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IIR 2 340 2849 91/ IRAQI CHEMICAL WARFARE TRAINING (U).
Filename:23402849.91r
PATHFINDER RECORD NUMBER: 19843
GENDATE:         950504
NNNN
TEXT:            
ENVELOPE CDSN = LGX698 MCN = 91063/02249 TOR = 910630457
OTTSZYUW RUEKJCS0272 0630454-    --RUEALGX.
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HEADER O 040454Z MAR 91
FM JOINT STAFF WASHINGTON DC
INFO RUFGAID/USEUCOM AIDES VAIHINGEN GE
RUETIAQ/MPCFTGEORGEGMEADEMD
RUEHC /SECSTATE WASHINGTON DC
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RUFTAKA/USA INTEL CENTER HEIDELBERG GE
RUFTAKC/UDITDUSAREUR HEIDELBERG GE
RUDOGHA/USNMR SHAPE BE//SURVEY//
RUEALGX/SAFE
O 040435Z MAR 91
FM [   (b)(1) sec 1.3(a)(4)   ]
TO AIG 7057
RUDCADA/CMO ARCENT//G2//
RUDCAAA/ARCENT SUP CMD//
RUDCOOO/CDR 513TH MI BDE FWD//IAM-O-H//
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RUCJACC/USCENTCOM REAR MACDILL AFB FL//CCJ6/TA//
RBSWAQ/1ARMDIV//DILT//
BT
CONTROLS
OPER/DESERT STORM//
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CITE: (U) 0272-91.
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SERIAL: (U) IIR 2 340 2849 91.
BODY -
PASS: (U)
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COUNTRY: (U) IRAQ(IZ).
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SUBJ: IIR 2 340 2849 91/ IRAQI CHEMICAL WARFARE TRAINING (U).
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WARNING: (U) THIS IS AN INFORMATION REPORT, NOT FINALLY EVALUATED
INTELLIGENCE. REPORT CLASSIFIED 
-
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DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE
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DOI: (U) 910224.
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REQS: (U) T-8C2-2650-01-90.
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SOURCE: [   (b)(1) sec 1.3(a)(4)   ]
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SUMMARY:          ALL IRAQI CHEMICAL DEFENSE PERSONNEL ASSIGNED TO
ARMY, AIR FORCE, NAVY, AND REPUBLICAN GUARD UNITS MUST ATTEND A
CHEMICAL DEFENSE SCHOOL IN TAJI, IZ. PERSONNEL ARE INSTRUCTED ON
VARIOUS METHODS OF CHEMICAL WEAPON DETECTION AND HOW TO INSTRUCT 
UNIT PERSONNEL ON CHEMICAL DEFENSE TECHNIQUES.
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TEXT: 1.          BACKGROUND--THE CHEMICAL DEFENSE SCHOOL IS
LOCATED IN THE TAJI MILITARY CITY IN TAJI, IZ
//GEOCOORD:332800N0441500E//. THE COURSE CONSISTS OF 6-MONTHS OF
INSTRUCTION FOR BOTH OFFICERS AND ENLISTED PERSONNEL. THE 
OFFICERS'
COURSE OF INSTRUCTION IS SEPARATE AND DEALS WITH MORE IN-DEPTH
SUBJECTS THAN THE ENLISTED COURSE. THE ENLISTED SCHOOL TRAINS
APPROXIMATELY 150 SOLDIERS PER ITERATION BROKEN DOWN INTO THREE
50-SOLDIER CLASSES. THE ENLISTED MEN'S TRAINING CONSISTS OF 
ONE-HOUR BLOCKS OF INSTRUCTION (WITH 10 MINUTE BREAKS) FROM 0745 
TO 1430. WHEN NOT IN CLASS, SOLDIERS ARE ALLOWED TO SPEND THEIR 
FREE TIME AS THEY LIKE. THE OVERALL COURSE OF INSTRUCTION, TITLED 
"WEAPONS OF MASS DESTRUCTION", INCLUDES LIMITED INFORMATION ON 
BIOLOGICAL WEAPONS BUT DOES NOT BROACH NUCLEAR SUBJECTS. AT THE 
END OF INSTRUCTION, SOLDIERS ARE DIVIDED AMONG THE SERVICES TO 
SERVE AS UNIT CHEMICAL DEFENSE NCOS. TO BE ASSIGNED TO A 
REPUBLICAN GUARD UNIT ONE HAS TO BE OF ARABIC HERITAGE, FROM THE 
TIKRIT, IZ REGION , OR A BA'ATH PARTY MEMBER. (FIELD COMMENT- DOI 
FOR THE CHEMICAL DEFENSE SCHOOL IS 24 SEPT 1984 TO 26 MARCH 1985).
2.          INDIVIDUAL BLOCKS OF INSTRUCTION WITHIN THE ENLISTED
MEN'S COURSE INCLUDE THE USE AND HISTORY OF CHEMICAL WEAPONS; 
TYPES
OF CHEMICAL WEAPONS AND THEIR INDICATORS; CHEMICAL AGENT SYMPTOMS 
AND TREATMENTS; HOW TO USE THE CHEMICAL DEFENSE MASK; HOW TO
DECONTAMINATE VEHICLES, WEAPONS AND AREAS; HOW TO DEAL WITH
INCENDIARY AGENTS; AND HOW TO TEACH CHEMICAL DEFENSE AT THE UNIT
LEVEL.
A.          HISTORICAL USE OF CHEMICAL WEAPONS--THIS ONE-WEEK 
BLOCK
OF INSTRUCTION DESCRIBES THE INTRODUCTION OF CHEMICAL WEAPONS INTO
WORLD WAR I BY ENGLISH TROOPS AGAINST THE GERMANS. ((FIELD 
COMMENT)-THIS APPEARS TO BE THE IRAQI VERSION OF THE HISTORY OF 
CHEMICAL WARFARE). IT ALSO DESCRIBES THE HISTORICAL CREATION OF 
VARIOUS CHEMICALS FOR WARTIME USE.
B.          TYPES OF CHEMICAL WEAPONS AND THEIR INDICATORS--THIS
BLOCK OF INSTRUCTION LASTS APPROXIMATELY 10 WEEKS AND DESCRIBES 
THE
VARIOUS CHEMICAL AGENTS AND THE MEANS BY WHICH THEY CAN BE 
DELIVERED TO THE BATTLEFIELD. STUDENDS LEARN THE SHAPES AND COLOR 
CODES OF THE MUNITIONS USED TO CARRY THESE CHEMICALS. COLORED 
RINGS AROUND THE MUNITIONS DENOTE THE CHEMICAL TYPE. RED RINGS 
MEAN NERVE AGENTS, YELLOW RINGS MEAN BLISTER AGENTS, AND GREEN 
RINGS MEAN CHOKING AGENTS. ((FIELD COMMENT)- SOURCE COULD NOT 
REMEMBER THE SIZES OR CALIBERS OF THE MUNITIONS USED, BUT WAS SURE 
THAT 130MM AND 155MM ARTILLERY ROUNDS WERE AMONG THEM. SOURCE KNEW 
THAT NERVE AND BLISTER MUNITIONS WERE IN THE IRAQI INVENTORY 
BECAUSE THEY HAD BEEN USED IN THE IRAN/IRAQ WAR. [   (b)(7)(D)   
]WAS NOT SURE ABOUT CHOKING AGENTS). STUDENTS ARE TAUGHT THAT VX 
NERVE AGENTS ARE THE MOST DANGEROUS BECAUSE THEY AFFECT THE HUMAN 
BODY WITHIN SECONDS; HOWEVER, SARIN, SOMAN AND TABUN NERVE AGENTS 
TAKE MINUTES TO AFFECT THE HUMAN BODY. ((SOURCE COMMENT)- SARIN, 
SOMAN, AND TABUN NERVE AGENTS WERE MANUFACTURED BY GERMAN CHEMICAL 
COMPANIES). BLISTER AGENTS (LEWISITES) ARE DELIVERED IN LIQUID 
FORM AND TAKE APPROXIMATELY 8 TO 24 HOURS TO FULLY MANIFEST ITSELF 
IN THE BODY. IT CAN EXIST IN AN ENVIRONMENT FOR SEVERAL DAYS 
DEPENDING ON THE WEATHER. ((FIELD COMMENT)- SOURCE HAD HEARD THAT 
THERE WAS A CHEMICAL MUNITION WHICH COULD CARRY TWO CHEMICAL 
AGENTS
AT ONCE SEPARATED FROM EACH OTHER BY A PARTITION, BUT DELIVERED IN
THE SAME VESSEL).
C.          CHEMICAL AGENT SYMPTOMS AND HOW TO TREAT THEM--THIS
BLOCK OF INSTRUCTION LASTS APPROXIMATELY SIX WEEKS AND GIVES MORE
DETAIL ON WHAT TO EXPECT FROM CHEMICAL AGENTS. NERVE AGENTS ARE
CHARACTERIZED BY HEADACHES, QUICKNESS OF BREATH, AND NARROWING OF 
THE PUPILS. EACH SOLDIER IS SUPPOSED TO BE EQUIPPED WITH TWO 
ATROPINE SULPHATE INJECTORS USED TO RELAX THE BODY AND SLOW 
CONVULSIONS LONG ENOUGH FOR THE PERSON TO BE TRANSFERRED TO A 
HOSPITAL. LEWISITES MANIFEST THEMSELVES IN SEVERE SKIN IRRITATION 
AFTER A 8 TO 24 HOUR INCUBATION PERIOD. THEY CAN BE INTRODUCED 
INTERNALLY BY DRINKING CONTAMINATED WATER OR THROUGH CONTAMINATED 
VAPORS. A COLD SENSATION ON ONE'S SKIN IS A SIGN OF LEWISITES. TO 
CLEAN CONTANIMATED SKIN SURFACES, A GAUZE PAD IS TO BE USED IN A 
PINCHING MOTION SO AS NOT TO FURTHER SPREAD THE LEWISITE. EACH 
SOLDIER IS SUPPOSED TO HAVE A BOTTLE OF MONOCHLORINE WHICH HE IS 
TO POUR ONTO A SEPARATE PIECE OF GAUZE AND AGAIN CLEAN THE SKIN 
SURFACES USING A PINCHING MOTION. THE GAUZE PADS, ATROPINE 
INJECTORS, AND MONOCHLORINE SOLUTION ARE MANUFACTURED IN BULGARIA. 
((FIELD COMMENT)- SOURCE SAID THERE WAS LITTLE EMPHASIS PLACED ON 
THE CONTAMINATION OF WATER BY BLISTER AGENTS BECAUSE THE MOTION OF 
THE WATER WOULD QUICKLY REMOVE THE BLISTER AGENT). CHOKING AGENTS 
SUCH AS PHOSGENE, DIPHOSGENE, AND TRIPHOSGENE ARE DELIVERED IN 
GASEOUS STATE AND ARE CHARACTERIZED BY CHEST PAINS AND SHALLOW 
BREATHING. IF BREATHING CEASES, THE VICTIM IS TO BE GIVEN CPR. IN 
LESS SEVERE CASES THE INFLICTED PERSON SHOULD BE GIVEN HOT TEA OR 
HOT MILK TO CLEANSE THE THROAT PASSAGE. IF THE SOLDIER IS NOT 
EVACUATED TO A HOSPITAL HE WILL DIE. CHOKING AGENTS ARE NOT 
AFFORDED MUCH ATTENTION AS THEY ARE NOT KNOWN TO BE A WIDELY
USED CHEMICAL WEAPON. NON-LETHAL CS TEAR GAS IS DESCRIBED AS A 
RIOT
CONTROL GAS. EACH SOLDIER IS SUPPOSED TO CARRY FOUR AMPULES OF 
ETHER TO COMBAT THIS GAS. IN CASE OF A TEAR GAS ATTACK, SOLDIERS 
ARE TO PUT ON THEIR MASKS, BREAK AN AMPULE OF ETHER UNDER THE 
MASK, AND LIFT THE CHIN OF THE MASK TO LET THE ETHER TAKE EFFECT.
D.          HOW TO USE THE MASK--THIS PORTION OF THE COURSE TAKES
APPROXIMATELY NINE OR TEN WEEKS AND DESCRIBES THE METHOD OF 
DONNING
VARIOUS TYPES OF MASKS. THIS INSTRUCTION ALSO INCLUDES A PRACTICAL
APPLICATION PORTION IN WHICH STUDENTS ARE REQUIRED TO DON AND 
CLEAR
THE MASK IN A TEAR GAS ENVIRONMENT. THE DIFFERENT MASKS COVERED IN
THE COURSE ARE THE "M95" YUGOSLAVIAN MASK (GREEN COLOR), A BROWN
SOVIET MASK, A GREEN ROMANIAN MASK ON WHICH THE INDIGENOUS 
"HADBAA"
IRAQI MASK IS BASED, AND THE BLACK "MR" GERMAN MASK. THE SOVIET 
MASK IS PRIMARILY USED FOR INSTRUCTION AND IS AN OLD-STYLE MASK 
WITH A HOSE STRETCHING FROM THE MASK ITSELF TO A SHOULDER-CARRIED 
FILTER. THE IRAQI AND ROMANIAN MASKS ARE THOUGHT TO BE THE WORST; 
THE GERMAN MASK IS KNOWN TO BE THE BEST BECAUSE IT HAS TWO PLATES 
OF CHARCOAL PROTECTION. ((FIELD COMMENT)- SOURCE HAD SEEN AND 
EXAMINED AMERICAN MASKS FOUND ON IRANIAN SOLDIERS DURING THE 
IRAN/IRAQ WAR).
E.          HOW TO DECONTAMINATE VEHICLES, WEAPONS AND AREAS--THIS
PORTION OF THE COURSE TAKES MORE THAN TEN WEEKS. STUDENTS ARE
INSTRUCTED ON VARIOUS KINDS OF DECONTAMINATION VECHICLES AND 
SYSTEMS INCLUDING THE ARS DECONTAMINATION VEHICLE FOR GROUND AND 
WEAPONS AND THE DDA DECONTAMINATION SYSTEM FOR PERSONNEL AND 
CLOTHING. THE ARS USES A CHLORINE SOLUTION FOR METALS AND A 2/3 
SALT SOLUTION FOR WOOD. THE DDA SYSTEM CONSISTS OF TWO WOODEN 
STRUCTURES, ONE WITH HEATED WATER PIPED INTO IT FOR SOLDIERS TO 
WASH WITH COMMON SOAP AND THE OTHER TO CLEANSE CLOTHING (CHEM 
SUITS AND UNIFORMS). THE DK4 HAND PUMP FOR THE DECONTAMINATION OF 
SMALL ITEMS IS ALSO EXPLAINED.
F.          HOW TO DEAL WITH INCENDIARY AGENTS--THIS TEN WEEK
COURSE COVERS INCENDIARY AGENTS SUCH AS NAPALM, THERMITE, AND
PHOSPHOROUS. THE NAPALM SUBSTANCES (CONCENTRATED KEROSENE AND
GASOLINE MIXTURES) CAN BE INTRODUCED THROUGH BOMBS OR, AS IN THE 
CASE OF THE IRAN/IRAQ WAR, IN 30 LITRE INCENDIARY ANTI-PERSONNEL 
MINES. INCDNDIARY AGENTS ARE NEUTRALIZED THROUGH OXYGEN 
DEPRIVATION
TECHNIQUES SUCH AS ROLLING ON THE GROUND, SMOTHERING THE FIRE WITH 
A BLANKET, OR SIMPLY SNUFFING THEM OUT WITH ONE'S HANDS. A TEACHER
ILLUSTRATED THIS BY PUTTING OUT A SMALL, INCENDIARY-INDUCED FIRE 
WITH HIS HAND. THERMITE IS DELIVERED THROUGH ARTILLERY AND MORTAR 
ROUNDS AND CAUSES A DEEP BURN FROM OVER 3,000 CALORIES OF HEAT. 
PHOSPHOROUS SHELLS DESIGNATED BY THREE WHITE TRIANGLES FACING EACH 
OTHER ARE ALSO DELIVERED BY ARTILLERY AND MORTAR ROUNDS. BOTH 
THERMITE AND PHOSPHOROUS ARE NEUTRALIZED BY OXYGEN DEPRIVATION 
TECHNIQUES.
G.          HOW TO TEACH CHEMICAL DEFENSE AT THE UNIT LEVEL--THIS
PORTION OF THE COURSE TOOK OVER 12 WEEKS TO COMPLETE. A BRIGADE 
HAS
FOUR CHEMICAL DEFENSE NCOS (ONE PER BATTALION AND ONE AT THE
HEADQUARTERS COMPANY) AND ONE CHEMICAL DEFENSE OFFICER ON THE 
BRIGADE STAFF. DURING PEACETIME, THE CHEMICAL DEFENSE NCOS TEACH 
CHEMICAL DEFENSE TECHNIQUES TO THE SOLDIERS; DURING WARTIME, THEY 
DETECT CHEMICALS AND THEN WARN THE CHEMICAL DEFENSE OFFICER SO HE 
CAN INFORM HIGHER HEADQUARTERS. STUDENTS WERE GIVEN VERY BASIC 
INFORMATION TO DETECT CHEMICAL WEAPONS. FOR EXAMPLE, THEY WERE 
TOLD THAT BECAUSE CHEMICAL BOMBS MAKE NO SOUND, THEY MUST LOOK FOR 
PHYSICAL SIGNS SUCH AS BROWNISH GRASS, OILY SUBSTANCES ON THE 
SAND, UNUSUAL SMELLS, AND/OR DEAD ANIMALS AND BIRDS. IF CHEMICALS 
ARE DETECTED THE NCO IS TO SHOOT SIGNAL FLARE INTO THE AIR. THIS 
PARTICULAR FLARE SHOOTS A RED STREAM APPROX 200 METERS INTO THE 
SKY. IT THEN VEERS APPROX 80 METERS TO THE SIDE (RIGHT OR LEFT), 
BREAKING INTO FIVE STAR-LIKE CONFIGURATIONS AND MAKING A LOUD 
WHISTLING SOUND. THE NCO IS SUPPOSED TO PLACE ORANGE FLAGS AROUND 
THE CONTAMINATED AREAS WARNING OFF SOLDIERS. THEN THE NCO IS TO 
INFORM THE CHEMICAL DEFENSE OFFICER THROUGH THE MOST EXPEDIENT 
MEANS OF THE TYPE OF CHEMICAL ATTACK AND ITS LOCATION. (FIELD 
COMMENT- TO WARN OF ANY CHEMICAL ATTACK, THE HHC/841 BDE/45 INF 
DIV WAS TO TRANSMIT "777" VIA RADIO). EACH NCO WAS EQUIPPED WITH A 
BOX CONTAINING FOUR RED-RINGED AMPULES TO DETECT NERVE AGENTS, 
FOUR YELLOW-RINGED AMPULES FOR DETECTION OF BLISTER AGENTS, AND 
FOUR TRIPLE-RED-RINGED AMPULES FOR DETECTION OF CHOKING AGENTS; A 
SMALL SYRINGE DEVICE TO HOLD AND OPEN THE AMPULES; A SMALL SHOVEL 
FOR TO TAKE GROUND SAMPLES; AND A SMALL FLASHLIGHT. (SOURCE 
COMMENT- GROUND SAMPLES WERE SHIPPED OFF TO A SPECIAL LAB IN 
BAGHDAD
FOR FUTURE ANALYSIS). EACH NCO WAS ALSO GIVEN 60 GRAMS OF A 
CHLORINE POWDER (TO BE USED IN A TEN GRAM PER TEN LITRE WATER 
RATIO) TO DECONTAMINATE APPROXIMATELY 150 WEAPONS AND HELMETS. 
ONLY THOSE PORTIONS OF THE WEAPONS REQUIRING HUMAN CONTACT ARE TO 
BE
DECONTAMINATED. EACH CHEMICAL DEFENSE NCO IS SUPPOSED TO STORE AND
DISPENSE HIS ENTIRE UNIT'S CHEMICAL DEFENSE CLOTHING (RUBBER CAPE,
RUBBER GLOVES, RUBBER BOOTS AND MASK) FOR THE ENTIRE UNIT. (FIELD
COMMENT- THE ENTIRE CHEMICAL DEFENSE ENSEMBLE WAS KNOWN BY THE 
NAME
"EL WAN" AND WAS PRODUCED BY THE SOVIET UNION).
3.          REALITIES OF CHEMICAL DEFENSE IN THE IRAQI
MILITARY--THE REPUBLICAN GUARD WERE GIVEN ALL OF THE LATEST 
EQUIPMENT AND HAD ENOUGH TO EQUIP EACH MEMBER. THE NORMAL ARMY 
INFANTRY UNIT HAD OLD EQUIPMENT AND COULD ONLY SUPPLY 40 PERCENT 
OF ITS PERSONNEL.
(FIELD COMMENT- DURING THE IRAN/IRAQ WAR, EVERY SOLDIER WAS
SUPPLIED WITH THE PROPER, ALBEIT OLD, EQUIPMENT). CHEMICAL DEFENSE
NCOS HAD NO DANGER FLAGS AND WERE REQUIRED TO USE A PILE OF ROCKS
ARRANGED IN AN UNNATURAL FORMATION TO WARN TROOPS OF ANY AREAS. 
MASK FILTERS WERE REQUIRED TO BE CHANGED EVERY FIVE YEARS AND NO 
SOONER. HOWEVER, EVERY SIX MONTHS SOLDIERS WERE REQUIRED TO DON 
AND CHECK THEIR MASKS BY GOING THROUGH A TEAR GAS TENT. ALTHOUGH 
CHEMICAL DEFENSE NCOS ANNOTATED WHICH MASKS DID NOT WORK, THEY 
WERE NOT ALLOWED TO ISSUE NEW FILTERS EARLIER THAN THE FIVE-YEAR 
TIME LIMIT. REGULAR INFANTRY UNITS NEVER TRAINED TO FIGHT WHILE 
WEARING THE CHEMICAL ENSEMBLE. CHEMICAL DEFENSE NCOS WERE NOT 
TRAINED ON
BIOLOGICAL OR NUCLEAR DEFENSE AND HAD LIMITED IF NOT NON-EXISTENT
KNOWLEDGE ON THESE SUBJECTS. NO ONE IN THESE UNITS RECEIVED ANY
SPECIAL INNOCULATIONS PRIOR TO EITHER THE IRAN/IRAQ WAR OR THE 
DESERT STORM CAMPAIGN. (FIELD COMMENT- DURING HIS SIX YEARS OF 
SERVICE, SOURCE TRIED TO INFORM HIS SOLDIERS OF THE USE OF 
CHEMICAL WARFARE AGAINST THE KURDS BUT NOTICED THAT ALMOST A THIRD 
OF THEM DID NOT KNOW OR BELIEVE THIS HAD HAPPENED).
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COMMENTS: (U) SOURCE WAS OF ABOVE AVERAGE INTELLIGENCE AND WAS
VERY COOPERATIVE. [   (b)(7)(D)   ] ASSESSED THE IRAQI CHEMICAL 
DEFENSE TRAINING PROGRAM AS BEING VERY POOR. [   (b)(7)(D)   ]  
OPINED THAT IRAQI FORCES WOULD PROBABLY INCUR HEAVY LOSSES IN THE 
EVENT OF A CHEMICAL ATTACK BY EITHER THE ENEMY OR ITS OWN FORCES.
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//IPSP: (U) PGW2650//.
//COMSOBJ: (U) 111//.
ADMIN PROJ: (U)
INSTR: (U) US NO.
PREP: (U) [   (b)(6)   ]
ACQ: (U) SAUDI ARABIA (910303).
DISSEM: (U) FIELD: NONE.
WARNING: (U) REPORT CLASSIFIED
 



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