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Weapons of Mass Destruction (WMD)

062596_cia_73925_68275_01.txt
Subject: IRAQ'S CBW CAPABILITY IN THE KTO
Not Finally Evaluated Intelligence
TO FACILITATE ELECTRONIC ACCESS, THIS DOCUMENT HAS BEEN
REFORMATTED TO ELIMINATE INFORMATION THAT DOES NOT PERTAIN
TO GULF WAR ILLNESS ISSUES OR THAT IS CLASSIFIED. A COPY OF
THIS REDACTED DOCUMENT, IN ORIGINAL FORMAT, IS AVAILABLE ON
REQUEST.
DIRECTOR OF
CENTRAL
INTELLIGENCE
CHEMICAL AND BIOLOGICAL WARFARE
IN THE KUWAIT THEATER OF OPERATIONS:
IRAQ'S CAPABILITY
COMMITTEE INTELLIGENCE REPORT
CONTENTS
                                                                                         PAGE
KEY  JUDGMENTS  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .           1
IRAQ'S CBW CAPABILITIES  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .     1
DELIVERY SYSTEMS  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .         4
TACTICS   . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .          7
LOGISTICS   . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .            8
PREPAREDNESS AND CURRENT DEPLOYMENT   . . . . . . . . . . .  11
LIKELIHOOD OF CW OR BW USE  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13
OUTLOOK   . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16
APPENDIX A: DEFINITIONS   . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  17
APPENDIX B: CHARACTERISTICS OF BOTULINUM TOXIN
AND ANTHRAX BACTERIA   . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18
APPENDIX C: CONVENTIONAL WEAPONS PRODUCING CHEMICAL
WARFARE AGENT-LIKE INJURIES   . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  21
APPENDIX D: CHEMICAL WARFARE AGENTS AND
FIELD EMPLOYMENT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22
APPENDIX E: REFERENCES ON CHEMICAL AGENTS
CHARACTERISTICS AND TREATMENT   . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26
KEY JUDGMENTS
IRAQ MAINTAINS THE MOST EXTENSIVE CHEMICAL AND BIOLOGICAL
WARFARE (CW AND BW) CAPABILITY IN THE THIRD WORLD. BAGHDAD'S
FORCES HAVE A RANGE OF CHEMICAL AGENTS AND DELIVERY MEANS, AS
WELL AS THE EXPERIENCE AND TRAINING NEEDED TO USE CHEMICAL
WEAPONS EFFECTIVELY. BIOLOGICAL WEAPONS HAVE ONLY BEEN
DEVELOPED RECENTLY.
IRAQ IS LIKELY TO USE CHEMICAL WEAPONS AS AN INTEGRAL PART
OF ITS TACTICAL OPERATIONS.
AT PRESENT, IRAQI FORCES IN THE KUWAIT THEATER OF
OPERATIONS (KTO) ARE IN A DEFENSIVE POSTURE.
THEY ARE NOT POSITIONED TO LAUNCH AN OFFENSIVE AGAINST ALLIED
FORCES IN SAUDI ARABIA SUPPORTED BY CHEMICAL WEAPONS. THIS
DEFENSIVE POSTURE DOES NOT PRECLUDE OR NEGATE A SHIFT TO AN
OFFENSIVE MODE OR THE USE OF CHEMICALS IN ATTACKS AGAINST
COALITION FORCES.
IRAQ CAN DELIVER CHEMICAL WEAPONS TO DEEPER TARGETS USING
EITHER AIRCRAFT OR BALLISTIC MISSILES. THE SUCCESS OF AIRCRAFT
ATTACKS IS DEPENDENT ON IRAQRS CAPABILITY TO PENETRATE AIR
DEFENSES.
IRAQ HAS SOME CHEMICAL WARHEADS FOR ITS BALLISTIC MISSILES,
BUT THEIR EFFECTIVENESS IS LIMITED BY POOR ACCURACY AND
RELATIVELY SMALL CHEMICAL PAYLOADS.
WE BELIEVE IRAQ HAS SOME BIOLOGICAL AGENT DELIVERY
CAPABILITY. THE USE OF BIOLOGICAL AGENTS BY IRAQ WOULD
PROBABLY BE FOR LARGE AREA COVERAGE IF SADDAM HUSAYN BELIEVES
HIS REGIME IS THREATENED. HOWEVER, THE USE OF BIOLOGICAL
AGENTS AGAINST MILITARY TARGETS (TO INCLUDE SHIPS) PRIOR TO THE
INITIATION OF HOSTILITIES CANNOT BE EXCLUDED. BIOLOGICAL
ATTACKS COULD BE LAUNCHED CLANDESTINELY.
IRAQ'S CBW CAPABILITIES
CHEMICAL AGENTS (SEE TABLE 1)
IRAQ'S CW AGENTS USED IN THE WAR WITH IRAN INCLUDE THE
PERSISTENT BLISTER AGENT MUSTARD, THE SEMIPERSISTENT NERVE
AGENTS TABUN (GA) AND GF, AND THE NONPERSISTENT NERVE AGENT
SARIN (GB). THE RIOT CONTROL AGENT CS WAS ALSO USED ON THE
BATTLEFIELD. AFTER THE WAR, IRAQ INVESTIGATED, AND MAY HAVE
TABLE 1
IRAQI CHEMICAL AGENTS
AGENT                                                        RELATIVE TYPE                         PERSISTENCE1
MUSTARD (HD)                                          VESICANT                                   PERSISTENT
SARIN (GB)                                                 NERVE                                        NONPERSISTENT
TABUN2 (GA)                                              NERVE                                        SEMIPERSISTENT
GF                                                               NERVE                                        SEMIPERSISTENT
DUSTY MUSTARD2,3                                VESICANT                                  NONPERSISTENT
VX                                                              NERVE                                       PERSISTENT
SOMAN (GD)                                             NERVE                                       SEMIPERSISTENT
BZ                                                              PSYCHOCHEMICAL                  PERSISTENT
1 RELATIVE PERSISTENCE IS AFFECTED BY A NUMBER OF FACTORS
INCLUDING TEMPERATURE, WIND SPEED, HUMIDITY, ENVIRONMENT 
AND TOPOGRAPHY.
2 TABUN WAS USED EXTENSIVELY IN THE WAR WITH IRAN, WHILE
DUSTY MUSTARD WAS USED          HOWEVER, THESE
AGENTS MAY NOT CURRENTLY BE  IN THE IRAQI ARSENAL.
3 DUSTY MUSTARD IS A DISSEMINATION MEANS, NOT A DIFFERENT
AGENT. THIS MATERIAL IS A CHEMICAL AGENT IMPREGNATED ON
A CARRIER  MATERIAL. THE PERSISTENCE OF DUSTY MUSTARD
DEPENDS ON THE CARRIER'S PHYSICAL CHARACTERISTICS, WHILE
ITS TOXICITY IS A RESULT OF THE MUSTARD AGENT ON THE DUST
SUBSEQUENTLY PRODUCED, LIMITED AMOUNTS OF THE PERSISTENT NERVE
AGENT VX. THE NERVE AGENT SOMAN (GD) AND THE PSYCHOCHEMICAL
BZ MAY ALSO BE UNDER DEVELOPMENT. IRAQ MAY HAVE AN INTEREST IN
CYANIDE AGENTS AND PHOSGENE OXIME, AND MAY ALSO HAVE INVESTI-
GATED OTHER AGENTS OR MODIFICATIONS TO THE ABOVE-NAMED
IRAQ HAS PRODUCED AN AGENT REFERRED TO AS DUSTY MUSTARD.
A DUSTY AGENT IS A CHEMICAL AGENT IMPREGNATED ON A CARRIER
MATERIAL, USUALLY A FINE DUST.
IN 1984-1985, IRAQ USED WEAPONS CONTAINING
A DUST IMPREGNATED WITH MUSTARD AGAINST IRAN. IRAQ HAS THE
TECHNOLOGY TO DEVELOP DUSTY FORMS OF NERVE AGENTS AND POSSIBLY
OTHER TOXIC MATERIALS,
BIOLOGICAL AGENTS
IRAQ HAS DEVELOPED ANTHRAX SPORES AND BOTULINUM TOXIN AS
AGENTS. WE JUDGE THAT THE IRAQIS ARE LIKELY INVESTIGATING A
RANGE OF OTHER TOXINS AND LIVE AGENTS. THE IRAQIS HAVE SHOWN
AN INTEREST IN DEVELOPING CLOSTRIDIUM PERFRINGENS, STAPHYLO-
COCCUS ENTEROTOXIN B (SEB), AND MYCOTOXINS,
DELIVERY SYSTEMS
CHEMICAL WEAPONS
IRAQ HAS A VARIETY OF CHEMICAL WEAPON DELIVERY SYSTEMS
AVAILABLE TO DELIVER CHEMICAL AGENTS. IRAQ USED SEVERAL MEANS
OF CHEMICAL DELIVERY IN THE WAR WITH IRAN: AERIAL BOMBS,
ARTILLERY AND MORTAR ROUNDS, MULTIPLE ROCKET LAUNCHERS (MRLS),
AND AIR-TO-SURFACE ROCKETS.
MISSILES
IRAQ HAS SOME CHEMICAL WARHEADS FOR SCUD B/MODIFIED SCUD B
SHORT-RANGE BALLISTIC MISSILES. DUE TO THE POOR ACCURACY AND
RELATIVELY SMALL CHEMICAL PAYLOADS OF THESE MISSILES, THEY HAVE
ONLY LIMITED EFFECTIVENESS AGAINST MILITARY POINT TARGETS.
HOWEVER, THEY COULD BE USED AS TERROR WEAPONS AGAINST CIVILIAN
POPULATION CENTERS.
BINARY WEAPONS
IN APRIL 1990, SADDAM HUSAYN ANNOUNCED THAT IRAQ HAD
BINARY CHEMICAL WEAPONS.          IRAQ HAS PRODUCED AT
LEAST SOME BINARY WEAPONS, MOST LIKELY CONTAINING THE NERVE
AGENTS SARIN AND GF.
TABLE 2
IRAQI CHEMICAL MUNITIONS AND DELIVERY SYSTEMS
ARTILLERY
155 MM
152 MM
130 MM
122 MM ROCKETS
MORTARS
82 MM
120 MM
AERIAL
250 KG BOMBS
500 KG BOMBS
CLUSTER BOMBS (REPORTED)
90 MM AIR-TO-GROUND ROCKETS HELICOPTERBORNE
MISSILES1
SCUD
AL-HUSAYN
AL-ABBAS
1          IRAQ HAS CHEMICAL WARHEADS FOR ITS
SCUD-TYPE MISSILES,
BIOLOGICAL WEAPONS
IRAQ HAS THE TECHNICAL CAPABILITY TO INCORPORATE ITS BW
AGENTS INTO A VARIETY OF WEAPONS.
CANDIDATE SYSTEMS INCLUDE CLUSTER AND AERIAL
BOMBS, MISSILE WARHEADS, AND SPRAY SYSTEMS. WE BELIEVE THAT
IRAQ PLANS TO DEVELOP A BIOLOGICAL WARHEAD FOR ITS SCUD-TYPE
MISSILES,
WE BELIEVE IRAQ HAS THE NECESSARY TECHNICAL EXPERTISE
TO PUT ITS BIOLOGICAL AGENTS INTO A MISSILE WARHEAD. THE
MISSILE'S POOR ACCURACY AND SMALL PAYLOAD LIMIT ITS EFFECT
TIVENESS FOR DELIVERING CHEMICAL AGENTS. CHEMICAL AGENTS, EVEN
UNDER OPTIMAL CONDITIONS, ARE SIGNIFICANTLY LESS EFFECTIVE THAN
AN EQUIVALENT AMOUNT OF BIOLOGICAL AGENT. FOR EXAMPLE, ONE
WARHEAD FILLED WITH ANTHRAX SPORES COULD LETHALLY CONTAMINATE
LARGE AREAS. EFFECTIVE DISSEMINATION OF SUCH AN AGENT WOULD
NOT EVEN BE NECESSARY IF IT WERE TO BE USED AS A TERROR
AGAINST A CIVILIAN POPULATION.
TACTICS
CHEMICAL
IRAQI FORCES MADE EFFECTIVE USE OF THEIR CHEMICAL SUPERI-
ORITY IN THE FINAL OFFENSIVES IN THE WAR WITH IRAN. THE
CAREFULLY REHEARSED IRAQI BATTLE PLANS FOR THE 1988 SPRING
AND SUMMER CAMPAIGNS CALLED FOR THE USE OF CHEMICALS AGAINST
SELECTED TARGETS. BY USING CHEMICALS AT ADVANTAGEOUS TIMES,
THE IRAQIS NEUTRALIZED FORWARD TARGETS USING NONPERSISTENT
NERVE AGENTS WHILE DEEPER TARGETS WERE ATTACKED WITH BOTH
PERSISTENT AND NONPERSISTENT AGENTS. SINCE IRAN HAD ONLY
LIMITED PROTECTION CAPABILITIES, THESE ATTACKS WERE OFTEN
EFFECTIVE. ALSO, THERE WAS NO CREDIBLE THREAT OF IRANIAN
RETALIATION WITH CHEMICAL WEAPONS.
PRIOR TO 1988, IRAQ'S OFFENSIVE USE OF CHEMICAL WEAPONS
AGAINST IRAN WAS INFREQUENT. ATTACKS DURING THIS PERIOD
WERE NOT AS EFFECTIVE AS THOSE LATER ON BECAUSE THE CHEMICAL
WEAPONS WERE USED DURING UNFAVORABLE CONDITIONS OR WERE
IMPROPERLY DELIVERED. CHEMICAL WEAPON EFFECTIVENESS PROBABLY
WAS LIMITED INITIALLY DUE TO IRAQI INEXPERIENCE. IT WAS ALSO
REDUCED BY HIGH LEVEL AUTHORITIES EXERCISING RESTRICTIVE
CONTROL OF THE WEAPONS. WHEN CHEMICAL ARTILLERY RELEASE
AUTHORITY WAS DELEGATED TO FIELD COMMANDERS LATER IN THE WAR,
THE EFFECTIVENESS OF CHEMICAL ATTACKS IMPROVED.
BIOLOGICAL
BIOLOGICAL AGENTS CAN BE USED AGAINST TACTICAL OR
STRATEGIC TARGETS.
PREPAREDNESS AND CURRENT DEPLOYMENT
GROUND
IRAQI FORCES IN THE KTO ARE CURRENTLY IN A DEFENSIVE
POSTURE. BAGHDAD'S FORCES ARE PREPARED TO USE GROUND-FORCE,
FIRE-SUPPORT WEAPONS WITH CHEMICAL FIRES
THIS DEFENSIVE POSTURE DOES NOT PRECLUDE
OR NEGATE A SHIFT TO AN OFFENSIVE MODE OR THE USE OF CHEMICALS
IN ATTACKS AGAINST COALITION FORCES. UNLESS US FORCES ARE
MOVED CLOSER TO THE KUWAIT-SAUDI ARABIA BORDER, CHEMICAL AGENT
DELIVERY WOULD BE LIMITED TO AIRCRAFT OR MISSILES.
LIKELIHOOD OF CW OR BW USE
AUTHORITY FOR THE USE OF CHEMICAL OR BIOLOGICAL WEAPONS
ALMOST CERTAINLY RESTS WITH SADDAM HUSAYN. HOWEVER, AS NOTED
EARLIER, DURING THE IRAN-IRAQ WAR, AUTHORITY FOR GROUND FORCE
EMPLOYMENT OF CHEMICAL WEAPONS WAS SUBSEQUENTLY DELEGATED TO
INDIVIDUAL CORPS COMMANDERS. THE REPUBLICAN GUARD FORCES
COMMAND (RGFC) WOULD PROBABLY BE THE FIRST CORPS LEVEL
ORGANIZATION TO RECEIVE THIS AUTHORITY. IT IS LIKELY THAT
CHEMICAL WEAPONS USE IS ALREADY INTEGRATED INTO RGFC
OPERATIONAL PLANS.
BEFORE INITIATING CHEMICAL OR BIOLOGICAL WARFARE OPERA-
TIONS, SADDAM AND HIS STAFF WILL LIKELY CONSIDER SEVERAL
FACTORS SUCH AS THE PREPAREDNESS OF OPPOSING FORCES,
UNCERTAINTY OF RESULTS, RELIABILITY OF SUPPLY, AND POSSIBLE
RETALIATION, SPECIFICALLY, THE FOLLOWING WILL ALMOST CERTAINLY
BE CONSIDERED:
DURING THE IRAN-IRAQ WAR, IRAQI AIRCRAFT WERE
GENERALLY UNCHALLENGED AND COULD DELIVER BOMBS TO
VIRTUALLY ANY TARGET. IN THE CURRENT SITUATION,
COALITION AIR DEFENSES AND AIR SUPERIORITY WOULD
MAKE DELIVERY BY IRAQI AIRCRAFT DIFFICULT AT BEST.
IRAQ COULD ATTACK DEEP TARGETS WITH MISSILES, BUT
SUCH ATTACKS WOULD BE OF QUESTIONABLE EFFECTIVENESS.
COALITION FORCES HAVE EFFECTIVE CHEMICAL PROTECTIVE
EQUIPMENT AND TRAINING WHEN COMPARED WITH THE
POORLY TRAINED AND EQUIPPED IRANIAN TROOPS.
THE GENERALLY POOR QUALITY OF CHEMICAL AGENTS IN
IRAQ'S ARSENAL MAY REDUCE THE RELIABILITY OF ITS
CHEMICAL ATTACKS. IRAQ IS TRYING TO IMPROVE AGENT
QUALITY BY INTRODUCING BINARY WEAPONS INTO ITS
INVENTORY.
THE UNITED STATES HAVE CHEMICAL
ARSENALS WHICH COULD ACT AS A DETERRENT.
OUTLOOK
IRAQ WILL ATTEMPT TO IMPROVE ITS CAPABILITY TO DELIVER
CHEMICAL AND BIOLOGICAL AGENTS. AS A RESULT OF IRAQ'S USE
OF CHEMICALS IN THE WAR WITH IRAN, THE IRAQIS RECOGNIZE THE
UTILITY OF CHEMICAL WEAPONS IN WAR AND HAVE CONFIDENCE IN
THEIR ABILITY TO USE THEIR CHEMICAL ARSENAL.
BASED ON THE DISPOSITION OF FORCES DURING THE AUGUST
THROUGH EARLY NOVEMBER 1990 PERIOD, IRAQ IS NOT CURRENTLY
POSITIONED TO LAUNCH AN OFFENSIVE SUPPORTED BY GROUND FORCE
CHEMICAL WEAPONS AGAINST COALITION FORCES
ITS FORCE DISPOSITION AND DEPLOYMENT WILL HAVE TO BE CHANGER
SIGNIFICANTLY TO SUPPORT SUCH A COURSE. THIS CHANGE COULD
OCCUR RAPIDLY.
WE BELIEVE THAT CHEMICAL ATTACKS USING AIRCRAFT AGAINST
DEEP TARGETS HAVE ONLY LIMITED CHANCES OF
SUCCESS AS LONG AS AIR DEFENSE SYSTEMS, PROTECTIVE TRAINING,
AND DISCIPLINE OF COALITION FORCES ARE MAINTAINED IN A HIGH
STATE OF READINESS.
APPENDIX A
DEFINITIONS
CHEMICAL WARFARE (CW) IS THE USE OF TOXIC CHEMICALS TO
ACHIEVE A RESULT IN WARFARE. THE TOXIC EFFECT OF THE CHEMICAL
CAN BE TO INCAPACITATE, INJURE, OR KILL, AND IS USUALLY
INTENDED FOR USE AGAINST PERSONNEL. THE US DOES NOT CONSIDER
RIOT CONTROL AGENTS, HERBICIDES, SMOKES AND OBSCURANTS, FLAME,
AND INCENDIARIES TO BE CHEMICAL AGENTS. THIS DEFINITION IS NOT
SHARED BY EVERY OTHER COUNTRY.
BIOLOGICAL WARFARE (BW) IS THE USE OF BIOLOGICAL AGENTS TO
CAUSE DISEASE IN MEN, ANIMALS, OR PLANTS. BW MAY ALSO CAUSE
DETERIORATION OF MILITARY OR STRATEGIC MATERIEL. IN THIS
PAPER, TOXINS WILL BE TREATED TOGETHER WITH BIOLOGICAL AGENTS.
APPENDIX B
CHARACTERISTICS OF BOTULINUM TOXIN AND ANTHRAX BACTERIA
BOTULINUM TOXIN
BOTULINUM TOXIN IS PRODUCED BY CLOSTRIDIUM BOTULINUM.
THIS BACTERIUM GROWS ANAEROBICALLY, THAT IS, WITHOUT THE
PRESENCE OF OXYGEN. THE TOXIN PRODUCES ITS EFFECTS WHEN IT
IS EITHER INGESTED OR INHALED. BOTULINUM TOXIN POISONING IS
ALMOST ALWAYS FATAL.
BOTULINUM TOXIN AFFECTS THE NERVOUS SYSTEM, WITH DEATH
RESULTING FROM PARALYSIS OF THE NERVES THAT CONTROL BREATHING.
WHEN EXPOSURE TAKES PLACE THROUGH INGESTION, GASTROINTESTINAL
SYMPTOMS ARE OBSERVED BEFORE THE ONSET OF NEUROLOGICAL
SYMPTOMS. ONCE THESE SYMPTOMS BEGIN, THEY INCLUDE WEAKNESS,
DIZZINESS, BLURRED OR DOUBLE VISION, FIXED AND DILATED PUPILS,
IMPAIRED REACTION TO LIGHT, DROOPING EYELIDS, FACIAL MUSCLE
WEAKNESS, AND SPEECH DIFFICULTIES. WHEN EXPOSURE TO BOTULINUM
TAKES PLACE THROUGH THE RESPIRATORY ROUTE, GASTROINTESTINAL
SYMPTOMS ARE ABSENT.
THERE ARE ANTISERA TO BOTULINUM TOXINS, BUT THEY ARE ONLY
EFFECTIVE IF ADMINISTERED BEFORE ONSET OF SYMPTOMS.
IT IS HIGHLY UNLIKELY
THAT EXPOSURE TO BOTULINUM WOULD BE DIAGNOSED UNTIL CLINICAL
SYMPTOMS APPEARED, AND TREATMENT AT THAT TIME WOULD BE TOO
LATE. CONVERSELY, IMMUNIZATION TO BOTULINUM IS POSSIBLE, BUT
REQUIRES MULTIPLE INJECTIONS OF INACTIVATED TOXINS OVER A
PERIOD OF SEVERAL MONTHS. THUS, A COUNTRY THAT HAD DEVELOPED
BOTULINUM TOXIN AS A BW AGENT COULD PROTECT ITS TROOPS FROM
EXPOSURE TO THE TOXIN.
ANTHRAX
ANTHRAX IS PRODUCED BY THE BACTERIUM BACILLUS ANTHRACIS.
UNLIKE BOTULINUM TOXIN, ANTHRAX SYMPTOMS RESULT WHEN THE
BACTERIA MULTIPLY IN THE BODY, PRODUCING TOXINS. EACH
BACTERIUM PRODUCES AND RELEASES ONLY A SMALL AMOUNT OF ANTHRAX
TOXIN AS IT GROWS; HOWEVER, AS THE BACTERIA MULTIPLY, MORE
TOXIN IS PRODUCED. ANTHRAX IS CONSIDERED A LIVING BW AGENT
BECAUSE IT MUST REPRODUCE IN THE BODY TO CAUSE AN EFFECT.
THERE ARE THREE FORMS OF ANTHRAX, CHARACTERIZED BY THE MODE
OF ENTRY INTO THE BODY: THROUGH CUTS IN THE SKIN (CUTANEOUS),
THROUGH INGESTION (GASTROINTESTINAL), OR THROUGH INHALATION
(PULMONARY). ANTHRAX IS A NATURALLY-OCCURRING DISEASE IN LIVE-
STOCK. HUMANS MOST FREQUENTLY CONTRACT THE CUTANEOUS FORM OF
THE DISEASE WHEN THEY COME IN CONTACT WITH INFECTED ANIMALS.
THE GASTROINTESTINAL FORM OF THE DISEASE RESULTS FROM INGESTING
CONTAMINATED MEAT. OF THESE THREE FORMS, PULMONARY ANTHRAX IS
FATAL MORE THAN 90 PERCENT OF THE TIME AND OCCURS ONLY VERY
RARELY. GASTROINTESTINAL ANTHRAX IS FATAL ABOUT 75 PERCENT OF
THE TIME, AND CUTANEOUS ANTHRA. FATAL LESS THAN TEN PERCENT
OF THE TIME, AND THEN ONLY IF UNTREATED. ALL FORMS OF THE
DISEASE RESPOND WELL TO ANTIBIOTICS IF THE DRUG IS GIVEN
SHORTLY AFTER THE ONSET OF SYMPTOMS. THE DISEASE IS FAIRLY
UNCOMMON, HOWEVER, AND THE DIAGNOSIS OF EITHER GASTROINTESTI-
NAL OR PULMONARY ANTHRAX IS OFTEN MADE ONLY AFTER DEATH.
ANTHRAX WOULD MOST LIKELY BE USED AS AN AEROSOL SUSPEN-
SION OF SPORES FOR BW PURPOSES. AFTER ANTHRAX SPORES ARE
INHALED, THERE IS AN INCUBATION PERIOD FROM ONE TO SEVERAL
DAYS BEFORE NON-SPECIFIC SYMPTOMS--SUCH AS FATIGUE AND MILD
FEVER--APPEAR. AT THIS POINT, THE ILLNESS IS FREQUENTLY
DIAGNOSED AS A RESPIRATORY INFECTION. THESE INITIAL SYMPTOMS
USUALLY IMPROVE TWO TO FOUR DAYS LATER, FOLLOWED BY A SUDDEN
ONSET OF RESPIRATORY DISTRESS. PULSE, TEMPERATURE, AND
RESPIRATORY RATE BECOME ELEVATED, AND THE VICTIM BECOMES
CYANOTIC--BLUE-BLACK COLORED. DEATH USUALLY OCCURS WITHIN 24
HOURS AFTER ONSET OF THE SECOND PHASE OF SYMPTOMS.
ANTHRAX SPORES ARE VERY HARDY IN THE ENVIRONMENT AND IN
STORAGE. IT IS THIS SPECIALIZED FORM OF THE BACTERIUM THAT
INFECTS HUMANS. GROWING BACTERIA, WHEN,EXPOSED TO ADVERSE
CONDITIONS--EXTREME HEAT OR COLD, LACK OF NUTRIENTS--PRODUCE
SPORES. THE SPORES, WHICH CAN BE THOUGHT OF AS SEEDS, REMAIN
IN AN INERT STATE UNTIL THEY ENTER THE BODY AND ENCOUNTER
CONDITIONS SUITABLE FOR THEM TO BEGIN MULTIPLYING.
APPENDIX C
CONVENTIONAL WEAPONS PRODUCING
CHEMICAL WARFARE AGENT-LIKE INJURIES
MANY CONVENTIONAL WEAPONS MAY PRODUCE CHEMICAL WARFARE
AGENT-LIKE INJURIES. EVEN OBSERVERS WHO ARE KNOWLEDGEABLE
OF THE EFFECTS OF CW AGENTS MAY MISTAKENLY USE THE EFFECTS
OF NONCHEMICAL WEAPONS TO REPORT CHEMICAL WEAPONS USE. THE
CONVENTIONAL WEAPONS MOST LIKELY TO PRODUCE CW-AGENT-LIKE
INJURIES INCLUDE FLAME (NAPALM), INCENDIARIES, OBSCURANTS,
SMOKES, RIOT-CONTROL AGENTS, FUEL-AIR EXPLOSIVES, AND SPECIAL
MILITARY EXPLOSIVE MIXTURES:
INCENDIARY WEAPONS CAUSE BURNS AND OTHER EFFECTS THAT
MAY BE CONFUSED WITH THE USE OF CW AGENTS. THEY MAY
ALSO PRODUCE FUMES THAT CAUSE TRUE, TOXIC CHEMICAL
INJURIES UNRELATED TO THE USE OF CHEMICAL WEAPONS. AN
UNUSUAL CASE FOR CONFUSING CONVENTIONAL AND CW-AGENT
INJURIES OCCURS WHEN THE USE OF INCENDIARIES RESULTS IN
DEATH BECAUSE OF A LACK OF OXYGEN. THESE CASUALTIES
APPEAR THE SAME AS THOSE WHOSE DEATH RESULTED FROM
RAPIDLY ACTING CW AGENTS SUCH AS BLOOD OR NERVE AGENTS.
RIOT-CONTROL AGENTS AND EXPLOSIVE CHEMICALS IN FUEL-AIR
MUNITIONS CAN CAUSE CHEMICAL BURNS TO THE SKIN (IF DOSES
ARE SUFFICIENTLY HIGH) SIMILAR TO THOSE PRODUCED BY
BLISTER AGENTS.
TACTICAL SMOKES AND RIOT-CONTROL AGENTS WILL CAUSE
SYMPTOMS SUCH AS NAUSEA, COUGHING, AND DIFFICULTY IN
BREATHING, ALL OF WHICH ARE OFTEN CONFUSED WITH THE
EFFECTS OF CW CHOKING AGENTS.
INJURIES AND DEATHS PRODUCED BY BLAST EFFECTS OF
FUEL-AIR EXPLOSIVES OFTEN ARE CONFUSED WITH THOSE CAUSED
BY NERVE AGENTS BECAUSE OF THE VIRTUAL ABSENCE OF
VISIBLE PHYSICAL DAMAGE. INJURIES OCCURRING WHEN A FUEL
AND DUST-AIR EXPLOSIVE FAILS TO DETONATE ARE TRUE
CHEMICAL INJURIES AND ARE NOT A RESULT OF CW AGENTS.
DIRECT CONTACT WITH THESE COMPOUNDS CAUSES IRRITATION,
SKIN CORROSION, BURNS, AND ALLERGIC REACTIONS, ALL OF
WHICH CAN BE CONFUSED WITH CHEMICAL WEAPON INJURIES.
PENETRATION OF THESE COMPOUNDS INTO THE SKIN OR
RESPIRATORY SYSTEM COULD LEAD TO TOXIC EFFECTS-IN THE
BODY. INJURIES FROM FUEL-AIR EXPLOSIVES CAN ALSO EASILY
BE MISIDENTIFIED AS BEING CAUSED BY CW AGENTS.
APPENDIX D
CHEMICAL WARFARE AGENTS AND FIELD EMPLOYMENT
IN GENERAL, THE AMOUNT OF CW AGENT DELIVERED DETERMINES
THE EXTENT OF CONTAMINATION AND THE NUMBER OF CASUALTIES. A
ROUGH RULE OF THUMB IS THAT ONE TON (OR ABOUT FOUR 55-GALLON
DRUMS) OF AGENT IS ENOUGH TO EFFECTIVELY CONTAMINATE ONE SQUARE
MILE OF TERRITORY IF PROPERLY DISSEMINATED. THE NUMBER OF
RESULTANT CASUALTIES DEPENDS ON THE NUMBER OF PEOPLE IN THE
CONTAMINATED AREA, LENGTH OF WARNING, DEGREE OF PROTECTION,
AND THE PERSISTENCY AND TOXICITY OF THE AGENT USED. THE PER-
SISTENCY OF A SPECIFIC AGENT (LENGTH OF TIME IT REMAINS
EFFECTIVE) VARIES, DEPENDING ON THE TYPE OF MUNITION USED AND
THE WEATHER CONDITIONS. FOR EXAMPLE, THE PERSISTENCY OF SARIN
UNDER HOT, WINDY CONDITIONS IS MUCH LESS THAN ONE HOUR. THE
PERSISTENCY OF MUSTARD OR VX MAY BE SEVERAL DAYS TO WEEKS UNDER
COOL, CALM CONDITIONS. IN ALL CASES, GIVEN SUBLETHAL DOSES OF
AN AGENT, INCAPACITATION WILL OCCUR TO VARYING DEGREES.
BLISTER AGENTS
BLISTER AGENTS ARE PRIMARILY USED TO CAUSE MEDICAL
CASUALTIES. THESE AGENTS MAY ALSO BE USED TO RESTRICT USE OF
TERRAIN, TO SLOW MOVEMENTS, AND TO HAMPER USE OF MATERIEL AND
INSTALLATIONS. BLISTER AGENTS AFFECT THE EYES AND LUNGS AND
BLISTER THE SKIN. SULFUR MUSTARD, NITROGEN MUSTARD, AND
LEWISITE ARE EXAMPLES OF BLISTER AGENTS. MOST BLISTER AGENTS
ARE INSIDIOUS IN ACTION; THERE IS LITTLE OR NO PAIN AT THE
TIME OF EXPOSURE EXCEPT WITH LEWISITE, WHICH CAUSES IMMEDIATE
PAIN ON CONTACT.
MUSTARD IS PREFERRED OVER LEWISITE BECAUSE LEWISITE
HYDROLYZES VERY RAPIDLY UPON EXPOSURE TO ATMOSPHERIC MOISTURE
TO FORM A NONVOLATILE SOLID. THIS CONVERSION LOWERS THE VAPOR
HAZARD FROM CONTAMINATED TERRAIN AND DECREASES THE PENETRATION
OF THE AGENT THROUGH CLOTHING. LEWISITE IS LESS PERSISTENT
THAN IS MUSTARD; HOWEVER, THE PERSISTENCY OF BOTH IS LIMITED
UNDER HUMID CONDITIONS.
BLOOD AGENTS
BLOOD AGENTS ARE ABSORBED INTO THE BODY PRIMARILY BY
BREATHING. THEY PREVENT THE NORMAL UTILIZATION OF OXYGEN BY
THE CELLS AND CAUSE RAPID DAMAGE TO BODY TISSUES. BLOOD AGENTS
SUCH AS HYDROGEN CYANIDE (AC) AND CYANOGEN CHLORIDE (CK) ARE
HIGHLY VOLATILE AND, IN THE GASEOUS STATE, DISSIPATE RAPIDLY
IN AIR--GENERALLY WITHIN MINUTES. BECAUSE OF THEIR HIGH
VOLATILITY, THESE AGENTS ARE MOST EFFECTIVE WHEN SURPRISE CAN
BE ACHIEVED AGAINST TROOPS WHO DO NOT HAVE MASKS OR WHO ARE
POORLY TRAINED IN MASK DISCIPLINE. IN ADDITION, BLOOD AGENTS
ARE IDEALLY SUITED FOR USE ON TERRAIN THAT THE USER HOPES TO
OCCUPY WITHIN A SHORT TIME.
CHOKING AGENTS
CHOKING AGENTS ARE THE OLDEST CW AGENTS. THIS CLASS OF
AGENTS INCLUDES CHLORINE AND PHOSGENE, BOTH OF WHICH WERE USED
IN WORLD WAR I. IN SUFFICIENT CONCENTRATIONS, THEIR CORROSIVE
EFFECT ON THE RESPIRATORY SYSTEM RESULTS IN  PULMONARY  EDEMA,
FILLING THE LUNGS WITH FLUID AND CHOKING THE VICTIM. PHOSGENE
IS MORE EFFECTIVE THAN CHLORINE BECAUSE IT IS SLOWLY HYDROLYZED
BY THE WATER IN THE LINING OF THE LUNGS, FORMING HYDROCHLORIC
ACID, WHICH READILY DESTROYS THE TISSUE.
THESE AGENTS ARE HEAVY GASES THAT REMAIN NEAR GROUND LEVEL
AND TEND TO FILL DEPRESSIONS SUCH AS FOXHOLES AND TRENCHES.
BECAUSE THEY ARE GASES, THEY ARE NONPERSISTENT AND DISSIPATE
RAPIDLY, EVEN IN A SLIGHT BREEZE. AS A RESULT, THESE ARE AMONG
THE LEAST EFFECTIVE TRADITIONAL CW AGENTS. THEY ARE USEFUL FOR
CREATING A SHORT-TERM RESPIRATORY HAZARD ON TERRAIN THAT IS TO
BE QUICKLY OCCUPIED.
NERVE AGENTS
 NERVE AGENTS, INCLUDING TABUN (GA), SARIN (GB), SOMAN (GD),
AND VX, ARE MEMBERS OF A CLASS OF COMPOUNDS THAT ARE MORE TOXIC
AND QUICKER ACTING THAN MUSTARD. THEY ARE ORGANOPHOSPHORUS
COMPOUNDS THAT INHIBIT ACTION OF THE ENZYME CHOLINESTERASE. IN
SUFFICIENT CONCENTRATION, THE ULTIMATE EFFECT OF THESE AGENTS
IS PARALYSIS OF THE RESPIRATORY MUSCULATURE AND SUBSEQUENT
DEATH.
NERVE AGENTS ACT RAPIDLY (WITHIN SECONDS OF EXPOSURE) AND
MAY BE ABSORBED THROUGH THE SKIN OR THROUGH THE RESPIRATORY
TRACT. EXPOSURE TO A LETHAL DOSE MAY CAUSE DEATH IN LESS THAN
15 MINUTES. THEY ARE STORED IN MUNITIONS AS LIQUIDS AND ARE
GENERALLY DISSEMINATED AS AEROSOLS.
TRADITIONAL NERVE AGENTS FALL INTO TWO MAIN CLASSES:
G-SERIES AND V-SERIES. THE G-SERIES CONSISTS OF GA, GB, GD,
GE, GF, GH, AND A NUMBER OF SIMILAR EXPERIMENTAL AGENTS. THESE
AGENTS, PARTICULARLY GA AND GB, TEND TO BE LESS PERSISTENT THAN
THEIR V-SERIES COUNTERPARTS AND CONSEQUENTLY PRESENT LESS OF A
SKIN HAZARD. THESE LESS PERSISTENT AGENTS ARE USED TO CAUSE
IMMEDIATE CASUALTIES AND TO CREATE A SHORT-TERM RESPIRATORY
HAZARD ON THE BATTLEFIELD. THE MORE PERSISTENT AND GENERALLY
MORE TOXIC V-AGENTS, INCLUDING VE, VG, VM, VS, VX, AND RELATED
EXPERIMENTAL AGENTS, PRESENT A GREATER SKIN HAZARD AND ARE USED
TO CREATE LONG-TERM CONTAMINATION OF TERRITORY.
PSYCHOCHEMICALS
PSYCHOCHEMICALS, ALSO CONSIDERED AS INCAPACITANTS, INCLUDE
HALLUCINOGENIC COMPOUNDS SUCH AS LYSERGIC ACID DIETHYLAMIDE
(LSD), 3-QUINUCLIDINYL BENZILATE (BZ), AND BENACTYZINE. THESE
AGENTS ALTER THE NERVOUS SYSTEM, THEREBY CAUSING VISUAL AND
AURAL HALLUCINATIONS, A SENSE OF UNREALITY, AND CHANGES IN THE
THOUGHT PROCESSES AND BEHAVIOR. PSYCHOCHEMICALS ARE GENERALLY
CHARACTERIZED BY A SLIGHTLY DELAYED ONSET OF SYMPTOMS AND BY
PERSISTENCE OF SYMPTOMS FOR A PERIOD GREATLY EXCEEDING EXPOSURE
TIME.
THE ADVANTAGE OF PSYCHOCHEMICAL IS THEIR ABILITY TO IN-
ACTIVATE BOTH CIVILIAN AND MILITARY PERSONNEL FOR A RELATIVELY
SHORT PERIOD WITH ESSENTIALLY NO FATALITIES. THUS, THEIR USE
MAY PROVE ADVANTAGEOUS IN AREAS WITH FRIENDLY POPULATIONS. ONE
DRAWBACK, HOWEVER, IS THAT THE EFFECTS OF MANY OF THESE AGENTS
ARE UNPREDICTABLE, RANGING FROM OVERWHELMING FEAR AND PANIC TO
EXTREME BELLIGERENCE IN WHICH EXPOSED PERSONNEL ATTACK WITH,
LITTLE REGARD FOR PERSONAL SAFETY.
TEAR GAS AGENTS
TEAR GAS AGENTS FALL UNDER THE BROADER CATEGORY OF RIOT
CONTROL AGENTS. THEY ARE NOT CONSIDERED BY THE US GOVERNMENT
TO BE CW AGENTS BECAUSE THEY ARE NONLETHAL IN ALL BUT THE
HIGHEST CONCENTRATIONS. EXAMPLES OF THIS TYPE OF AGENT INCLUDE
ORTHOCHLOROBENZYLIDENE MALONONITRILE (CS), CHLOROACETOPHENONE
(CN) , CHLOROPICRIN (PS) , AND BROMOBENZYL CYANIDE (BBC). THESE
AGENTS ARE HIGHLY IRRITATING, PARTICULARLY TO THE EYES AND
RESPIRATORY TRACT, AND CAUSE EXTREME DISCOMFORT. SYMPTOMS
OCCUR ALMOST IMMEDIATELY UPON EXPOSURE AND GENERALLY DISAPPEAR
SHORTLY AFTER EXPOSURE CEASES.
IN MILITARY SITUATIONS, TEAR GAS AGENTS ARE USED TO
TEMPORARILY REDUCE THE EFFECTIVENESS OF ENEMY PERSONNEL. IN
TACTICAL OPERATIONS, THEY CAN BE USED TO PENETRATE FORTIFIED
POSITIONS AND FLUSH OUT THE ENEMY. ALSO, THESE AGENTS ARE
USEFUL FOR DISRUPTING HUMAN WAVE ASSAULTS BY BREAKING UP
FORMATION AND DESTROYING THE MOMENTUM OF THE ATTACK. BECAUSE
TEAR GAS AGENTS ARE NONLETHAL, THEY CAN BE USED NEAR FRIENDLY
TROOPS WITHOUT RISKING CASUALTIES; THUS, THEIR USE IS MORE
FLEXIBLE THAN WITH CONVENTIONAL CW AGENTS.
VOMITING AGENTS
VOMITING AGENTS ARE OFTEN CONSIDERED TO BE RIOT CONTROL
AGENTS BECAUSE, UNDER FIELD CONDITIONS, THEY CAUSE GREAT
DISCOMFORT BUT RARELY SERIOUS INJURY OR DEATH. CHARACTERISTIC
AGENTS INCLUDE ADAMSITE (DM) AND DIPHENYL CHLOROARSINE (DA)
IN ADDITION TO CAUSING VOMITING, THESE ARSENIC-BASED AGENT MAY
ALSO IRRITATE THE EYES AND RESPIRATORY SYSTEM.
THE ACTION OF VOMITING AGENTS MAY MAKE IT IMPOSSIBLE TO PUT
ON, OR CONTINUE WEARING, A PROTECTIVE MASK.
THEY MAY ALSO BE
USED BY THEMSELVES IN PROXIMITY TO FRIENDLY TROOPS AND IN OTHER
SITUATIONS WELL-SUITED FOR TEAR GAS AGENTS.
1.5 (C)
73925:68275
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