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070296_cia_73924_73924_01.txt
Subject: IRAQ BW PROGRAM
Not Finally Evaluated Intelligence
TO FACILITATE ELECTRONIC ACCESS, THIS DOCUMENT HAS BEEN
REFORMATTED TO ELIMINATE INFORMATION THAT DOES NOT PERTAIN
TO GULF WAR ILLNESS ISSUES OR THAT IS CLASSIFIED. A COPY OF
THIS REDACTED DOCUMENT, IN ORIGINAL FORMAT, IS AVAILABLE ON
REQUEST.
IRAQ'S BIOLOGICAL WARFARE PROGRAM:
SADDAM'S ACE IN THE HOLE
AN INTELLIGENCE ASSESSMENT
IRAQ'S BIOLOGICAL WARFARE PROGRAM:
SADDAM'S ACE IN THE HOLE
KEY JUDGMENTS
INFORMTION AVAILABLE
AS OF 8 AUGUST 1990
WAS USED IN THIS REPORT.
IRAQ'S ADVANCED AND AGGRESSIVE BIOLOGICAL WARFARE (BW) PROGRAM IS THE
MOST EXTENSIVE IN THE ARAB WORLD. THE BW PROGRAM IS AN INTEGRAL PART OF
IRAQ'S HIGH-PRIORITY DRIVE TO BECOME SELF-SUFFICIENT IN THE PRODUCTION OF
UNCONVENTIONAL WEAPONS AND BALLISTIC MISSILES.
WE BELIEVE THAT IRAQ HAS BEEN PRODUCING LARGE QUANTITIES OF THE
AGENTS ANTHRAX AND BOTULINUM TOXIN SINCE 1989. BY THE END OF 1990, THE
IRAQIS PROBABLY WILL HAVE DEPLOYED SIGNIFICANT NUMBERS OF BIOLOGICALLY FILLED
AERIAL BOMBS AND ARTILLERY ROCKETS. IRAQ WILL EVENTUALLY USE BW AGENTS TO
FILL WARHEADS FOR ITS INDIGENOUSLY PRODUCED SCUDS. THE IRAQIS VERY LIKELY
ARE DEVELOPING ADDITIONAL BW AGENTS-PROBABLY VIRUSES AND ADDITIONAL
TOXINS-BUT WE HAVE BEEN UNABLE TO DETERMINE WHICH ONES.
IRAQI OFFICIALS HAVE STATED THAT THE USE OF ANY WEAPON IS JUSTIFIED IN DEFENDING
THEIR TERRITORY. IRAQ, THE FIRST NATION TO USE NERVE AGENTS ON THE BATTLEFIELD,
PROBABLY WOULD NOT HESITATE TO USE BW AGENTS IN EXTREME SITUATIONS. GIVEN
THE POTENTIALLY GREATER THAN THOUSANDFOLD INCREASE IN LETHAL AREA CONTAMINA-
TION FOR CERTAIN BW AGENTS AS COMPARED WITH CW AGENTS, IRAQ PRESUMABLY
WOULD USE BW AGENTS IN EXTREME STITUATIONS, SUCH AS STRATEGIC RETALIATION FOR
NUCLEAR OR CHEMICAL ATTACKS AGAINST IRAQI POPULATION CENTERS.
WESTERN COMPANIES HAVE SUPPLIED THE
MAJORITY OF DUAL-USE EQUIPMENT AND TRAINING. HOWEVER, THE IRAQI PROGRAM
IS NOW SO FAR ADVANCED THAT LITTLE CAN BE DONE TO IMPEDE IT. MUCH OF THE
EQUIPMENT INVOLVED IS DUAL-USE BIOMEDICAL EQUIPMENT
AT LEAST FOUR FACILITIES ARE ASSOCIATED WITH THE IRAQI BW PROGRAM
IRAQ'S BIOLOGICAL WARFARE PROGRAM:
SADDAM'S ACE IN THE HOLE
INTRODUCTION
IRAQ'S AGGRESSIVE PURSUIT OF UNCONVENTIONAL WEAPONS-
CHEMICAL, BIOLOGICAL, AND NUCLEAR-AND THE MEANS TO
DELIVER THEM (SURFACE-TO-SURFACE MISSILES [SSMS)) UN-
DERSCORE OFFICIAL IRAQI STATEMENTS THAT JUSTIFY THE USE
OF ANY WEAPON TO DEFEND ITS TERRITORY. MOREOVER,
IRAQ'S USE OF CHEMICAL WEAPONS IN ITS WAR WITH IRAN
SHOWS THAT IRAQ IS PREPARED TO BACK RHETORIC WITH
ACTION-IRAQ WAS THE FIRST COUNTRY EVER TO USE NERVE
AGENTS ON THE BATTLEFIELDS
IRAQ'S EXPERTISE AND EXPERIENCE WITH CHEMICAL WEAP-
ONS ALMOST CERTAINLY HAVE REINFORCED ITS DESIRE TO
DEVELOP ADDITIONAL UNCONVENTIONAL WEAPONS. WE BE-
LIEVE IRAQ VIEWS ITS USE OF CHEMICAL WEAPONS AGAINST
IRAN AS A DECISIVE FACTOR IN THE OUTCOME OF THE WAR. IN
ADDITION, WE BELIEVE THE IRAQIS WERE PLEASED WITH THE
MINIMAL INTERNATIONAL RESPONSE TO ITS USE OF CHEMICAL
WEAPONS.
BIOLOGICAL WARFARE PROGRAM TRACED
BACK TO LATE 1970s
IRAQ EVIDENTLY BEGAN DEVELOPING ITS OFFENSIVE BW
CAPABILITY IN THE LATE 1970s, DESPITE HAVING SIGNED THE
1972 BIOLOGICAL AND TOXIN WEAPONS CONVENTION
HIGH-CONTAINMENT LABORATORIES
THE DESIGNATIONS P-1/BL-1 THROUGH P-4/BL-4 REFER TO
(P)ROTECTION OR (B)IOCONTAINMENT (L)EVEL, WITH LEVEL 4
BEING THE HIGHEST LEVEL OF PROTECTION OR CONTAINMENT.
BASICALLY, THESE LEVEL DESIGNATIONS REPRESENT THE NUM-
BER OF PHYSICAL BARRIERS THAT PREVENT AN ORGANISM
FROM ESCAPING TO THE OUTSIDE FROM THE LABORATORY. BY
INTERNATIONAL AGREEMENT. P-41/BL-4 IS REQUIRED FOR
WORK ON DANGEROUS AGENTS THAT POSE A HIGH RISK OF
LIFE-THREATENING DISEASE. HIGH-CONTAINMENT LABORATO-
RIES (P-4/BL-4) ARE COSTLY AND DIFFICULT TO MAINTAIN;
THERE ARE ONLY A HANDFUL OF THEM AROUND THE WORLD,
WITH THE MAJORITY CONDUCTING LEGITIMATE RESEARCH ON
HIGHLY CONTAGIOUS DISEASES
IT IS NOT NECESSARY
TO HAVE A HIGH-CONTAINMENT FACILITY FOR WORK ON BW
AGENTS. FOR EXAMPLE, PRODUCTION OF BOTULINUM TOXIN
AND ANTHRAX REQUIRES ONLY P-2/BL-2 LEVELS OF CONTAIN
MENT.
BW AGENTS UNDER DEVELOPMENT INCLUDE
BOTULINUM TOXIN AND ANTHRAX BACTERIA
IRAQ
HAS DEVELOPED BOTULINUM TOXIN AND ANTHRAX BACTERIA
AS BW AGENTS (SEE APPENDIX A). BOTULINUM TOXIN IS
NONPERSISTENT, DEGRADING RAPIDLY IN THE ENVIRONMENT.
ANTHRAX SPORES ARE VERY STABLE IN THE ENVIRONMENT AND
CAN BE CONSIDERED PERSISTENT BW AGENTS.
PRODUCTION OF CLOSTRIDIUM VACCINES
THE BACTERIUM CLOSTRIDIUM BOTULINUM IS THE CAUS-
ATIVE AGENT OF BOTULISM, A TYPE OF FOOD POISONING. THE
CLOSTRIDIUM FAMILY OF BACTERIA ALSO PRODUCES TETANUS
AND GAS GANGRENE.
THE FIRST STEP IN THE PRODUCTION OF CLOSTRIDIUM VAC-
CINES. SUCH AS TETANUS, IS TO PRODUCE LARGE QUANTITIES
OF THE TETANUS TOXIN. TO ACCOMPLISH THIS, LARGE QUAN-
TITIES OF CLOSTRIDIUM TETANI ARE GROWN IN FERMENTERS.
AS CELLS DIE AND BURST, THE TETANUS TOXIN IS RELEASED
INTO THE MATERIAL IN WHICH THEY ARE GROWING. THE NEXT
STEP IS TO PUT THE GROWTH MEDIUM-CONTAINING THE
TOXIN-INTO ANOTHER CONTAINER TO WHICH FORMALDEHYDE
IS ADDED. THE FORMALDEHYDE INACTIVATES THE TOXIN,
MAKING IT NONTOXIC BUT STILL CAPABLE OF PRODUCING AN
IMMUNE RESPONSE. (A TOXIN THAT IS INACTIVE BUT THAT
CAN STILL PRODUCE AN IMMUNE RESPONSE IS CALLED A
TOXOID OR AN ANATOXIN.) THE FORMALDEHYDE-TOXIN MIX-
TURE IS STIRRED, AND, AT VARIOUS INTERVALS, SAMPLES ARE
TAKEN OUT AND INJECTED INTO MICE. WHEN NO TOXIC
OBSERVED IN THE MICE, THE TOXIN IS CONSID-
INACTIVE AND READY FOR USE IN PRODUCING
VACCINE
WESTERN ASSISTANCE IN PROVIDING EQUIPMENT AND TRAIN-
ING HAS BEEN CRITICAL TO IRAQ'S EFFORTS TO DEVELOP AN
OFFENSIVE BW CAPABILITY
HAVE SUPPLIED BIOLOGICAL PRODUCTION
EQUIPMENT AN HAVE TRAINED IRAQIS IN THE USE OF THAT
EQUIPMENT. WE DO NOT BELIEVE THAT THESE FIRMS WERE
AWARE OF THE END USE OF THE TRAINING OR EQUIPMENT.
CURRENT STATUS OF THE BW PROGRAM
IRAQ PROBABLY BEGAN LARGE-SCALE PRODUC-
TION OF ANTHRAX AND BOTULINUM TOXIN IN 1989.
THAT SOME LIMITED
WEAPONIZATION PROBABLY HAS TAKEN PLACE ALREADY.
PRODUCTION
WE BELIEVE THERE ARE AT LEAST FOUR LOCATIONS IN IRAQ
INVOLVED IN THE PRODUCTION OF BW AGENTS: SALMAN PAK,
AT TAJI, ABU GHRAIB, AND AL LATIFIYAH
SALMAN PAK-R&D, PRODUCTION AND STORAGE.
WITH CURRENTLY AVAILABLE TECHNOLOGY,
PILOT-SCALE FERMENTERS OPERATED ON A CONTINUOUS BASIS
COULD PRODUCE ENOUGH TOXINS OR LIVING AGENTS EACH DAY
TO LETHALLY CONTAMINATE HUNDREDS OF SQUARE KILOME-
TERS.
IRAQ WAS BEGINNING TO PRODUCE
LARGE QUANTITIES OF BW AGENTS IN 1989.
WE JUDGE THAT THERE ARE NO MORE CW-RELATED ACTIVI-
TIES ONGOING AT SALMAN PAK AND THAT IT IS NOW ENTIRELY
DEVOTED TO BW.
THE CW R&D AND PRODUCTION EFFORTS THAT ONCE TOOK
PLACE AT SALMAN PAK CURRENTLY TAKE PLACE AT SAMARRA
AND HABANNIYAH.
ABU GHRAIB-BOTULINUM TOXIN PRODUCTION. ABU
GHRAIB, A FEW KILOMETERS WEST OF BAGHDAD,
AS THE LOCATION OF A BW AGENT
PRODUCTION FACILITY.
OPEN LITERATURE INDICATES THAT IRAQI VETERINARY AU-
THORITIES SIGNED A CONTRACT WITH AN          FIRM IN
1982 TO CONSTRUCT A CLOSTRIDIUM VACCINE PLANT NEAR
BAGHDAD
IRAQ A CRUDE OPERATIONAL BW
CAPABILITY DURING THE WAR.
ABU GHRAIB PLANT
THAT IT HAS BEEN USED TO PRODUCE
BOTULINUM TOXIN FROM CLOSTRIDIUM BOTULINUM.
AT TAJI-PILOT PRODUCTION. WE BELIEVE AT TAJI, IN THE
NORTHWESTERN SUBURBS OF BAGHDAD, IS A SITE OF PILOT-
SCALE BW PRODUCTION.
WEAPONIZATION
IRAQ HAS AVAILABLE A WIDE RANGE OF WEAPON SYSTEMS
THAT IT COULD POTENTIALLY USE TO DELIVER BW AGENTS. THE
WEAPONS RANGE FROM SIMPLE AERIAL BOMBS AND ARTILLERY
ROCKETS TO SURFACE-TO-SURFACE MISSILES (SSMs).
IRAQ MAY BE PLAN-
NING TO DEVELOP A BIOLOGICAL WARHEAD FOR ITS SSMs.
WE BELIEVE THAT, IF IRAQ DOES PLAN TO PUT BW AGENTS
INTO AN SSM, THE MOST LIKELY CHOICE WOULD AGAIN BE ITS
INDIGENOUSLY PRODUCED SCUDS, WHICH HAVE CLAIMED
RANGES OF 600 AND 900 KM
A SYSTEM THAT COULD BE USED IN THE FUTURE FOR BW
AGENT DELIVERY IS THE CONDOR II-AN SSM WITH A 750- 
TO 1,000-KM RANGE AND A PAYLOAD OF ABOUT 500 KG. 
THE CONDOR
HAS A SUBMUNITION WARHEAD. SUCH WARHEADS ARE WELL
SUITED FOR DISSEMINATING BW OR CW AGENTS.
POTENTIAL IRAQI USAGE
PAST IRAQI USE OF CHEMICAL WEAPONS AND STATEMENTS BY
IRAQI OFFICIALS JUSTIFYING THE USE OF ANY WEAPON TO
DEFEND THEIR COUNTRY SUGGEST THAT IRAQ WOULD CONSIDER
USING BIOLOGICAL WEAPONS UNDER CERTAIN EXTREME CIR-
CUMSTANCES.
SADDAM HUSAYN TOLD A DELEGA-
TION OF US SENATORS IN APRIL 1990 THAT IRAQ WOULD USE
CHEMICALS ONLY IN RETALIATION FOR AN UNCONVENTIONAL
ATTACK. IRAQ WILL TREAT BW SIMILARLY, IN OUR JUDGMENT,
AND PROBABLY WOULD SAVE ITS BIOLOGICAL WEAPONS AS A
RETALIATORY OPTION FOR UNCONVENTIONAL ATTACKS ON IRAQ.
GIVEN THE POTENTIALLY MORE THAN THOUSANDFOLD INCREASE
IN LETHAL AREA CONTAMINATION OF SOME BW AGENTS AS
COMPARED WITH CW AGENTS, IRAQ, IN OUR JUDGMENT,
PRIMARILY VIEWS BW AS PART OF ITS STRATEGIC ARSENAL, TO
BE USED AS A TERROR WEAPON AGAINST MILITARY AND
CIVILIAN TARGETS
IF IRAQ DECIDES TO USE UNCONVENTIONAL WEAPONS TO
ATTACK STRATEGIC TARGETS, IT MAY BE TEMPTED TO USE
BIOLOGICAL INSTEAD OF CHEMICAL WARHEADS BECAUSE OF
THE GREATER AREA COVERAGE PROVIDED BY BIOLOGICAL
WARHEADS. WE BELIEVE, HOWEVER, THAT IRAQ IS MORE
LIKELY TO HOLD ITS BIOLOGICAL WEAPONS IN RESERVE AS AN
ESCALATORY OPTION TO DETER ADDITIONAL STRIKES FROM ITS
OPPONENT OR TO LAUNCH ITS OWN RETALIATION. FOR EXAM-
PLE, ANTHRAX SPORES CAN CONTAMINATE SOIL FOR DECADES
AND MAY SERVE, IN IRAQ'S VIEW, AS RETALIATION IN KIND
FOR THE RADIATION THAT ACCOMPANIES A NUCLEAR ATTACK.
WE CANNOT RULE OUT THAT IRAQ MAY HAVE CONTINGENCY
PLANS TO USE BIOLOGICAL AGENTS COVERTLY,
BOTULINUM TOXIN
AND, TO A LESSER DEGREE, ANTHRAX BACTERIA LEND THEM-
SELVES TO COVERT DISSEMINATION BECAUSE EVEN SMALL
AMOUNTS PLACED IN WATER OR FOOD SUPPLIES ARE SUFFI-
CIENTLY TOXIC TO KILL LARGE NUMBERS OF PEOPLE. IRAQ ALSO
COULD COVERTLY USE SPRAY TANKS OR AEROSOL GENERATORS
PURCHASED FOR ITS CHEMICAL WARFARE PROGRAM TO CREATE
LARGE TOXIC CLOUDS OF BIOLOGICAL AGENTS UPWIND OF A
TARGET AREA.
OUTLOOK
BY THE END OF 1990, WE BELIEVE THAT IRAQ WILL HAVE
DEPLOYED A MILITARILY SIGNIFICANT NUMBER OF BIOLOGICAL-
LY FILLED BOMBS AND ARTILLERY ROCKETS. IN ADDITION, WE
BELIEVE THAT IRAQ WILL DEVELOP A BW WARHEAD FOR ITS
INDIGENOUSLY PRODUCED SCUD AND MAY HAVE ALREADY
DONE SO. WE JUDGE THAT THIS WEAPON COULD BE OPERA-
TIONALLY READY WITHIN THE NEXT FEW YEARS.
WE ALSO BELIEVE THAT IRAQ HAS BEEN DEVELOPING OTHER
BW AGENTS THAT WE HAVE NOT YET IDENTIFIED. LIKELY
CANDIDATES INCLUDE VIRUSES AND ADDITIONAL BACTERIA AND
TOXINS.
WE BELIEVE THAT IRAQ WILL CONTINUE TO PLACE EMPHASIS
ON ITS BW PROGRAM. SADDAM, IN HIS QUEST TO BE THE
LEADER OF THE ARAB WORLD, PROBABLY BELIEVES THAT HIS
BW PROGRAM PLACES HIM IN AN ELITE GROUP OF NATIONS;
HE HAS ALREADY STATED THAT HE IS THE THIRD LEADER TO
DEVELOP BINARY CHEMICAL WEAPONS. GIVEN THAT SADDAM
ALREADY HAS THE DUBIOUS DISTINCTION OF BEING THE FIRST
TO USE NERVE AGENTS ON THE BATTLEFIELD AND THAT HE
SUCCESSFULLY WEATHERED THE LIMITED INTERNATIONAL RE-
SPONSE TO THIS USE, HE PROBABLY HAS LITTLE FEAR OF THE
POLITICAL CONSEQUENCES OF USING BIOLOGICAL WEAPONS.
IRAQ'S AGGRESSIVE BW PROGRAM IS AN INTEGRAL PART OF
SADDAM'S HIGH-PRIORITY DRIVE TO DEVELOP AND PRODUCE
UNCONVENTIONAL WEAPONS AND BALLISTIC MISSILES. AND, AS
IS THE CASE FOR ITS NUCLEAR, CHEMICAL, AND MISSILE
PROGRAMS, THE ULTIMATE GOAL FOR IRAQ'S BW EFFORT IS TO
BECOME INDEPENDENT OF FOREIGN ASSISTANCE. IRAQ IS
ALREADY WELL ON THE WAY TOWARD THIS GOAL.
THE IRAQI BW PROGRAM WILL CONTINUE TO PROGRESS
APPENDIX
CHARACTERISTICS OF BOTULINUM TOXIN
AND ANTHRAX BACTERIA
BOTULINUM TOXIN
BOTULINUM TOXIN IS PRODUCED BY CLOSTRIDIUM BOTULI-
NUM. THIS BATERIUM GROWS ANAEROBICALLY, THAT IS,
WITHOUT THE PRESENCE OF OXYGEN. ALTHOUGH THERE
EIGHT DIFFERENT TYPES OF THE TOXIN, THE TOXIN MOST
STUDIED AND CHARACTERIZED IS BOTULINUM TOXIN A, ONE OF
THE MOST TOXIC SUBSTANCES KNOWN. ON THE BASIS OF DATA
REGARDING THE TOXICITY AND DISSEMINATION CHARACTERIS-
TICS OF THE TOXIN IN DRIED FORM, A MISSILE FILLED WITH
BOTULINUM WOULD LETHALLY CONTAMINATE AN AREA AT LEAST
16 TIMES LARGER THAN THE SAME MISSILE WARHEAD FILLED
WITH THE NERVE AGENT SARIN.
ACCORDING TO EXPERIMENTAL DATA ON LABORATORY ANIMALS
AND FROM CASES OF HUMAN EXPOSURE, BOTULINUM TOXIN A
IS ABOUT 300,000 TIMES MORE POTENT THAN THE NERVE
AGENT VX. (VX, A PERSISTENT NERVE AGENT, IS 10 TIMES
MORE POTENT THAN THE NONPERSISTENT NERVE AGENT SARIN.)
IN FACT, HUMANS SEEM TO BE MORE SENSITIVE TO BOTULI- 
NUM TOXIN THAN MOST OTHER SPECIES. EXPOSURE TO
BOTULINUM TOXIN USUALLY OCCURS WHEN FOOD CONTAINING
THE BACTERIUM IN INGESTED.
BY THE TIME BOTULINUM TOXIN SYMPTOMS
DEVELOP-ABOUT 12 HOURS AFTER AEROSOL EXPOSURE-
TREATMENT HAS LITTLE CHANCE OF SUCCESS.
BOTULINUM TOXIN AFFECTS THE NERVOUS SYSTEM. WHEN 
EXPOSURE TAKES PLACE THROUGH INGESTION, GASTROINTESTI-
NAL SYMPTOMS ARE OBSERVED BEFORE THE ONSET OF NEURO- 
LOGICAL SYMPTOMS. ONCE THESE SYSTEMS BEGIN, THEY
INCLUDE WEAKNESS, DIZZINESS, BLURRED OR DOUBLE VISION,
FIXED AND DILATED PUPILS, IMPAIRED REACTION TO LIGHT,
DROOPING EYELIDS, FACIAL MUSCLE WEAKNESS, AND SPEECH 
DIFFICULTIES. WHEN EXPOSURE TO BOTULINUM TAKES PLACE
THROUGH THE RESPIRATORY ROUTE, GASTROINTESTINAL SYMP-
TOMS ARE ABSENT.
BOTULINUM TOXIN WILL MOST LIKELY BE USED AS AN AEROSOL
FOR BW PURPOSES. ALTHOUGH THE TOXIN IS FAIRLY STABLE
FOR A YEAR WHEN STORED AT TEMPERATURES BELOW 27C,
EXPERIMENTAL STUDIES HAVE SHOWN THAT IT DECAYS FAIRLY
RAPIDLY-GENERALLY WITHIN AN HOUR-IN BRIGHT SUN-
LIGHT.
THERE ARE ANTISERA TO BOTULINUM TOXINS, BUT THEY ARE
EFFECTIVE ONLY IF ADMINISTERED BEFORE THE ONSET OF
SYMPTOMS.
CONVERSELY, IMMUNIZATION TO BOTULINUM IS POSSIBLE BUT
REQUIRES MULTIPLE INJECTIONS OF INACTIVATED TOXINS OVER
A PERIOD OF SEVERAL MONTHS. THUS; A COUNTRY THAT HAD
DEVELOPED BOTULINUM TOXIN AS A BW AGENT COULD
PROTECT ITS TROOPS FROM EXPOSURE TO THE TOXIN.
ANTHRAX
ANTHRAX IS PRODUCED BY THE BACTERIUM BACILLUS ANTH-
RACIS. UNLIKE BOTULINUM TOXIN, ANTHRAX SYMPTOMS
RESULT WHEN THE BACTERIA MULTIPLY IN THE BODY, PRODUC-
ING TOXINS. ALTHOUGH EACH BACTERIUM PRODUCES AND
RELEASES ONLY A SMALL QUANTITY OF ANTHRAX TOXIN AS IT
GROWS, AS THE BACTERIA MULTIPLY, MORE TOXIN IS PRO-
DUCED. ANTHRAX IS A LIVING BW AGENT, AND IT MUST
REPRODUCE IN THE BODY TO CAUSE AN EFFECT.
THERE ARE THREE FORMS OF ANTHRAX, CHARACTERIZED BY
THE MODE OF ENTRY INTO THE BODY: THROUGH CUTS IN THE
SKIN (CUTANEOUS), THROUGH INGESTION (GASTROINTESTINAL),
OR THROUGH INHALATION (PULMONARY). ANTHRAX IS A NATU-
RALLY OCCURRING DISEASE OF LIVESTOCK, AND HUMANS MOST
FREQUENTLY CONTRACT THE CUTANEOUS FORM OF THE DISEASE
WHEN THEY COME INTO CONTACT WITH INFECTED ANIMALS.
THE GASTROINTESTINAL FORM OF THE DISEASE RESULTS FROM
INGESTING CONTAMINATED MEAT. OF THESE THREE FORMS,
PULMONARY ANTHRAX IS FATAL NEARLY 100 PERCENT OF THE 
TIME. GASTROINTESTINAL ANTHRAX IS FATAL ABOUT 75 PER-
CENT OF THE TIME, AND CUTANEOUS ANTHRAX IS FATAL LESS 
THEN 10 PERCENT OF THE TIME AND ONLY IF UNTREATED. ALL 
FORMS OF THE DISEASE RESPOND WELL TO PENICILLIN IF THE
DRUG IS GIVEN SHORTLY AFTER THE ONSET OF SYMPTOMS. THE
DISEASE IS FAIRLY RARE, HOWEVER, AND OFTEN THE DIAGNOSIS
OF EITHER GASTROINTESTINAL OR PULMONARY ANTHRAX IS
MADE ONLY AFTER DEATH.
ANTHRAX WOULD MOST LIKELY BE USED AS AN AEROSOL
SUSPENSION OF SPORES FOR BW PURPOSES. AFTER ANTHRAX
SPORES ARE INHALED, THERE IS AN INCUBATION PERIOD OF ONE
TO FIVE DAYS BEFORE NONSPECIFIC SYMPTOMS-SUCH AS
FATIGUE AND MILD FEVER-APPEAR; AT THIS POINT THE
ILLNESS IS FREQUENTLY DIAGNOSED AS A RESPIRATORY INFEC- 
TION. THESE INITIAL SYMPTOMS USUALLY IMPROVE TWO TO
FOUR DAYS LATER, FOLLOWED BY THE SUDDEN DEVELOPMENT
OF RESPIRATORY DISTRESS. PULSE, TEMPERATURE, AND RESPI-
RATORY RATE BECOME ELEVATED, AND THE VICTIM BECOMES
CYANOTIC-BLUE-BLACK COLORED. DEATH USUALLY OCCURS
WITHIN 24 HOURS AFTER THE ONSET OF THE SECOND PHASE.
ANTHRAX SPORES ARE VERY HEARTY IN THE ENVIRONMENT
AND IN STORAGE; IT IS THIS SPECIALIZED FORM OF THE
BACTERIUM THAT INFECTS HUMANS. GROWING BACTERIA,
WHEN EXPOSED TO ADVERSE CONDITIONS-SUCH AS EXTREME
HEAT OR COLD-PRODUCE SPORES. THE SPORES, WHICH CAN
BE THOUGHT OF AS SEEDS, REMAIN IN AN INERT STATE UNTIL
THEY ENTER THE BODY AND ENCOUNTER CONDITIONS SUITABLE
FOR THEM TO BEGIN MULTIPLYING.
IN ADDITION, BECAUSE THE ONSET
OF SYMPTOMS OF PULMONARY ANTHRAX ARE SO NONSPECIFIC,
DIAGNOSIS IN TIME FOR SUCCESSFUL PENICILLIN TREATMENT
WOULD BE HIGHLY UNLIKELY. CONVERSELY EFFECTIVE VAC-
CINES TO ANTHRAX DO EXIST SO THAT A COUNTRY THAT HAD
DEVELOPED ANTHRAX AS A BW AGENT COULD PROTECT ITS
TROOPS
1.5 (C)
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