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Weapons of Mass Destruction (WMD)


3 December 1997

Major Sites Associated With Iraq's Past WMD Programs

Biological sites:

  • 1 - Salman Pak: Laboratory scale research on Anthrax, Botulinum toxin, Clostridium, perfringens (gas gangrene), mycotoxins, aflatoxins, and Ricin. Researchers at this site carried out toxicity evaluations of these agents and examined their growth characteristics and survivability. Located 40 km SE of Baghdad.

  • 2- Al Hakum: This site was specifically designed and constructed as Iraq'ss main biological agent production facility. Prior to the Gulf War this facility produced thousands of lines of Anthrax and concentrated Botulinum toxin. Hundreds of litres of Clostridium perfringen were also produced. The site was destroyed by UNSCOM in May and and June 1996. Located 60 km SW of Baghdad.

  • 3 - Daura Foot and Mouth Disease Vaccine Facility. Also known as Al Manal, this site was taken over by the BW program in fall 1990. Site conducted initial research on viral warfare agents including: haemorraghic conjunctivitis, human rota virus, and camelpox. The site was also used to produce thousands of litres of botulinum toxin. Located in Southeastern outskirts of Baghdad.

  • 4 - The Agricultural and Water Resources Research Centre at Fudaliyah: Also known as Al Safa, this site was a dedicated aflatoxin production facility. Nearly 2000 litres of agent were produced. Site was converted from a scientific agricultural research station. Located in Northeastern outskirts of Baghdad.

  • 5- Taji Single Cell Protein Plant: This site was converted for the production of hundreds of litres of Botulinum toxin in the late 1980s. Located 10 km NW of Baghdad.

  • 6 - Muthanna State Establishment: Initial location for Iraq's BW program in 1985/86. Researchers at this site carried out initial toxins evaluations of several BW agents and examined their growth characteristics and survivability. Agents investigated include Anthrax, botulinum toxin, aflatoxin, and ricin. Muthanna also conducted small scale production of botulinum toxin. BW equipment moved to Salman Pak in 1987. Muthanna heavily damaged during Gulf War. Muthanna also provided weaponization expertise to the BW program, primarily CW munition technology and testing. Located 170 km NW of Baghdad.

    Chemical sites:

  • 1 - Muthanna State Establishment: This 5 km by 5 km facility was Iraq's primary chemical weapons research, development, and production facility. The site operated continuously from 1983 to 1991, producing thousands of tons of precursors, nerve agents and mustard gas. Chemical agents included mustard gas, Sarin, Tabun, and VX. The site was heavily bombed during the Gulf War. From 1992 to 1994 the UNSCOM Chemical Destruction Group operated at this site to eliminate remaining precursor materials, destroy production plants and equipment, and hydrolyse or burn remaining chemical warfare agents. Located 120 km NW of Baghdad.

  • 2 - Fallujah I: This site was intended to be an additional precursor production facility for the chemical weapons program. The facility was in the initial phases of construction at the time of the Gulf War. Located 60 km WNW of Baghdad.

  • 3- Fallujah II: This facility produced chemical weapons precursors destined for the Muhanna site. Products included chlorine, phosphorous trichloride and oxychlorode, thiony1 chloride, and with high probability two direct nerve agent precursors. The site was bombed during the Gulf War. Remaining precursors and equipment were transferred to the Muthanna site for destruction under the supervision of the Chemical Destruction Group. Located 65 km WNW of Baghdad.

  • 4 - Fallujah III: This site was in the late stages of construction at the time of the Gulf War. The facility, intended to support the Muthanna site, contained multi-purpose production plants. These production areas were all destroyed by bombing in 1991. The intended products of this site remain unclear, but may be connected with the VX program. Located 70 km WNW of Baghdad.

  • 5 - Muhammadiyat: This site was the primary storage area for filled chemical weapons. At the time of the Gulf War the site contained numerous CW munition, many filled with chemical agent. The site was heavily damaged during the war. The UNSCOM teams, and the Chemical Destruction Group completed elimination of CW weapons that survived the bombardment. Located 140 km W of Baghdad.

    Nuclear Sites

  • 1- Tuwaitha Nuclear Research Center: Main site for Iraqi nuclear program. Activities included: several research reactors, plutonium separation and waste processing, uranium metallurgy, neutron initiator development and work on number of methods of uranium enrichment. Tuwaitha also is the location of the Osiraq reactor bombed by Israel in 1981. All nuclear fuel at this site was removed under IAEA monitoring. Equipment directly tied to the nuclear weapons program was destroyed in place. Located 18 km SSE of Baghdad.

  • 2 - Tarmiya: Main site for electromagnetic isotope separation (EMIS) program for the enrichment of uranium. Site included both 1200 mm and 600 mm separators. Much of the equipment at this site was disassembled unilaterally by Iraq, and the components hidden from IAEA inspector teams. These pasts were eventually turned over to IAEA personnel and destroyed in place. Located 30 km NW of Baghdad.

  • 3 - Al Atheer Centre: This site was designed and constructed as the major facility for nuclear weapons development and testing. Activities at the site were to included.: uranium casting and metallurgy, core assembly, explosive lens assemble, and detonics testing A high explosives test bunker near the site was used for hydrodynamic experiments. The large nuclear weapons related buildings and bunkers were destroyed under IAEA/UNSCOM supervision in summer 1992. Located 68 km SW of Baghdad.

  • 4 - Al Furat: This site was intended for the design, assembly, and testing of gas centrifuges for uranium enrichment. A 100 centrifuge cascade was planned. All centrifuge related components were destroyed under IAEA supervision. Located 27 km SW of Baghdad.

  • 5 - Al Jesira Factory: Uranium feed stock production facility. Products included: uranium dioxide, uranium tetrachloride, and uranium hexaflouride. The facility was destroyed during the Gulf War. Located 385 km NW of Baghdad.

  • 6 - Akashat Mine: Uranium ore production site. Associated with the Al Qaim site. Located 420 km W of Baghdad

  • 7 Al Qaim: Production of yellow cake (refined uranium ore) from 1984 to 1990. All of the yellow cake used by nuclear program allegedly came from this site. Ore was supplied to the facility by both Iraqi and foreign sources. Located 380 km WNW of Baghdad.

  • 8 - Rashidiya: Centrifuge development centre. Engaged in centrifuge design and testing. Located in Northern outskirts of Baghdad.

  • 9- Al Sharqat: Site intended as a duplicate of the Al Tarmiyah EMIS facility. The site was still under construction in 1991. Located 255 km NW of Baghdad.

  • 10 - Petrochemical-3 Centre: Complex of five office buildings housed the Iraqi nuclear weapons design effort. Inspection of this site in September 1991 yielded documentary proof of the Iraqi nuclear weapons program. Located in central Baghdad.

    Ballistic missile sites:

  • 1- Taji: This site was the primary location for Iraq's indigenous long-range missile program. Activities included air frame design, construction and modification, and liquid fuel rocket engine development and production. UNSCOM teams destroyed prohibited missiles, support systems, development and construction equipment, and specialized tools and dies. Located 30 km N of Baghdad.

  • 2- Nassr State Establishment: This large machine tool and metal working facility was the initial location of the SCUD modification and range extension program. The site continued to manufacture components for both the air frame and indigenous SCUD engine programs. UNSCOM teams destroyed speciality dies at this site. Located 10 km N of Baghdad.

  • 3- Al Rafah: This location was one of the production areas for the indigenous rocket engine program. The site also included facilities for the static testing of the indigenous liquid engines. UNSCOM teams destroyed engine production related equipment. Located 60 km W of Baghdad.

  • 4 - Al Farouq Factory at Darwah: This factory produced locally manufactured transporter/launchers for the long-range missile program. The site was completely destroyed during the Gulf War. Located in the Northwest outskirts of Baghdad.

  • 5- Al Qa Qaa: This site was responsible for the explosive filling of long-range missile warheads. Warhead processing facilities at the site were destroyed under UNSCOM supervision. Located 38 km S of Baghdad.

  • 6 - Karama: This facility conducts research and development efforts on indigenous guidance and control systems. It is still not clear to what extent this site contributed to the long-range program. Located in the North-western outskirts of Baghdad.

  • 7 - Yawm al Azim: This site is part of the Balat al Shuhada group of facilities responsible for development of the BADR-2000 missile. This plant contained static test equipment and other development technologies. All long-range missile test and development equipment was destroyed under UNSCOM supervision. Located 65 km S of Baghdad.

  • 8 - Taj al Marik: This site is part of the Balat al Shuhada group of facilities responsible for development of the BADR-2000 missile. This plant produced solid propellant for the BADR system All buildings and equipment involved in the BARR program were destroyed under UNSCOM supervision. Located 47 km SW of Baghdad.

  • 9- Dhu al Figar: This site is past of the Balat al Shuhada group of facilities responsible for development of the BADR-2000 missile. This plant manufactured the motorcases for the BADR program. The site was bombed during the Gulf War. UNSCOM teams completed destruction of remaining production equipment. Locate 80 km WSW of Baghdad.

    Biological Sites

    Chemical Sites

    Nuclear Sites

    Missile Sites

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