The Chemical Corps' primary focus
is to provide combat support to assist the Army fight and win
our nation's wars, but the Army and the Chemical Corps will find
themselves engaged in operations that may not involve combat.
The Chemical Corps is well suited for a number of missions in
support of operations other than war (OOTW).
Operations other than war include
those operations conducted during peacetime and conflict short
of war. It is also possible that these type of operations can
be conducted during war as an adjunct to the main effort.
Contingency operations during peacetime
normally focus on assisting US, allied, or friendly nation civil
authorities to cope with natural or man-made disasters. Typical
- Humanitarian assistance and disaster
- Arms control/treaty verification.
- Support to domestic civil authorities.
Contingency operations during conflict
are usually time-sensitive military operations characterized by
rapid power projection of combat forces. These operations include--
- Security assistance.
- Humanitarian assistance.
- Arms control/treaty verification.
- Attacks and raids.
- Noncombatant evacuation.
- Support to insurgency or counterinsurgency
- Support to domestic civil authority.
In the past, terrorist groups have
attempted to obtain chemical weapons. As growth of NBC weapons
continues, this possibility increases. Chemical staffs and units
will support counter-terrorist operations by providing NBC defense
training to key individuals. Special forces NBC recon detachments
can conduct special recon operations to locate terrorist NBC storage
sites and/or manufacturing facilities. Chemical units and staffs
can provide technical advice and assistance once terrorists have
used NBC weapons.
Chemical units and staffs operating
in areas where there is a high terrorist threat must take terrorist
countermeasures. Soldiers should be trained in common-sense terrorism
countermeasures. FM 100-37, Terrorism Counteraction, provides
guidance on unit countermeasures.
During the Gulf War, chemical personnel
provided security assistance to friendly and allied nations. This
assistance involved training of allied military forces in NBC
defense techniques. Both chemical staffs and units can provide
security assistance support. The Security Assistance Training
Program (SATP) has two components - International Military Education
and Training Program (IMETP) and foreign military sale program
(FMSP) training. The objectives of these programs are--
- Develop skills required to operate
and maintain acquired US equipment.
- Develop a foreign country's expertise
in effective management of its defense establishment.
- Foster development of a foreign country's
professional and technical training capability.
- Promote US military rapport with
counterparts in a foreign country.
- Promote a better understanding of
the US, its people, political system, institutions, and way of
- Increase the awareness of international
military personnel on the US commitment to human rights.
IMETP is designed to advance the
efficiency, professional performance, and readiness of the recipient
armed forces. This training is normally conducted in CONUS, but
can occur in other countries. The methods of training vary; formal
courses, orientation tours, and on-the-job training are several
FMSP allows eligible foreign governments
to purchase defense equipment, services, and training from the
US. Training on the maintenance and operation of the equipment
is accomplished by two methods - mobile training teams (MTT) or
field training services (FTS). MTTs are military personnel on
temporary duty to train foreign personnel. The team's size and
composition are based on the request submitted by the host nation.
The objective of the training is to develop an institutional base
with the host nation so that they can then train themselves. FTS
is a long-term MTT that can consist of military or civilian employees
or contract personnel.
These operations provide emergency
assistance to victims of natural or man-made disasters abroad.
Chemical staffs and units provide specialized assistance in chemical-
or nuclear-related disasters. This can include monitoring and
survey, detection and identification of hazards, and decon. In
disasters not involving chemical or nuclear hazards, chemical
units can provide general support. This support includes providing
showers, off-the-road water haul, and limited firefighting capability.
Chemical staff personnel can provide
technical expertise to military units involved in counter-drug
operations. The manufacturers of illegal drugs use and produce
many dangerous chemical compounds. Chemical corps personnel can
provide technical advice in the handling and disposal of dangerous
Chemical personnel can provide advice
on the destruction of drug labs and related materials using flame
field expedients or using defoliants to destroy drug crops.
Peacekeeping forces deployed in countries
that possess NBC weapons will require support from both chemical
staffs and units. Chemical staff officers and NCOs need to be
included at all echelons within the military peacekeeping command.
A senior chemical staff officer with a broad range of expertise
needs to be included on the staff of the military peacekeeping
command. This command exerts overall control of the peacekeeping
forces and is normally multinational. The military peacekeeping
force commander exercises operational control of the subordinate
military forces. Under the military peacekeeping command are military
area commands. The military area commands usually consist of a
single nation's military force and operates in a specific geographical
Chemical staffs organic to the military
organizations deployed in a peacekeeping role will provide NBC
staff support to their organizations. If the military unit does
not have a chemical staff, then the organization should be augmented
with a JA or JB team. Ad hoc chemical staffs also can be formed.
Depending on the situation and the NBC threat involved, chemical
units may be deployed. The organization and type of chemical support
package is dependent on METT-T. At a minimum, a chemical company
team should be deployed to provide the necessary C2
and logistical support. The use of smoke can provide the peacekeeping
commander a valuable means of enhancing force protection through
Arms control focuses on promoting
strategic military stability. Chemical staff personnel provide
technical assistance on monitoring the growth of NBC weapons and
technology. Chemical officers occupy staff positions in agencies
responsible for nuclear and chemical weapons treaty verification.
Chemical units and organizations are involved in the demilitarization
of chemical munitions and associated equipment.
Attacks by ground, air, and naval
forces are used to damage or destroy high value targets or to
demonstrate our capability to do so. These operations involve
the swift penetration of hostile territory to secure information,
seize an objective, or destroy targets and end with a planned
withdrawal. Chemical staffs and selected chemical organizations
may participate in the planning or the execution of attacks and
raids. This is especially true if the high value targets are WMD
research, production, or storage facilities.
This type of operation is conducted
when the situation in a country requires the evacuation or relocation
of US citizens, selected host nation personnel, and third country
nationals. The operation may take place in a low threat environment
or require combat action. Chemical staff personnel will be involved
if the host nation possesses an chemical personnel NBC capability.
Additionally, can provide expertise on the use of RCAs.
Insurgencies are organized movements
to overthrow a constituted government through the use of subversion
and armed conflict. The National Command Authority (NCA) may direct
US forces to assist either insurgent movements or host nation
governments opposing an insurgency. Chemical staff personnel can
provide expertise on the use of RCA, flame weapons and commercial
chemical threats. As the growth of NBC weapons spreads across
the globe, it is possible that forces involved in insurgent/counterinsurgent
operations could see the use of chemical weapons. Smoke units
could provide smoke screens to obscure friendly activities from
Support to US civil authority are
those activities carried out by the military in support of Federal
and state officials. These activities are limited by the Posse
Comitatus Act. Support provided by chemical units can include
disaster assistance, civil disturbance control, and hazard materials
response. Decon units can provide an off-the-road water haul capability,
fire fighting support, and decon of hazardous spills. Chemical
units can provide expertise on the use of RCA during civil disturbance
control operations. See FM 100-19, Domestic Support Operations
for more detail.
Many organizations are actively involved
in providing domestic support. One organization that is involved
is the Chemical - Biological Defense Command (CBDCOM), located
in the Army Material Command (AMC). CBDCOM has many missions,
to include the destruction of the nation's chemical weapons stockpile.
The Technical Escort Unit (TEU) (figure 14-1), a battalion-level
organization, subordinate to CBDCOM has the mission to respond
world wide to accidents dealing with chemical munitions or suspected
chemical agents. The TEU was a major component of the Department
of Defense response to the Silver Valley incident in 1992. During
construction work in Silver Valley, a formerly used defense site
(FUDS) in Washington DC, several World War I era chemical munitions
were uncovered. The site had been used as a test range for testing
chemical munitions during and just after World War I. The TEU
and other agencies responded, to include a decon platoon, to this
incident. All chemical munitions were removed from the site without
any release of hazardous materials.
Chemical personnel, because of the
technical expertise in dealing with battlefield hazards and their
location in almost all Army tactical organizations from company
to theater army will assist in advising commanders on the environment.
Because of this, all chemical personnel must understand the how
their operations will impact the environment during training and
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