chemical
staff organic to the division HHC. The parent corps receives a
smoke/decon company for each light infantry division assigned.
The division chemical officer requests appropriate additional
support from the corps when required.
The mission of chemical service
organizations is to provide or augment NBC recon, decon, and staff
support. The number and types of units in the theater of operations
form the basis for allocation of this support. Chemical service
organizations are allocated to separate brigades, corps, and other
operational level units.
Chemical service organizations
include JA and JB teams that provide NBC operations support to
units over one or two 12-hour shift. These teams also augment
a tactical operations center NBCC to provide NBC operations support
to units over two 12-hour shifts.
Additionally, the recon LB
Team (Special Forces) provides a special forces group with NBC
recon support in all environments to include enemy held, denied,
or sensitive territory. It collects NBC intelligence and provides
technical knowledge pertaining to the enemy's weapons capabilities,
techniques, and dispositions.
To meet the requirements for
a contingency operations, it may be necessary to form chemical
force packages to perform a specific task. Each force package
requires a command and control cell or headquarters. The force
package can be built around a company, battalion, or brigade.
It will be task organized to meet the specific needs of the deploying
Chemical forces perform combat
functions in wartime and offer a variety of mission capabilities
in operations other than war. The Chemical Force Deployment Matrix
shown as table 7-1 is a decision aid to help deploying commanders
and staffs tailor the deployment force for specific functions
in the theater of operations. The focus at the functional level
allows task organization of the correct mix of forces to accomplish
Enter the matrix at either
the Tactical or Operational level. Then, based on mission analysis,
determine the chemical functions necessary for success. The footnote
following each chemical function equates to a deployment category
with a minimum deployment package shown at the bottom of the matrix.
Chemical mission areas fall
into the following categories:
- NBC defense
- Smoke and obscurants
- Nonlethal operations
The chemical functions and
forces required to execute these missions are summarized below:
Chemical units operate under
two types of relationships-command and support. A command relationship
reflects the chain of command and degree of authority. A support
relationship represents the manner in which the maneuver unit
is to be supported.
In the tactical planning process
the chemical brigade staff recommends the appropriate command
or support relationship between the chemical unit and the supported
unit. This relationship defines the specific responsibilities
between supporting and supported units. Generally, chemical units
at corps and division levels establish support rather than command
relationships. Each situation is unique and requires its own solution.
Whatever the relationship, chemical unit commanders remain responsible
for the missions undertaken by their subordinate elements.
Chemical units can operate
in one of three command relationships-assigned, attached, or OPCON.
Assignment is the normal relationship when a parent unit directly
commands its subordinate units. In this case the parent unit is
responsible for all command responsibilities, personnel actions,
and logistics support.
The parent unit may attach
a subordinate unit to a supported commander when the parent unit
cannot provide adequate logistical support or timely command decisions.
Attachment to another headquarters means that all command and
logistics responsibilities are transferred to the receiving headquarters.
Operational control is appropriate
when a supported unit commander needs task organization authority
over chemical units, but the parent chemical headquarters can
provide continued logistics support. The parent chemical unit
coordinates with logistics organizations to make this viable.
When a support relationship
is established, the parent unit retains command responsibility.
The parent unit also remains responsible for logistics needs of
that subordinate unit.
A GS relationship is appropriate
when the higher headquarters requires central control and flexibility
in using limited chemical assets. In this relationship, support
is to the force as a whole rather than to a particular subunit
of the force. Corps and division chemical units normally are retained
for GS missions unless specific units require a higher degree
A DS relationship provides
support that is directly responsive to the needs of a specific
combat, combat support, or combat service support element. It
is usually for a single operation or a short period. A higher
headquarters may use DS when it expects a change to the task organization
that will require shifting of chemical units to other locations.
This relationship precludes further task organization of the chemical
unit by the supported commander.
Chemical units work most efficiently
under the control of a parent chemical unit. This organization
permits close control and the most productive use of all chemical
assets. The commander continuously monitors the progress of assigned
tasks and shifts elements where the need is greatest throughout
his area of operations.
On the other hand the supported
unit commander at the lowest level gets greater responsiveness
when the chemical unit is under his direct control. He determines
the task organization and gives missions directly to the units
The decision whether to provide
chemical units in a command or a support relationship is a balance
between the needs of the higher commander for flexibility and
the needs of the subordinate commander for responsiveness. Army
operational doctrine is based on securing or retaining the initiative
and exercising it aggressively to accomplish the mission; it requires
subordinate commanders to seize the initiative whenever the opportunity
The corps may provide each
committed heavy division with a chemical battalion task organized
to support the commander's intent and in a command or support
role appropriate for the mission. Light infantry divisions are
normally provided a dual-purpose smoke/decon company. Units are
provided in either a command or support relationship. The chemical
unit commander deploys his subordinate elements based on his estimate.
At each echelon, commanders
use organizational principles to guide the use of chemical units.
These principles include the following--
- Task organize to meet requirements.
Mission requirements drive size and composition of task forces.
A mix of chemical units is often necessary to achieve the proper
balance of capabilities.
- Give priority to the main
effort. There are not enough chemical assets on the battlefield
to handle all tasks. Chemical units are not spread evenly across
the battlefield but are concentrated with the main effort to ensure
- Integrate chemical support
with maneuver and fires. The scheme of maneuver governs the use
of smoke and recon assets.
- Do not hold smoke and NBC
recon units in reserve. Smoke assets are too scarce and valuable
to be held out of the fight. They must refit quickly and return
to their primary mission.
- Make logistically sustainable
plans. Resources are always limited. The availability of water,
fuel, and fog oil restricts chemical unit ability to execute smoke
and decon missions. Chemical unit sustainment and supporting logistics
must be planned in detail.
- Maintain effective battle
command. Effective plans use all available controlling headquarters
and hand off operations smoothly between them.
A commander controls subordinate
elements both by his presence and leadership at critical events
and through use of his headquarters. The commander at each echelon
uses his headquarters to control operations. He relies upon chemical
unit command and control elements to ensure that the tasks he
assigns are successfully executed. These chemical command and
control elements consist of the chemical officer on the supported
commander's staff, chemical unit commanders, and the staffs of
Chemical officers at each
echelon provide information, make routine decisions within the
authority delegated to them by the commander, and perform staff
supervision of NBC defense, non-lethal use, smoke, and flame operations.
Theater Army Chemical Officer
The Army Service Component
Command normally includes the Army Service Component Command Chemical
Officer (formerly Theater Army Chemical Officer). He is a member
of the Army Service Component Commander's special staff. He integrates
NBC defense and nuclear weapons use into the Army Service Component
Command's plan to sustain Army forces and support joint and coalition
Corps Chemical Officer
The corps staff includes the
corps chemical officer. He is a member of the commander's special
staff. He has staff responsibility to the corps commander for
all NBC-related matters in the corps area of operations, including
the use of the chemical brigade. He is assisted in this task by
the corps chemical section. This section prepares NBC annexes,
estimates, and SOPS. It helps plan the use of nuclear weapons.
It operates an NBCC that processes and distributes NBC reports
and maintains radiation dose status of corps units. It also prepares
fallout predictions and chemical downwind hazard predictions.
Division Chemical Officer
The division chemical officer
is a member of the commander's special staff. As such he is responsible
to the division commander for all NBC-related matters in the division's
area of operations. Corps chemical units in the division area
provide liaison to him. He is assisted by a chemical staff section
and NBCC located within the division command posts. The chemical
section supports operations at the tactical, main, and rear command
posts. Under his direction they coordinate NBC matters to integrate
NBC defense, non-lethal, smoke, and flame planning into division
operations. The chemical section provides advanced warning of
future division operations to the division and supporting corps
chemical units. The division chemical officer keeps the division
staff informed on current NBC operations within the division.
He coordinates division NBC mission tasks and priorities to assigned,
attached, or supporting corps units on behalf of the division
Separate Brigade and ACR Chemical
Separate maneuver brigades,
ACRs, and LACRs have a chemical officer and chemical section organic
to the brigade. Currently, separate brigades are authorized a
chemical platoon with a smoke, decon, and NBC reconnaissance capability.
ACRs and LACRs have an organic chemical company that provides
smoke, decon, and NBC recon support.
Brigade Chemical Officer
The chemical officer at brigade
level (or brigade equivalent) is the primary adviser to the commander
on NBC matters. He integrates NBC and smoke considerations into
the brigade planning process and coordinates current operations
in the brigade area. The brigade chemical officer receives required
reports from divisional and corps units in the brigade area. He
keeps the brigade staff and the division informed on NBC activities.
He passes brigade taskings to supporting chemical units on behalf
of the commander.
Special Forces Group Chemical
Special forces groups, airborne
(SFGA) have a chemical officer and NCO assigned to the group headquarters.
They function as a staff section located within the special forces
operational bases (SFOB). SFGA have chemical detachments organic
to the groups under the operational control of the group chemical
officer. These detachments provide NBCC and decon support to the
SFOB and forward operating bases. When available, LB teams (SF
recon) provide NBC recon support to special forces groups in all
environments to include enemy held, denied, or sensitive territory.
Battalion Chemical Officer or
Combat and some combat support
battalions are authorized a chemical officer; nonmaneuver battalions
are authorized a chemical NCO. The battalion chemical officer
or NCO serves in the headquarters operations (S3) section and
integrates NBC and smoke into the battalion or battalion task
force's planning process. He monitors execution of the NBC portions
of the operation. He makes operational reports through the S3
and provides other required reports as necessary. Battalions authorized
LDSs (for example, armor and mechanized units) are also authorized
a decon specialist (54B10) who serves as the operator and maintainer
for the LDS.
Company Chemical NCO
All TOE companies except HHCs
are authorized a company level chemical NCO. The company chemical
NCO is the commander's chief advisor on all aspects of NBC defense
and smoke. He provides the commander with an organic source of
chemical expertise for planning and conducting NBC defense operations.
He ensures that all platoons, squads, and sections can operate
their assigned NBC equipment. He trains company personnel to support
a operational or thorough decon operations.
Role of Chemical Headquarters
During the development of
courses of action in the tactical planning process, the chemical
planner recommends allocations of available chemical units. Whenever
possible, he aligns their operational boundaries with those of
the maneuver forces. This is particularly important at division
Commanders task organize chemical
units based upon their tactical estimate. A chemical company can
normally command up to six platoons. A chemical battalion can
command up to seven chemical companies. These can be a mixture
of corps and divisional elements operating under chemical headquarter
Corps Chemical Brigade
The chemical brigade headquarters
coordinates the combat support operations of assigned and attached
chemical battalions. The chemical brigade staff provides input
to the corps chemical officer as he integrates NBC defense, to
include large area biological detection and smoke considerations
into corps plans. The chemical brigade staff then conducts the
detailed planning from its command post necessary to implement
the tasks assigned by the corps order. The staff's time is primarily
used acquiring and positioning resources needed for future operations.
The staff's role in current operations is limited to coordinating
the activities of the brigade's subordinate battalions and solving
problems that hamper the completion of tasks critical to corps
The brigade staff enables
the commander to control chemical units in the corps rear and
for its units that are forward with committed divisions. The brigade
assigns portions of the corps area to subordinate units.
A chemical battalion headquarters
coordinates the combat support operations of assigned or attached
chemical units. Depending on the types of companies assigned or
attached, the battalion can provide smoke, decon, and recon support
in its assigned area of the corps. The command or support relationship
established in the corps order determines how a division can use
a corps battalion in its area. When a battalion is provided to
a division, the battalion staff completes the detailed planning
from its command post for the division chemical officer who is
required to implement tasks in the division order. The chemical
battalion headquarters can control division companies or other
corps companies in addition to its own. When in direct support
of the division the battalion is well suited as a command and
control headquarters for all chemical operations.
Division Chemical Company
As with higher headquarters
the company helps the division chemical officer fulfill his role
as special staff officer. The division chemical officer integrates
recon, smoke, and decon into the division plan. The remainder
of his staff and the company does the detailed planning to support
the plan. The staff solves or recommends alternatives to logistics
problems that prevent completion of any critical chemical task
within the division.
In some circumstances the
division chemical company may be required to provide a command
and control headquarters for attached forces. The company is the
lowest chemical echelon that can plan and execute continuous operations
in support of tactical forces. The platoons of the company are
ideally suited for integration into task force operations and
provide the priority task force with the chemical assets to accomplish
The chemical platoon is the
lowest-level conventional chemical unit that can effectively accomplish
independent tasks. For that reason chemical units rarely operate
in smaller increments than this, and then only for specific actions
of limited duration. Due to the limited chemical units available,
some brigades and task forces may operate without dedicated chemical
The LB (recon) team (special
forces) provides NBC recon support to the special forces group
in all environments to include enemy held, denied, or sensitive
territory. It may deploy augmented by Special Forces Detachment
A (SFODA) team members, as an augmentation to an SFODA, or operate
independently. The LB team is the lowest level that can effectively
accomplish independent tasks.
Accurate, timely information
is vital to effective battle command. Chemical staffs and chemical
units use information of both an operational and a technical nature.
They communicate through operations channels to keep their higher
headquarters informed on current missions and to plan future ones.
They communicate through chemical channels for technical information
and as an alternate means of passing operational information that
is not time-sensitive. Unit SOPs identify the type and the frequency
of reports needed at each echelon and the method for reporting.
Unit capabilities depend upon
the status of personnel, equipment, and logistics. Since these
all fluctuate in the course of an operation, it is important for
decision makers to have current information at hand. As maneuver
commanders need to know chemical unit status in broad terms, chemical
commanders and staff officers need detailed information about
the units they support. They use this information to remedy specific
deficiencies and make plans that a unit can execute.
No operation ever proceeds
exactly according to plan. Both maneuver and chemical unit commanders
need to know the progress of an operation. Chemical units and
staffs keep the immediate commander informed on critical tasks,
such as smoke or NBC recon. They also forward technical information
upward and laterally for other chemical units' use.
The division NBCC operates
the NBCWRS and maintains the radiation exposure status (RES) of
division units. It also prepares fallout predictions and downwind
hazards and analyzes NBC vulnerability analyses for division units.
The corps NBCC operates the
NBCWRS and conducts NBC vulnerability analysis. The center monitors
the RES of corps units and prepares fallout predictions and downwind
At EAC NBC warning and reporting
is provided by NBCC teams. These teams augment the TAACOM and
An NCO or chemical liaison officer (LO) to another headquarters (for example, corps or division headquarters) facilitates improved exchange of information. The chemical LO is thoroughly familiar with the current situation of his own unit and his commander's intent to include the concept of operations. For example, he provides unit locations (for example, decon points), overlays, and OPLANs reflecting NBC recon, smoke, and decon plans and readiness factors such as personnel strengths and logistics considerations. The LO also receives briefs on the current status and missions of the unit to which he is being sent. Coordination is also accomplished to ensure needed transportation, communications (for example, frequency and call sign), and translator/interpreter requirements are met.
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