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062596_cia_73926_73926_01.txt
Subject: CBW PROGRAMS
Not Finally Evaluated Intelligence
TO FACILITATE ELECTRONIC ACCESS, THIS DOCUMENT HAS BEEN
REFORMATTED TO ELIMINATE INFORMATION THAT DOES NOT PERTAIN
TO GULF WAR ILLNESS ISSUES OR THAT IS CLASSIFIED. A COPY OF
THIS REDACTED DOCUMENT, IN ORIGINAL FORMAT, IS AVAILABLE ON
REQUEST.
DIRECTOR OF
CENTRAL
INTELLIGENCE
AN ASSESSMENT OF GLOBAL CONFIRMED
AND SUSPECT CHEMICAL AND BIOLOGICAL
WARFARE PROGRAMS
COMMITTEE INTELLIGENCE REPORT
DIRECTOR OF
CENTRAL
INTELLIGENCE
AN ASSESSMENT OF GLOBAL CONFIRMED
AND SUSPECT CHEMICAL AND BIOLOGICAL
WARFARE PROGRAMS
COMMITTEE INTELLIGENCE REPORT
IRAQ
PRIOR TO OPERATION DESERT STORM, IRAQ HAD THE MOST
EXTENSIVE OFFENSIVE CW PROGRAM AND THE LARGEST OVERALL AGENT
PRODUCTION CAPABILITY IN THE ARAB WORLD. ALLIED BOMBING DURING
DESERT STORM DESTROYED MUCH OF IRAQ'S CW AGENT AND PRECURSOR
PRODUCTION CAPABILITY.
BEGINNING IN 1983, IRAQ USED CHEMICAL WEAPONS EXTENSIVELY
--AND SUCCESSFULLY--IN ITS WAR WITH IRAN. EARLY USE OCCURRED
DURING DEFENSIVE OPERATIONS AND WAS CHARACTERIZED BY POOR
RESULTS. SUBSEQUENTLY, THE IRAQIS INTEGRATED CHEMICAL WEAPONS
INTO THEIR MILITARY TACTICS AND TURNED TO OFFENSIVE USE IN THE
FINAL YEAR OF THE WAR. DURING AND AFTER THE IRAN-IRAQ WAR, THE
IRAQIS RECEIVED CRITICAL TECHNOLOGY AND SUPPLIES.
SINCE THE MID-1980'S, IRAQ PURCHASED LARGE AMOUNTS OF
PRECUSORS
IRAQ
IRAQ MAINTAINED A MATURE AND AGGRESSIVE BW PROGRAM
PRIOR TO OPERATION DESERT STORM. ALL OF THE FACILITIES
SUSPECTED OF ASSOCIATION WITH IRAQ'S BIOLOGICAL WARFARE PROGRAM
WERE DESTROYED OR DAMAGED BY COALITION AIRSTRIKES.
US DEFINITIONS
CHEMICAL WARFARE (CW) IS THE USE OF TOXIC CHEMICALS TO
ACHIEVE A RESULT IN WARFARE. THE TOXIC EFFECT OF THE CHEMICAL
CAN BE TO INCAPACITATE, INJURE, OR KILL, AND IS USUALLY
INTENDED FOR USE AGAINST PERSONNEL. THE US DOES NOT CONSIDER
RIOT CONTROL AGENTS, HERBICIDES, SMOKES AND OBSCURANTS, FLAME,
AND INCENDIARIES TO BE CHEMICAL AGENTS. THIS DEFINITION IS
NOT SHARED BY EVERY OTHER COUNTRY.
BIOLOGICAL WARFARE (BW) IS THE USE OF BIOLOGICAL AGENTS TO
CAUSE DISEASE IN MEN, ANIMALS, OR PLANTS. BW MAY ALSO CAUSE
DETERIORATION OF MILITARY OR STRATEGIC MATERIEL. IN THIS
PAPER, TOXINS WILL BE TREATED TOGETHER WITH BIOLOGICAL AGENTS.
CHEMICAL WARFARE AGENTS AND FIELD EMPLOYMENT
A ROUGH RULE-OF-THUMB IS THAT ONE SHORT TON (OR ABOUT
FOUR 55-GALLON DRUMS) OF CW AGENT IS ENOUGH TO EFFECTIVELY
CONTAMINATE 2.6 SQUARE KILOMETERS OF TERRITORY IF PROPERLY
DISSEMINATED. THE NUMBER OF RESULTANT CASUALTIES DEPENDS ON
THE LENGTH OF WARNING AND DEGREE OF PROTECTION, AS WELL AS
THE PERSISTENCY AND LETHALITY OF THE AGENT USED. THE
PERSISTENCY OF A SPECIFIC AGENT VARIES DEPENDING ON THE TYPE
OF MUNITION USED AND THE WEATHER CONDITIONS. ANY OF THE
FOLLOWING AGENTS GIVEN IN NONLETHAL DOSES WILL PRODUCE VARY-
ING DEGREES OF INCAPACITATION.
BLISTER AGENTS
BLISTER AGENTS ARE USED PRIMARILY TO CAUSE MEDICAL
CASUALTIES. THESE AGENTS MAY ALSO BE USED TO RESTRICT USE
OF TERRAIN, TO SLOW MOVEMENTS, AND TO HAMPER USE OF MATERIALS
AND INSTALLATIONS. BLISTER AGENTS AFFECT THE EYES AND LUNGS
AND BLISTER THE SKIN. SULFUR MUSTARD, NITROGEN MUSTARD, AND
LEWISITE ARE EXAMPLES OF BLISTER AGENTS. MOST BLISTER AGENTS
ARE INSIDIOUS IN ACTION; THERE IS LITTLE OR NO PAIN AT THE
TIME OF EXPOSURE EXCEPT WITH LEWISITE, WHICH CAUSES IMMEDIATE
PAIN ON CONTACT.
MUSTARD IS PREFERRED OVER LEWISITE BECAUSE LEWISITE
HYDROLYZES VERY RAPIDLY UPON EXPOSURE TO ATMOSPHERIC MOISTURE
TO FORM A NONVOLATILE SOLID. THIS CONVERSION LOWERS THE VAPOR
HAZARD FROM CONTAMINATED TERRAIN AND DECREASES THE PENETRATION
OF THE AGENT THROUGH CLOTHING. LEWISITE IS LESS PERSISTENT
THAN MUSTARD; THE PERSISTENCY OF BOTH IS LIMITED UNDER HUMID
CONDITIONS.
BLOOD AGENTS
BLOOD AGENTS ARE ABSORSBED INTO THE BODY PRIMARILY BY
BREATHING. THEY PREVENT THE NORMAL UTILIZATION OF OXYGEN BY
THE CELLS AND CAUSE RAPID DAMAGE TO BODY TISSUES. BLOOD AGENTS
SUCH AS HYDROGEN CYANIDE (AC) AND CYANOGEN CHLORIDE (CK) ARE
HIGHLY VOLATILE AND, IN THE GASEOUS STATE, DISSIPATE RAPIDLY
IN AIR. BECAUSE OF THEIR HIGH VOLATILITY, THESE AGENTS ARE
MOST EFFECTIVE WHEN SURPRISE CAN BE ACHIEVED AGAINST TROOPS
WHO DO NOT HAVE MASKS OR WHO ARE POORLY TRAINED IN MASK
DISCIPLINE. IN ADDITION, BLOOD AGENTS ARE IDEALLY SUITED
FOR USE ON TERRAIN THAT THE USER HOPES TO OCCUPY WITHIN A
SHORT TIME.
CHOKING AGENTS
CHOKING AGENTS ARE THE OLDEST CW AGENTS. THIS CLASS OF
AGENTS INCLUDES CHLORINE AND PHOSGENE, BOTH OF WHICH WERE
USED IN WORLD WAR I. IN SUFFICIENT CONCENTRATIONS, THEIR
CORROSIVE EFFECT ON THE RESPIRATORY SYSTEM RESULTS IN PULMONARY
EDEMA, FILLING THE LUNGS WITH FLUID AND CHOKING THE VICTIM.
PHOSGENE IS A MORE DAMAGING AND EFFECTIVE INCAPACITANT THAN
CHLORINE BECAUSE IT IS SLOWLY HYDROLYZED BY THE WATER IN THE
LINING OF THE LUNGS, FORMING HYDROCHLORIC ACID, WHICH DESTROYS
THE TISSUE.
THESE AGENTS ARE HEAVY GASES THAT REMAIN, NEAR GROUND LEVEL
AND TEND TO FILL DEPRESSIONS SUCH AS FOXHOLES AND TRENCHES.
BECAUSE THEY ARE GASES, THEY ARE NONPERSISTENT AND DISSIPATE
RAPIDLY, EVEN IN A SLIGHT BREEZE. AS A RESULT, THESE ARE AMONG
THE LEAST EFFECTIVE TRADITIONAL CW AGENTS. THEY ARE USEFUL FOR
CREATING A. SHORT-TERM RESPIRATORY HAZARD ON TERRAIN THAT IS TO
BE QUICKLY OCCUPIED.
NERVE AGENTS
NERVE AGENTS SUCH AS TABUN (GA), SARIN (GB), AND VX ARE
MEMBERS OF A CLASS OF COMPOUNDS THAT ARE MORE LETHAL AND
QUICKER ACTING THAN MUSTARD. THEY ARE ORGANOPHOSPHORUS COM-
POUNDS THAT INHIBIT ACTION OF THE ENZYME CHOLINESTERASE. IN
SUFFICIENT CONCENTRATION, THE ULTIMATE EFFECT OF THESE AGENTS
IS PARALYSIS OF THE RESPIRATORY MUSCULATURE AND SUBSEQUENT
DEATH.
NERVE AGENTS ACT RAPIDLY (WITHIN SECONDS OF EXPOSURE) AND
MAY BE ABSORBED THROUGH THE SKIN OR THROUGH THE RESPIRATORY
TRACT. EXPOSURE TO A LETHAL DOSE MAY CAUSE DEATH IN LESS THAN
15 MINUTES. THESE AGENTS ARE STORED IN MUNITIONS AS LIQUIDS
AND ARE GENERALLY DISSEMINATED AS AEROSOLS.
TRADITIONAL NERVE AGENTS FALL INTO TWO MAIN CLASSES:
G-SERIES AND V-SERIES. THE G-SERIES CONSISTS OF GA, GB, GD,
GE, GF, AND A NUMBER OF SIMILAR EXPERIMENTAL AGENTS. THESE
AGENTS, PARTICULARLY GA AND GB, TEND TO BE LESS PERSISTENT
THAN THEIR V-SERIES COUNTERPARTS AND CONSEQUENTLY PRESENT LESS
OF A SKIN HAZARD. THESE LESS PERSISTENT AGENTS ARE USED TO
CAUSE IMMEDIATE CASUALTIES AND TO CREATE A SHORT-TERM
RESPIRATORY HAZARD ON THE BATTLEFIELD. THE MORE PERSISTENT
AND GENERALLY MORE TOXIC V-AGENTS--INCLUDING VE, VG, VM, VS,
VX, AND RELATED EXPERIMENTAL AGENTS--PRESENT A GREATER SKIN
HAZARD AND ARE USED TO CREATE LONG-TERM CONTAMINATION OF
TERRITORY.
PSYCHOCHEMICALS
PSYCHOCHEMICALS, ALSO CONSIDERED INCAPACITANTS, INCLUDE
HALLUCINOGENIC COMPOUNDS SUCH AS LYSERGIC ACID DIETHYLAMIDE
(LSD), 3-QUINUCLIDINYL BENZILATE (BZ), AND BENACTYZINE. THESE
AGENTS ALTER THE NERVOUS SYSTEM, THEREBY CAUSING VISUAL AND
AURAL HALLUCINATIONS, A SENSE OF UNREALITY, AND CHANGES IN THE
THOUGHT PROCESSES AND BEHAVIOR. PSYCHOCHEMICALS ARE GENERALLY
CHARACTERIZED BY A SLIGHTLY DELAYED ONSET OF SYMPTOMS AND BY
PERSISTENCE OF SYMPTOMS FOR A PERIOD GREATLY EXCEEDING EXPOSURE
TIME.
THE ADVANTAGE OF PSYCHOCHEMICALS IS THEIR ABILITY TO
INCAPACITATE BOTH CIVILIAN AND MILITARY PERSONNEL FOR A
RELATIVELY SHORT PERIOD WITH ESSENTIALLY NO FATALITIES. THUS,
THEIR USE MAY PROVE ADVANTAGEOUS IN AREAS WITH FRIENDLY POPU-
LATIONS. ONE DRAWBACK, HOWEVER, IS THAT THE EFFECTS OF MANY OF
THESE AGENTS ARE UNPREDICTABLE, RANGING FROM OVERWHELMING FEAR
AND PANIC TO BELLIGERENCE IN WHICH EXPOSED PERSONNEL ATTACK
WITH LITTLE REGARD FOR PERSONAL SAFETY.
TEAR-GAS AGENTS
TEAR-GAS AGENTS FALL UNDER THE BROADER CATEGORY OF RIOT-
CONTROL AGENTS. THEY ARE NOT CONSIDERED BY THE US GOVERNMENT
TO BE CW AGENTS BECAUSE THEY ARE NONLETHAL IN ALL BUT THE
HIGHEST CONCENTRATIONS. EXAMPLES OF THIS TYPE OF AGENT INCLUDE
ORTHOCHLOROBENZYLIDENE MALONONITRILE (CS), CHLOROACETOPHENONE
(CN), CHLOROPICRIN (PS), AND BROMOBENZYL CYANIDE (BBC). THESE
AGENTS ARE HIGHLY IRRITATING, PARTICULARLY TO THE EYES AND
RESPIRATORY TRACT, AND CAUSE EXTREME DISCOMFORT. SYMPTOMS
OCCUR IMMEDIATELY UPON EXPOSURE AND GENERALLY DISAPPEAR SHORTLY
THEREAFTER.
 IN MILITARY SITUATIONS, TEAR-GAS AGENTS ARE USED TO
TEMPORARILY REDUCE THE EFFECTIVENESS OF ENEMY PERSONNEL. IN
TACTICAL OPERATIONS, THEY CAN BE USED TO PENETRATE FORTIFIED
POSITIONS AND FLUSH OUT THE ENEMY. ALSO, THESE AGENTS ARE
USEFUL FOR DISRUPTING "HUMAN WAVE" ASSAULTS BY BREAKING .UP
FORMATIONS AND DESTROYING THE MOMENTUM OF THE ATTACK. BECAUSE
TEAR-GAS AGENTS ARE NONLETHAL, THEY CAN BE USED NEAR FRIENDLY
TROOPS WITHOUT RISKING CASUALTIES; THUS, THEIR USE IS MORE
FLEXIBLE THAN CONVENTIONAL CW AGENTS.
VOMITING AGENTS
VOMITING AGENTS ARE OFTEN CONSIDERED TO BE RIOT-CONTROL
AGENTS BECAUSE, UNDER FIELD CONDITIONS, THEY CAUSE GREAT
DISCOMFORT BUT RARELY SERIOUS INJURY OR DEATH. CHARACTERISTIC
AGENTS INCLUDE ADAMSITE (DX) AND DIPHENYL CHLOROARAINE (DA).
IN ADDITION TO CAUSING VOMITING, THESE ARSENIC-BASED AGENTS
MAY ALSO IRRITATE THE EYES AND RESPIRATORY SYSTEM.
THE ACTION OF VOMITING AGENTS MAY MAKE IT IMPOSSIBLE TO
PUT ON, OR CONTINUE TO WEAR, A PROTECTIVE MASK.
THEY MAY
ALSO BE USED BY THEMSELVES IN PROXIMITY TO FRIENDLY TROOPS AND
IN OTHER SITUATIONS WELL SUITED FOR TEAR GAS AGENTS.
CHARACTERISTICS OF BOTULINUM TOXIN AND ANTHRAX BACTERIA
BOTULINUM TOXIN
BOTULINUM TOXIN IS PRODUCED BY CLOSTRIDIUM BOTULINUM.
THIS BACTERIUM GROWS ANAEROBICALLY, THAT IS, WITHOUT THE
PRESENCE OF OXYGEN. THE TOXIN PRODUCES ITS EFFECTS WHEN IT
IS EITHER INGESTED OR INHALED. BOTULINUM TOXIN POISONING IS
ALMOST ALWAYS FATAL.
BOTULINUM TOXIN AFFECTS THE NERVOUS SYSTEM, WITH DEATH
RESULTING FROM PARALYSIS OF THE NERVES THAT CONTROL BREATHING.
WHEN EXPOSURE TAKES PLACE THROUGH INGESTION, GASTROINTESTINAL
SYMPTOMS ARE OBSERVED BEFORE THE ONSET OF NEUROLOGICAL
SYMPTOMS. ONCE THESE SYMPTOMS BEGIN, THEY INCLUDE WEAKNESS,
DIZZINESS, BLURRED OR DOUBLE VISION, FIXED AND DILATED PUPILS,
IMPAIRED REACTION TO LIGHT, DROOPING EYELIDS, FACIAL MUSCLE
WEAKNESS, AND SPEECH DIFFICULTIES. WHEN EXPOSURE TO BOTULINUM
TAKES PLACE THROUGH THE RESPIRATORY ROUTE, GASTROINTESTINAL
SYMPTOMS ARE ABSENT.
THERE ARE ANTISERA TO BOTULINUM TOXINS, BUT THEY ARE ONLY
EFFECTIVE IF ADMINISTERED BEFORE ONSET OF SYMPTONS.
IT IS HIGHLY UNLIKELY
THAT EXPOSURE TO BOTULINUM WOULD BE DIAGNOSED UNTIL CLINICAL
SYMPTOMS APPEARED, AND TREATMENT AT THAT TIME WOULD BE TOO
LATE. CONVERSELY, IMMUNIZATION TO BOULINUM IS POSSIBLE, BUT
REQUIRES MULTIPLE INJECTIONS OF INACTIVATED TOXINS OVER A
PERIOD OF SEVERAL MONTHS. THUS, A COUNTRY THAT HAD DEVELOPED
BOTULINUM TOXIN AS A BW AGENT COULD PROTECT ITS TROOPS FROM
EXPOSURE.
ANTHRAX
ANTHRAX IS PRODUCED BY THE BACTERIUM BACILLUS ANTHRACIS.
UNLIKE BOTULINUM TOXIN, ANTHRAX SYMPTOMS RESULT WHEN THE
BACTERIA MULTIPLY IN THE BODY, PRODUCING TOXINS. EACH BAC-
TERIUM PRODUCES AND RELEASES ONLY A SMALL AMOUNT OF ANTHRAX
TOXIN AS IT GROWS; HOWEVER, AS THE BACTERIA MULTIPLY, MORE
TOXIN IS PRODUCED. ANTHRAX IS CONSIDERED A LIVING BW AGENT
BECAUSE IT MUST REPRODUCE IN THE BODY TO CAUSE AN EFFECT.
THERE ARE THREE FORMS OF ANTHRAX, CHARACTERIZED BY THE MODE
OF ENTRY INTO THE BODY; THROUGH CUTS IN THE SKIN (CUTANEOUS),
THROUGH INGESTION (GASTROINTESTINAL), OR THROUGH INHALATION
(PULMONARY). ANTHRAX IS A NATURALLY-OCCURRING DISEASE IN LIVE-
STOCK. HUMANS MOST FREQUENTLY CONTRACT THE CUTANEOUS FORM OF
THE DISEASE WHEN THEY COME IN CONTACT WITH INFECTED ANIMALS.
THE GASTROINTESTINAL FORM OF THE DISEASE RESULTS FROM INGESTING
CONTAMINATED MEAT. OF THESE THREE FORMS, PULMONARY ANTHRAX IS
FATAL MORE THAN 90 PERCENT OF THE TIME AND OCCURS ONLY VERY
RARELY. GASTROINTESTINAL ANTHRAX IS FATAL ABOUT 75 PERCENT OF
THE TIME, AND CUTANEOUS ANTHRAX IS FATAL LESS THAN TEN PERCENT
OF THE TIME, AND THEN ONLY IF UNTREATED. ALL FORMS OF THE
DISEASE RESPOND WELL TO ANTIBIOTICS IF THE DRUG IS GIVEN
SHORTLY AFTER THE ONSET OF SYMPTOMS. THE DISEASE IS FAIRLY
UNCOMMON, HOWEVER, AND THE DIAGNOSIS OF EITHER GASTROINTESTINAL
OR PULMONARY ANTHRAX IS OFTEN MADE ONLY AFTER DEATH.
ANTHRAX WOULD MOST LIKELY BE USED AS AN AEROSOL SUSPENSION
OF SPORES FOR BW PURPOSES. AFTER ANTHRAX SPORES ARE INHALED,
THERE IS AN INCUBATION PERIOD FROM ONE TO SEVERAL DAYS BEFORE
NON-SPECIFIC SYMPTOMS--SUCH AS FATIGUE AND MILD FEVER--APPEAR.
AT THIS POINT, THE ILLNESS IS FREQUENTLY DIAGNOSED AS A RESPI-
RATORY INFECTION. THESE INITIAL SYMPTOMS USUALLY IMPROVE TWO
TO FOUR DAYS LATER, FOLLOWED BY A SUDDEN ONSET OF RESPIRATORY
DISTRESS. PULSE, TEMPERATURE, AND RESPIRATORY RATE BECOME
ELEVATED, AND THE VICTIM BECOMES CYANOTIC--BLUE-BLACK COLORED.
DEATH USUALLY OCCURS WITHIN 24 HOURS AFTER ONSET OF THE SECOND
PHASE OF SYMPTOMS.
ANTHRAX SPORES ARE VERY HARDY IN THE ENVIRONMENT AND IN
STORAGE. IT IS THIS SPECIALIZED FORM OF THE BACTERIUM THAT
INFECTS HUMANS. GROWING BACTERIA, WHEN EXPOSED TO ADVERSE
CONDITIONS--EXTREME HEAT OR COLD, LACK OF NUTRIENTS--PRODUCE
SPORES. THE SPORES, WHICH CAN BE THOUGHT OF AS SEEDS, REMAIN
IN AN INERT STATE UNTIL THEY ENTER THE BODY AND ENCOUNTER
CONDITIONS SUITABLE FOR THEM TO BEGIN MULTIPLYING.
1.5 (C)
73926:73926
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