The Largest Security-Cleared Career Network for Defense and Intelligence Jobs - JOIN NOW

Weapons of Mass Destruction (WMD)

cia_64821_61934_01.txt
Subject: IRAQI CW
Not Finally Evaluated Intelligence
TO FACILITATE ELECTRONIC ACCESS, THIS DOCUMENT HAS BEEN
REFORMATTED TO ELIMINATE INFORMATION THAT DOES NOT PERTAIN
TO GULF WAR ILLNESS ISSUES OR THAT IS CLASSIFIED. A COPY OF
THIS REDACTED DOCUMENT, IN ORIGINAL FORMAT, IS AVAILABLE ON
REQUEST.
SUMMARY: IRAQ'S CHEMICAL WARFARE PROGRAM--MORE
SELF-RELIANT, MORE DEADLY
IRAQ'S BATTLE-TESTED CHEMICAL WEAPONS CAPABILITY IS
THE LARGEST IN THE MIDDLE EAST. THE IRAQIS HAVE
BEEN SEEKING NEW AGENTS AND DELIVERY SYSTEMS AND
MAY SOON BECOME SELFSUFFICIENT IN THE MANUFACTURE
OF CHEMICAL WEAPONS.
IRAQ: FUEL-AIR EXPLOSIVE BOMBS--A THREAT TO INFANTRY
IRAQ IS KNOWN TO HAVE FUEL-AIR EXPLOSIVE (FAE)
BOMBS, WHICH CAN RESEMBLE CHEMICAL BOMBS IN
APPEARANCE AND OBSERVED EFFECTS. SUCH BOMBS ARE
CONSIDERED BY SOME NATIONS AS WEAPONS OF MASS
DESTRUCTION; IRAQ ALSO MAY HAVE FAE ROCKETS. FAE
BOMBS PRESENT A SIGNIFICANT THREAT TO FORCES IN THE
GULF REGION.
1. SUMMARY: IRAQ'S CHEMICAL WARFARE PROGRAM--MORE
SELF-RELIANT, MORE DEADLY
THE IRAQI CHEMICAL WARFARE (CW) PROGRAM, BY FAR THE LARGEST
IN THE THIRD WORLD, IS RAPIDLY  BECOMING  SELF-SUFFICIENT.  BY
1993 IRAQ WILL HAVE COMPLETED  SEVERAL  FACILITIES  THAT  WILL
SUPPLY  NEARLY  ALL  OF  THE  PRECURSOR  CHEMICALS  NEEDED  TO
SUPPORT  LARGE-SCALE  NERVE  AGENT   PRODUCTION   USING   RAW
MATERIALS ACQUIRED IN THE COUNTRY. WITH OPTIMUM USE OF THEIR
CW FACILITIES, THE IRAQIS MAY THEN BE ABLE TO ACHIEVE
COMBINED NERVE AND BLISTER AGENT PRODUCTION LEVELS OF ABOUT
4,000 TONS PER YEAR--TWICE THE 2,000 TONS PER YEAR THEY WERE
PRODUCING BY THE END OF THE IRAN-IRAQ WAR--WITHOUT HAVING TO
WORRY ABOUT FOREIGN EMBARGOES OF MOST ESSENTIAL PRECURSORS.
IN ADDITION, THE APPARENT INTEGRATION OF PESTICIDE PRODUCTION
INTO IRAQ'S CW INFRASTRUCTURE WILL LEND AN AIR OF LEGITIMACY
TO THE PROGRAM.          
SINCE THE CEASE-FIRE WITH IRAN, IRAQ HAS STRESSED DEVELOPMENT
OF ADVANCED CW AGENTS AND DELIVERY SYSTEMS. IT IS PURSUING
PERSISTENT NERVE AGENTS SUCH VX THAT ARE MUCH MORE TOXIC THAN
THE BLISTER AGENT  MUSTARD  AND  THE  NERVE  AGENT  SARIN--THE
PRINCIPAL AGENTS NOW IN IRAQ'S ARSENAL. IN ADDITION, IRAQ
PROBABLY IS DEVELOPING BINARY CHEMICAL WEAPONS WITH A LONGER
SHELF LIFE, ENABLING IT TO MAINTAIN A SIZABLE STOCKPILE.  IRAQ
ALSO IS SIMULTANEOUSLY  DEVELOPING  FIVE  TYPES  OF  SHORT-TO-
INTERMEDIATE-RANGE BALLISTIC MISSILES THAT MAY BE FITTED WITH
CHEMICAL WARHEADS. MISSILE-DELIVERED CW AGENTS WILL OFFER
IRAQ GREATER  STANDOFF  CAPABILITY  AND  DETERRENT  VALUE.  IN
CONCERT WITH DEVELOPING A MORE SOPHISTICATED CW STOCKPILE,
THE IRAQIS ARE MAINTAINING A WIDE RANGE OF BATTLEFIELD-PROVEN
DELIVERY OPTIONS,  INCLUDING  BOMBS,  SHELLS,  AND  ARTILLERY
ROCKETS.          
APPARENTLY  IRAQ  BELIEVES  IT  NEEDS  CHEMICAL  WEAPONS  FOR
DETERRENT  PURPOSES--PRIMARILY   AGAINST   ISRAEL'S   NUCLEAR
OPTION--AND AS A KEY WEAPON SUPPORTING ITS PROFESSED ROLE AS
MILITARY "PROTECTOR" OF THE ARAB WORLD. IN CONJUNCTION WITH
CW, IRAQ ALSO HAS AGGRESSIVE BIOLOGICAL WARFARE AND BALLISTIC
MISSILE DEVELOPMENT PROGRAMS IN WHICH SELF-SUFFICIENCY IS A
PRIMARY GOAL. THE HIGH PRIORITY ENJOYED BY THE CW PROGRAM
PROBABLY ALSO REFLECTS IRAQ'S PLEASURE WITH THE RESULTS OF
MASSIVE NERVE AGENT STRIKES AGAINST  IRANIAN  FORCES  IN  1988
AND SUBSEQUENT CW USE AGAINST KURDISH INSURGENTS. HOWEVER,
IRAQ] WILLINGNESS TO INITIATE USE OF CHEMICAL WEAPONS IN ANY
FUTURE CONFLICT UNDOUBTEDLY WILL BE TEMPERED IF ITS OPPONENTS
POSSESS CREDIBLE CW CAPABILITIES.          
THE IRAQI CW PROGRAM POSES A SERI   REAT TO US FORCES AND
INTERESTS IN THE MIDDLE EAST.
2. IRAQ: FUEL-AIR EXPLOSIVE BOMBS--A THREAT TO
INFANTRY         
IRAQ DISPLAYED 250- AND 500-KG FUEL-AIR EXPLOSIVE (FAE) BOMBS
DEPICTED A THIRD, 330-KG FAE BOMB THAT APPEARED TO BE A COPY
OF A SOVIET BOMB AND WAS NOTED TO BE  "USED  AGAINST  PRESSURE-
SENSITIVE TARGETS." IN OUTWARD APPEARANCE  THESE  LIQUID-FILLED
BOMBS MAY BE INDISTINGUISHABLE FROM CHEMICAL BOMBS. THE BOMBS
ARE IRAQI COPIES OF AN FAE BOMB
DEVELOPED IN SPAIN.
COMPONENTS FOR THESE BOMBS WERE PROVIDED  BY  SPAIN  TO  IRAQ
DURING THE IRAN-IRAQ WAR THROUGH EGYPT AND JORDAN.
FAE BOMBS ARE MANUFACTURED AT THE
QARAYAH AIRCRAFT MAINTENANCE AND REPAIR FACILITY IN IRAQ.
THE IRAQIS HAVE STATED THAT  THEY
BELIEVE THEIR FAE BOMBS ARE FIVE TIMES MORE EFFECTIVE THAN
ORDINARY BOMBS.          AN IRAQI AIR FORCE
ENGINEER STATED THAT THE BOMBS  WERE  EFFECTIVELY  USED  DURING
THE IRAN-IRAQ WAR.          
COMMENT:
IRAQ'S FAE BOMBS PRESENT A SIGNIFICANT THREAT TO FORCES
DEPLOYED IN THE GULF REGION.
FURTHERMORE, TROOPS FACING FAE
WEAPONS CAN TAKE NO PROTECTIVE  MEASURES  OTHER  THAN  TO  SEEK
REFUGE  IN  A  HERMETICALLY  SEALED  BLASTPROOF  CHAMBER.         
IRAQI USE OF FAE BOMBS COULD BE MISTAKEN FOR  CHEMICAL  AGENT
USE THROUGH OBSERVATION OF EITHER WOUNDLESS DEATHS OCCURRING
IN PROTECTED POSITIONS OR OF CHEMICAL  INJURIES,  RESPIRATORY
FAILURE, SKIN BLISTERING, AND/OR CIRCULATORY FAILURE CAUSED
BY THE UNEXPLODED COMPONENTS OF THE BOMB FILL.
IRAQ MAY ALSO HAVE FAE ROCKETS FOR SOME
MULTIPLE ROCKET LAUNCHERS (MRLS) SUCH AS THE  ARABEL  50--THE
IRAQI VERSION OF THE YUGOSLAVIAN ORKAN 262-MM MRL.  THE  ARABEL
50 CAN DELIVER 95-KG WARHEADS TO A RANGE OF 50 KM.
END OF MESSAGE
1.5 (c)
64821:61934
First Page |Prev Page |Next Page |Src Image




NEWSLETTER
Join the GlobalSecurity.org mailing list