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Weapons of Mass Destruction (WMD)

23 September 1997

TEXT: GUIDELINES FOR U.S.-JAPAN DEFENSE COOPERATION

(U.S.-Japan Security Consultative Committee release) (4640)
New York -- The U.S.-Japan alliance is indispensable for ensuring the
security of Japan and continues to play a key role in maintaining
peace and stability in the Asia-Pacific region, according to a joint
statement by the U.S.-Japan Security Consultative Committee.
The statement, which was released with a new set of "Guidelines of
U.S.-Japan Defense Cooperation" in New York September 23, says the
alliance reflects such common values as respect for freedom,
democracy, and human rights, and serves as a political basis for
wide-ranging bilateral cooperation, including efforts to build a more
stable international security environment.
Following are the texts of the joint statement and the new guidelines:
(begin statement text)
JOINT STATEMENT U.S.-JAPAN SECURITY CONSULTATIVE COMMITTEE
COMPLETION OF THE REVIEW OF THE GUIDELINES
FOR U.S.-JAPAN DEFENSE COOPERATION
New York, New York
September 23, 1997
The U.S.-Japan alliance is indispensable for ensuring the security of
Japan and continues to play a key role in maintaining peace and
stability in the Asia-Pacific region. It also facilitates the positive
engagement of the United States in the region. The alliance reflects
such common values as respect for freedom, democracy, and human
rights, and serves as a political basis for wide-ranging bilateral
cooperation, including efforts to build a more stable international
security environment. The success of such efforts benefits all in the
region.
The "Guidelines for U.S.-Japan Defense Cooperation" (the guidelines),
approved by the 17th Security Consultative Committee (SCC) on November
27, 1978, resulted from studies and consultations on a comprehensive
framework for cooperation in the area of defense. Significant
achievements for closer defense cooperation under the guidelines have
increased the credibility of bilateral security arrangements.
Although the Cold War has ended, the potential for instability and
uncertainty persists in the Asia-Pacific region. Accordingly, the
maintenance of peace and stability in this region has assumed greater
importance for the security of Japan.
The "U.S.-Japan Joint Declaration on Security" issued by President
Clinton and Prime Minister Hashimoto in April 1996, reconfirmed that
the U.S.-Japan security relationship remains the cornerstone for
achieving common security objectives, and for maintaining a stable and
prosperous environment in the Asia-Pacific region as we enter the
twenty-first century. The President and the Prime Minister agreed to
initiate a review of the 1978 guidelines to build upon the close
working relationship already established between the United States and
Japan.
In June 1996, the two Governments reconstituted the Subcommittee for
Defense Cooperation (SDC) under the auspices of the SCC, to conduct
the review of the guidelines (the Review) on the basis of JapanAEs
"National Defense Program Outline" of November 1995, and the
"U.S.-Japan Joint Declaration on Security." In view of the changes in
the post-Cold War environment, and based on the achievements made
under the guidelines, the SDC has considered:
-- cooperation under normal circumstances;
-- actions in response to an armed attack against Japan; and
-- cooperation in situations in areas surrounding Japan that will have
an important influence on JapanAEs peace and security (situations in
areas surrounding Japan).
These considerations aimed at providing a general framework and policy
direction for the roles and missions of the two countries and ways of
cooperation and coordination, both under normal circumstances and
during contingencies. The review did not address situations in
specific areas.
The SDC has conducted the review with the objective of identifying
ideas and specific items that would contribute to more effective
bilateral cooperation with the intention to complete the review by
autumn of 1997, as instructed by the SCC in September 1996. The
discussions at the SDC in the course of the review are summarized in
the "Progress Report on the Guidelines Review for U.S.-Japan Defense
Cooperation" of September 1996, and in the "Interim Report on the
Review of the Guidelines for U.S.-Japan Defense Cooperation" of June
1997.
The SDC prepared and submitted to the SCC new "Guidelines for
U.S.-Japan Defense Cooperation." The SCC approved and issued the
following guidelines, which supersede the 1978 guidelines.
(end statement text)
(begin guidelines text)
THE GUIDELINES FOR U.S.-JAPAN DEFENSE COOPERATION
I. THE AIM OF THE GUIDELINES
The aim of these Guidelines is to create a solid basis for more
effective and credible U.S.-Japan cooperation under normal
circumstances, in case of an armed attack against Japan, and in
situations in areas surrounding Japan. The Guidelines also provide a
general framework and policy direction for the roles and missions of
the two countries and ways of cooperation and coordination, both under
normal circumstances and during contingencies.
II. BASIC PREMISES AND PRINCIPLES
The Guidelines and programs under the Guidelines are consistent with
the following basic premises and principles.
1. The rights and obligations under the Treaty of Mutual Cooperation
and Security between the United States of America and Japan (the
U.S.-Japan Security Treaty) and its related arrangements, as well as
the fundamental framework of the U.S.-Japan alliance, will remain
unchanged.
2. Japan will conduct all its actions within the limitations of its
Constitution and in accordance with such basic positions as the
maintenance of its exclusively defense-oriented policy and its three
non-nuclear principles.
3. All actions taken by the United States and Japan will be consistent
with basic principles of international law, including the peaceful
settlement of disputes and sovereign equality, and relevant
international agreements such as the Charter of the United Nations.
4. The Guidelines and programs under the Guidelines will not obligate
either Government to take legislative, budgetary or administrative
measures. However, since the objective of the Guidelines and programs
under the Guidelines is to establish an effective framework for
bilateral cooperation, the two Governments are expected to reflect in
an appropriate way the results of these efforts, based on their own
judgments, in their specific policies and measures. All actions taken
by Japan will be consistent with its laws and regulations then in
effect.
III. COOPERATION UNDER NORMAL CIRCUMSTANCES
Both Governments will firmly maintain existing U.S.-Japan security
arrangements. Each Government will make efforts to maintain required
defense postures. Japan will possess defense capability within the
scope necessary for self-defense on the basis of the "National Defense
Program Outline." In order to meet its commitments, the United States
will maintain its nuclear deterrent capability, its forward deployed
forces in the Asia-Pacific region, and other forces capable of
reinforcing those forward deployed forces.
Both Governments, based on their respective policies, under normal
circumstances will maintain close cooperation for the defense of Japan
as well as for the creation of a more stable international security
environment.
Both Governments will under normal circumstances enhance cooperation
in a variety of areas. Examples include mutual support activities
under the Agreement between the Government of Japan and the Government
of the United States of America concerning Reciprocal Provision of
Logistic Support, Supplies and Services between the Self-Defense
Forces of Japan and the Armed Forces of the United States of America;
the Mutual Defense Assistance Agreement between the United States of
America and Japan; and their related arrangements.
1. Information Sharing and Policy Consultations
Recognizing that accurate information and sound analysis are at the
foundation of security, the two Governments will increase information
and intelligence sharing, and the exchange of views on international
situations of mutual interest, especially in the Asia-Pacific region.
They will also continue close consultations on defense policies and
military postures.
Such information sharing and policy consultations will be conducted at
as many levels as possible and on the broadest range of subjects. This
will be accomplished by taking advantage of all available
opportunities, such as SCC and Security Sub-Committee (SSC) meetings.
2. Various Types of Security Cooperation
Bilateral cooperation to promote regional and global activities in the
field of security contributes to the creation of a more stable
international security environment.
Recognizing the importance and significance of security dialogues and
defense exchanges in the region, as well as international arms control
and disarmament, the two Governments will promote such activities and
cooperate as necessary.
When either or both Governments participate in United Nations
peacekeeping operations or international humanitarian relief
operations, the two sides will cooperate closely for mutual support as
necessary. They will prepare procedures for cooperation in such areas
as transportation, medical services, information sharing, and
education and training.
When either or both Governments conduct emergency relief operations in
response to requests from governments concerned or international
organizations in the wake of large-scale disasters, they will
cooperate closely with each other as necessary.
3. Bilateral Programs
Both Governments will conduct bilateral work, including bilateral
defense planning in case of an armed attack against Japan, and mutual
cooperation planning in situations in areas surrounding Japan. Such
efforts will be made in a comprehensive mechanism involving relevant
agencies of the respective Governments, and establish the foundation
for bilateral cooperation.
Bilateral exercises and training will be enhanced in order not only to
validate such bilateral work but also to enable smooth and effective
responses by public and private entities of both countries, starting
with U.S. Forces and the Self-Defense Forces. The two Governments will
under normal circumstances establish a bilateral coordination
mechanism involving relevant agencies to be operated during
contingencies.
IV. ACTIONS IN RESPONSE TO AN ARMED ATTACK AGAINST JAPAN
Bilateral actions in response to an armed attack against Japan remain
a core aspect of U.S.-Japan defense cooperation.
When an armed attack against Japan is imminent, the two Governments
will take steps to prevent further deterioration of the situation and
make preparations necessary for the defense of Japan. When an armed
attack against Japan takes place, the two Governments will conduct
appropriate bilateral actions to repel it at the earliest possible
stage.
1. When an Armed Attack against Japan is Imminent
The two Governments will intensify information and intelligence
sharing and policy consultations, and initiate at an early stage the
operation of a bilateral coordination mechanism. Cooperating as
appropriate, they will make preparations necessary for ensuring
coordinated responses according to the readiness stage selected by
mutual agreement. Japan will establish and maintain the basis for U.S.
reinforcements. As circumstances change, the two Governments will also
increase intelligence gathering and surveillance, and will prepare to
respond to activities which could develop into an armed attack against
Japan.
The two Governments will make every effort, including diplomatic
efforts, to prevent further deterioration of the situation.
Recognizing that a situation in areas surrounding Japan may develop
into an armed attack against Japan, the two Governments will be
mindful of the close interrelationship of the two requirements:
preparations for the defense of Japan and responses to or preparations
for situations in areas surrounding Japan.
2. When an Armed Attack against Japan Takes Place
(1) Principles for Coordinated Bilateral Actions
(a) Japan will have primary responsibility immediately to take action
and to repel an armed attack against Japan as soon as possible. The
United States will provide appropriate support to Japan. Such
bilateral cooperation may vary according to the scale, type, phase,
and other factors of the armed attack. This cooperation may include
preparations for and execution of coordinated bilateral operations,
steps to prevent further deterioration of the situation, surveillance,
and intelligence sharing.
(b) In conducting bilateral operations, U.S. Forces and the
Self-Defense Forces will employ their respective defense capabilities
in a coordinated, timely, and effective manner. In doing this, they
will conduct effective joint operations of their respective ForcesAE
ground, maritime and air services. The Self-Defense Forces will
primarily conduct defensive operations in Japanese territory and its
surrounding waters and airspace, while U.S. Forces support
Self-Defense ForcesAE operations. U.S. Forces will also conduct
operations to supplement the capabilities of the Self-Defense Forces.
(c) The United States will introduce reinforcements in a timely
manner, and Japan will establish and maintain the basis to facilitate
these deployments.
(2) Concept of Operations
(a) Operations to Counter Air Attack against Japan
U.S. Forces and the Self-Defense Forces will bilaterally conduct
operations to counter air attack against Japan.
The Self-Defense Forces will have primary responsibility for
conducting operations for air defense.
U.S. Forces will support Self-Defense ForcesAE operations and conduct
operations, including those which may involve the use of strike power,
to supplement the capabilities of the Self-Defense Forces.
(b) Operations to Defend Surrounding Waters and to Protect Sea Lines
of Communication
U.S. Forces and the Self-Defense Forces will bilaterally conduct
operations for the defense of surrounding waters and for the
protection of sea lines of communication.
The Self-Defense Forces will have primary responsibility for the
protection of major ports and straits in Japan, for the protection of
ships in surrounding waters, and for other operations.
U.S. Forces will support Self-Defense ForcesAE operations and conduct
operations, including those which may provide additional mobility and
strike power, to supplement the capabilities of the Self-Defense
Forces.
(c) Operations to Counter Airborne and Seaborne Invasions of Japan
U.S. Forces and the Self-Defense Forces will bilaterally conduct
operations to counter airborne and seaborne invasions of Japan.
The Self-Defense Forces will have primary responsibility for
conducting operations to check and repel such invasions.
U.S. Forces will primarily conduct operations to supplement the
capabilities of the Self-Defense Forces. The United States will
introduce reinforcements at the earliest possible stage, according to
the scale, type, and other factors of the invasion, and will support
Self-Defense ForcesAE operations.
(d) Responses to Other Threats
(i) The Self-Defense Forces will have primary responsibility to check
and repel guerrilla-commando type attacks or any other unconventional
attacks involving military infiltration in Japanese territory at the
earliest possible stage. They will cooperate and coordinate closely
with relevant agencies, and will be supported in appropriate ways by
U.S. Forces depending on the situation.
(ii) U.S. Forces and the Self-Defense Forces will cooperate and
coordinate closely to respond to a ballistic missile attack. U.S.
Forces will provide Japan with necessary intelligence, and consider,
as necessary, the use of forces providing additional strike power.
(3) Activities and Requirements for Operations
(a) Command and Coordination
U.S. Forces and the Self-Defense Forces, in close cooperation, will
take action through their respective command-and-control channels. To
conduct effective bilateral operations, the two Forces will establish,
in advance, procedures which include those to determine the division
of roles and missions and to synchronize their operations.
(b) Bilateral Coordination Mechanism
Necessary coordination among the relevant agencies of the two
countries will be conducted through a bilateral coordination
mechanism. In order to conduct effective bilateral operations, U.S.
Forces and the Self-Defense Forces will closely coordinate operations,
intelligence activities, and logistics support through this
coordination mechanism including use of a bilateral coordination
center.
(c) Communications and Electronics
The two Governments will provide mutual support to ensure effective
use of communications and electronics capabilities.
(d) Intelligence Activities
The two Governments will cooperate in intelligence activities in order
to ensure effective bilateral operations. This will include
coordination of requirements, collection, production, and
dissemination of intelligence products. Each Government will be
responsible for the security of shared intelligence.
(e) Logistics Support Activities
U.S. Forces and the Self-Defense Forces will conduct logistics support
activities efficiently and properly in accordance with appropriate
bilateral arrangements.
To improve the effectiveness of logistics and to alleviate functional
shortfalls, the two Governments will undertake mutual support
activities, making appropriate use of authorities and assets of
central and local government agencies, as well as private sector
assets. Particular attention will be paid to the following points in
conducting such activities:
(i) Supply
The United States will support the acquisition of supplies for systems
of U.S. origin while Japan will support the acquisition of supplies in
Japan.
(ii) Transportation
The two Governments will closely cooperate in transportation
operations, including airlift and sealift of supplies from the United
States to Japan.
(iii) Maintenance
Japan will support the maintenance of U.S. ForcesAE equipment in
Japan; the United States will support the maintenance of items of U.S.
origin which are beyond Japanese maintenance capabilities. Maintenance
support will include the technical training of maintenance personnel
as required. Japan will also support U.S. ForcesAE requirement for
salvage and recovery.
(iv) Facilities
Japan will, in case of need, provide additional facilities and areas
in accordance with the U.S.-Japan Security Treaty and its related
arrangements. If necessary for effective and efficient operations,
U.S. Forces and the Self-Defense Forces will make joint use of
Self-Defense Forces facilities and U.S. facilities and areas in
accordance with the Treaty and its related arrangements.
(v) Medical Services
The two Governments will support each other in the area of medical
services such as medical treatment and transportation of casualties.
V. COOPERATION IN SITUATIONS IN AREAS SURROUNDING JAPAN THAT WILL HAVE
AN IMPORTANT INFLUENCE ON JAPANAES PEACE AND SECURITY (SITUATIONS IN
AREAS SURROUNDING JAPAN)
Situations in areas surrounding Japan will have an important influence
on JapanAEs peace and security. The concept, situations in areas
surrounding Japan, is not geographic but situational. The two
Governments will make every effort, including diplomatic efforts, to
prevent such situations from occurring. When the two Governments reach
a common assessment of the state of each situation, they will
effectively coordinate their activities. In responding to such
situations, measures taken may differ depending on circumstances.
1. When a Situation in Areas Surrounding Japan is Anticipated
When a situation in areas surrounding Japan is anticipated, the two
Governments will intensify information and intelligence sharing and
policy consultations, including efforts to reach a common assessment
of the situation.
At the same time, they will make every effort, including diplomatic
efforts, to prevent further deterioration of the situation, while
initiating at an early stage the operation of a bilateral coordination
mechanism, including use of a bilateral coordination center.
Cooperating as appropriate, they will make preparations necessary for
ensuring coordinated responses according to the readiness stage
selected by mutual agreement. As circumstances change, they will also
increase intelligence gathering and surveillance, and enhance their
readiness to respond to the circumstances.
2. Responses to Situations in Areas Surrounding Japan
The two Governments will take appropriate measures, to include
preventing further deterioration of situations, in response to
situations in areas surrounding Japan. This will be done in accordance
with the basic premises and principles listed in Section II above and
based on their respective decisions. They will support each other as
necessary in accordance with appropriate arrangements.
Functions and fields of cooperation and examples of items of
cooperation are outlined below, and listed in the Annex.
(1) Cooperation in Activities Initiated by Either Government
Although either Government may conduct the following activities at its
own discretion, bilateral cooperation will enhance their
effectiveness.
(a) Relief Activities and Measures to Deal with Refugees
Each Government will conduct relief activities with the consent and
cooperation of the authorities in the affected area. The two
Governments will cooperate as necessary, taking into account their
respective capabilities.
The two Governments will cooperate in dealing with refugees as
necessary. When there is a flow of refugees into Japanese territory,
Japan will decide how to respond and will have primary responsibility
for dealing with the flow; the United States will provide appropriate
support.
(b) Search and Rescue
The two Governments will cooperate in search and rescue operations.
Japan will conduct search and rescue operations in Japanese territory;
and at sea around Japan, as distinguished from areas where combat
operations are being conducted. When U.S. Forces are conducting
operations, the United States will conduct search and rescue
operations in and near the operational areas.
(c) Noncombatant Evacuation Operations
When the need arises for U.S. and Japanese noncombatants to be
evacuated from a third country to a safe haven, each Government is
responsible for evacuating its own nationals as well as for dealing
with the authorities of the affected area. In instances in which each
decides it is appropriate, the two Governments will coordinate in
planning and cooperate in carrying out their evacuations, including
for the securing of transportation means, transportation and the use
of facilities, using their respective capabilities in a mutually
supplementary manner. If similar need arises for noncombatants other
than of U.S. or Japanese nationality, the respective countries may
consider extending, on their respective terms, evacuation assistance
to third country nationals.
(d) Activities for Ensuring the Effectiveness of Economic Sanctions
for the Maintenance of International Peace and Stability
Each Government will contribute to activities for ensuring the
effectiveness of economic sanctions for the maintenance of
international peace and stability. Such contributions will be made in
accordance with each GovernmentAEs own criteria.
Additionally, the two Governments will cooperate with each other as
appropriate, taking into account their respective capabilities. Such
cooperation includes information sharing, and cooperation in
inspection of ships based on United Nations Security Council
resolutions.
(2) JapanAEs Support for U.S. Forces Activities
(a) Use of Facilities
Based on the U.S.-Japan Security Treaty and its related arrangements,
Japan will, in case of need, provide additional facilities and areas
in a timely and appropriate manner, and ensure the temporary use by
U.S. Forces of Self-Defense Forces facilities and civilian airports
and ports.
(b) Rear Area Support
Japan will provide rear area support to those U.S. Forces that are
conducting operations for the purpose of achieving the objectives of
the U.S.-Japan Security Treaty. The primary aim of this rear area
support is to enable U.S. Forces to use facilities and conduct
operations in an effective manner. By its very nature, JapanAEs rear
area support will be provided primarily in Japanese territory. It may
also be provided on the high seas and international airspace around
Japan which are distinguished from areas where combat operations are
being conducted.
In providing rear area support, Japan will make appropriate use of
authorities and assets of central and local government agencies, as
well as private sector assets. The Self-Defense Forces, as
appropriate, will provide such support consistent with their mission
for the defense of Japan and the maintenance of public order.
(3) U.S.-Japan Operational Cooperation
As situations in areas surrounding Japan have an important influence
on JapanAEs peace and security, the Self-Defense Forces will conduct
such activities as intelligence gathering, surveillance and
minesweeping, to protect lives and property and to ensure navigational
safety. U.S. Forces will conduct operations to restore the peace and
security affected by situations in areas surrounding Japan.
With the involvement of relevant agencies, cooperation and
coordination will significantly enhance the effectiveness of both
ForcesAE activities.
VI. BILATERAL PROGRAMS FOR EFFECTIVE DEFENSE COOPERATION UNDER THE
GUIDELINES
Effective bilateral cooperation under the Guidelines will require the
United States and Japan to conduct consultative dialogue throughout
the spectrum of security conditions: normal circumstances, an armed
attack against Japan, and situations in areas surrounding Japan. Both
sides must be well informed and coordinate at multiple levels to
ensure successful bilateral defense cooperation. To accomplish this,
the two Governments will strengthen their information and intelligence
sharing and policy consultations by taking advantage of all available
opportunities, including SCC and SSC meetings, and they will establish
the following two mechanisms to facilitate consultations, coordinate
policies, and coordinate operational functions.
First, the two Governments will develop a comprehensive mechanism for
bilateral planning and the establishment of common standards and
procedures, involving not only U.S. Forces and the Self-Defense Forces
but also other relevant agencies of their respective Governments.
The two Governments will, as necessary, improve this comprehensive
mechanism. The SCC will continue to play an important role for
presenting policy direction to the work to be conducted by this
mechanism. The SCC will be responsible for presenting directions,
validating the progress of work, and issuing directives as necessary.
The SDC will assist the SCC in bilateral work.
Second, the two Governments will also establish, under normal
circumstances, a bilateral coordination mechanism that will include
relevant agencies of the two countries for coordinating respective
activities during contingencies.
1. Bilateral Work for Planning and the Establishment of Common
Standards and Procedures
Bilateral work listed below will be conducted in a comprehensive
mechanism involving relevant agencies of the respective Governments in
a deliberate and efficient manner. Progress and results of such work
will be reported at significant milestones to the SCC and the SDC.
(1) Bilateral Defense Planning and Mutual Cooperation Planning
U.S. Forces and the Self-Defense Forces will conduct bilateral defense
planning under normal circumstances to take coordinated actions
smoothly and effectively in case of an armed attack against Japan. The
two Governments will conduct mutual cooperation planning under normal
circumstances to be able to respond smoothly and effectively to
situations in areas surrounding Japan.
Bilateral defense planning and mutual cooperation planning will assume
various possible situations, with the expectation that results of
these efforts will be appropriately reflected in the plans of the two
Governments. The two Governments will coordinate and adjust their
plans in light of actual circumstances. The two Governments will be
mindful that bilateral defense planning and mutual cooperation
planning must be consistent so that appropriate responses will be
ensured when a situation in areas surrounding Japan threatens to
develop into an armed attack against Japan or when such a situation
and an armed attack against Japan occur simultaneously.
(2) Establishment of Common Standards for Preparations
The two Governments will establish under normal circumstances common
standards for preparations for the defense of Japan. These standards
will address such matters as intelligence activities, unit activities,
movements and logistics support in each readiness stage. When an armed
attack against Japan is imminent, both Governments will agree to
select a common readiness stage that will be reflected in the level of
preparations for the defense of Japan by U.S. Forces, the Self-Defense
Forces and other relevant agencies.
The two Governments will similarly establish common standards for
preparations of cooperative measures in situations in areas
surrounding Japan so that they may select a common readiness stage by
mutual agreement.
(3) Establishment of Common Procedures
The two Governments will prepare in advance common procedures to
ensure smooth and effective execution of coordinated U.S. Forces and
Self-Defense Forces operations for the defense of Japan. These will
include procedures for communications, transmission of target
information, intelligence activities and logistics support, and
prevention of fratricide. Common procedures will also include criteria
for properly controlling respective unit operations. The two Forces
will take into account the importance of communications and
electronics interoperability, and will determine in advance their
mutual requirements.
2. Bilateral Coordination Mechanism
The two Governments will establish under normal circumstances a
bilateral coordination mechanism involving relevant agencies of the
two countries to coordinate respective activities in case of an armed
attack against Japan and in situations in areas surrounding Japan.
Procedures for coordination will vary depending upon items to be
coordinated and agencies to be involved. They may include coordination
committee meetings, mutual dispatch of liaison officers, and
designation of points of contacts. As part of such a bilateral
coordination mechanism, U.S. Forces and the Self-Defense Forces will
prepare under normal circumstances a bilateral coordination center
with the necessary hardware and software in order to coordinate their
respective activities.
VII. TIMELY AND APPROPRIATE REVIEW OF THE GUIDELINES
The two Governments will review the Guidelines in a timely and
appropriate manner when changes in situations relevant to the
U.S.-Japan security relationship occur and if deemed necessary in view
of the circumstances at that time.
(end guidelines text)




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