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Weapons of Mass Destruction (WMD)



From the United Nations Assistance Mission for Iraq (UNAMI)

This document is provided as a service by UNAMI. The material is drawn from non-UN sources and does not reflect the opinions of the United Nations, nor can the UN vouch for its accuracy

Tuesday, 11 January 2005

 
HEADLINES
  
IRAQI NEWS

·         Allawi to announce security plan on 11 Jan
·         Right-hand-drive cars in Samarra said targeted by US patrols
·         Minister names Arab detainees held on terror charges
·         Iraqi sources deny Al-Sistani has favourite election list
·         Kurdish leaders visit Baghdad
·         Oil minister says no quick solution to fuel crisis
·         Iraqi, US troops close down five bridges in Mosul
·         Northern oil sector said "paralysed" after sabotage:
·         Suicide bomber kills three Iraqis at police station
·         Car bomb blast targets police in Ba'qubah
·         Iraqi forces arrest 150 insurgent suspects, seize weapons
IRAQI PRESS QUOTES ON TUESDAY, 11 JAN. 05
·         ``Iraqis have to learn a lesson from Palestinian elections'' Al-Sharq al-Awsat commentary
·         ``Iraq, an endless Marathon of crises''- Al-Bayan commentary
·         ``Iraqis, are they a violence-prone people?''- Al-Nahdhah commentary
·         ``Iraqis have not shown enough interest in getting together''- Al-Zaman commentary
IRAQI PRESS HEADLINES, 11 JAN. 05
·         Al-Zaman [Baghdad edition of London-based independent daily newspaper]
·         Al-Mada [Baghdad, political daily newspaper published by Al-Mada Corporation for Media, Culture and Art]:
IRAQI MEDIA PROGRAMME SUMMARIES, 10 JAN. 05
·         Al-Sahrqiyah TV news summary 10 Jan 05:
·         Al-Diyar TV news summary 10 Jan 05:
·         Al-Iraqiyah TV news summary 10 Jan 05:
UPDATES FROM IRAQI KURDISH PRESS, 10 - 11 JAN. 05
·         Kirkuk Election Only After Situation Normalization Not Before, Massoud Barzani Says:
·         Kurds Will Legally Void Next Constitution if Not Fair, Talabani Says
·         KDP Leader, Nechirvan Barzani Receive Iraq Planning Minister, Demand Fairness to Kurdistan
·         3 Kurds killed, 3 Kidnapped on Kirkuk-Tikrit Highway, Police says
·         Peshmarga, ING, US Troops Prepare Mosul Attack, Official Kurdish Says Mosul
·         Faiiz Al-Jirba to Replace Al-Yawar as Iraq President with Al-Sistani Blessing
·         Another 170,000 Kirkukis Retain Voting Right, Kirkuk Rep Says
·         3,000 Kurdish IDPs Escaping Haweeja Live Hard in Kirkuk
·         Briefly from Kurdistani Nwe daily issued by the PUK:
·         Briefly from Khabat, issued by the KDP:
·         Briefly From www.peyamner.com:

IRAQI NEWS

Allawi to announce security plan on 11 Jan

Prime Minister Iyad Allawi is to announce on 11 January a detailed security plan for the period preceding the election, Al-Sharqiyah TV reported on 10th. (Al-Sharqiyah, Baghdad, in Arabic, 10 Jan 05)

Right-hand-drive cars in Samarra said targeted by US patrols

US military patrols and members of the Iraqi National Guard have been arresting drivers of right-hand-drive cars in Samarra on suspicion of using the cars in suicide operations, (Al-Sharqiyah, Baghdad, in Arabic, 10 Jan 05)


Minister names Arab detainees held on terror charges

The government has revealed the names of 99 Arab and foreign detainees accused of carrying out armed attacks in Iraq, Al-Najaf News Network web site reported on 9 January. Human Rights Minister Bakhtiyar Amin said in a news conference that the majority of the foreign detainees are from Syria. The minister said the detainees are being held on charges of planning terrorist attacks and photographing military sites. Some of them admitted that they belong to Al-Qa'idah Organization, the web site said. The detainees include 26 Syrians, 12 Egyptians, 14 Iranians, four Palestinians, 14 Saudis, nine Sudanese, eight Jordanians, five Tunisians, and one each from Lebanon, Morocco, Afghanistan, and the West Bank, the web site added. (Al-Najaf News Network web site 9 Jan 2005)

Iraqi sources deny Al-Sistani has favourite election list

Sources close to religious authority Ayatollah Al-Sayyid Ali al-Sistani have denied reports that Al-Sistani has a favourite election list that he backs, saying the religious authority supports all lists, Iraqi Al-Diyar TV reported on 10 January. The sources said Al-Sistani supports the election process and would like to see all Iraqis participate in it. (Al-Diyar TV, Baghdad , in Arabic, 10 Jan 05)

Kurdish leaders visit Baghdad

Jalal Talabani, the secretary general of Patriotic Union of Kurdistan [PUK], and Nechirvan Barzani, head of Kurdistan Regional government in Arbil City, have begun a working visit to Baghdad, Al-Sharqiyah TV reported on 10 January. The two Kurdish leaders will meet Prime Minister Iyad Allawi and President Ghazi al-Yawar during their visit, the TV added. (Al-Sharqiyah, Baghdad, in Arabic, 10 Jan 05)


Oil minister says no quick solution to fuel crisis

: Iraqi Oil Minister Thamir al-Ghadban has said that the fuel shortage crisis will not be solved soon, Iraqi Al-Diyar TV reported on 10 January. He added that the shortage is likely to continue indefinitely given the current security environment. (Al-Diyar TV, Baghdad , in Arabic, 10 Jan 05)

Iraqi, US troops close down five bridges in Mosul

The Iraqi National Guard (ING)and US forces at dawn on 10 January closed down five bridges on the Tigris River, that link the city's two sides, Al-Sharqiyah TV's correspondent in the city reported. He said US forces set up checkpoints in the Al-Faysaliyah and Al-Jaza'ir areas, in the centre of the city, while ING members set up checkpoints in the areas Al-Hadba and Al-Arabi in the north, and Al-Muthanna and Al-Masarif in the centre. US forces cordoned off the industrial area, known as Wadi Aqab, west of the city, as well as the area of the Baghdad road in Mosul's al-Jadidah. He added that rapid intervention forces, commandos, were deployed in various parts of the city, and main markets appeared to be closed. The increased deployment came one week after the US army announced on 3 January that a new unit of US soldiers had arrived in the city to boost security ahead of 30 January elections. (Al-Sharqiyah, Baghdad, in Arabic 10 Jan 05)

Northern oil sector said "paralysed" after sabotage:

 Iraqi oil officials have said that acts of sabotage had paralysed activities in the oil sector in north Iraq, hindering the production of oil refineries and halting exports, Al-Sharqiyah TV reported on 10 January. (Al-Sharqiyah, Baghdad, in Arabic 10 Jan 05)


Suicide bomber kills three Iraqis at police station

A suicide car bomb exploded at a checkpoint outside a police station southeast of Baghdad, killing three people, Iraqi Al-Sharqiyah TV reported on 10 January.
An Iraqi police source said an unspecified number of policemen were wounded in a "big" explosion at a station in Baghdad's Al-Za'faraniyah area. A column of black smoke billowed over the area. (Al-Sharqiyah, Baghdad, in Arabic 10 Jan 05)

Car bomb blast targets police in Ba'qubah

A booby-trapped car was detonated in the centre of Ba'qubah, eastern Iraq, on 10 January, Al-Sharqiyah TV reported. A police source said the car went off near Al-Tahrir Bridge area near a police patrol which was in the area to investigate a tip-off about an explosive device planted there. The explosion was detonated by the driver who left the car near the bridge and fled towards the city's cemetery. None of the policemen were injured in the explosion. (Al-Sharqiyah, Baghdad, in Arabic 10 Jan 05)

Iraqi forces arrest 150 insurgent suspects, seize weapons

The Iraqi Security Forces have arrested some 150 suspects believed to be involved in armed operations, including a Saudi national, in various areas in Iraq over the past few days, Al-Sharqiyah TV reported on 10 January. The government said in a statement that 76 suspects were arrested and large quantities of light and heavy weapons and ammunition seized in Mansuriyat al-Jabal east of Ba'qubah, east of Iraq. Thirty-two persons were arrested in Al-Karaghul and Al-Sayyid Abdallah areas in Baghdad. Four terrorist suspects were arrested in Ninawa governorate, north of Iraq. One of them, Abdallah Husayn, who holds a Saudi nationality, was in possession of leaflets inciting insurgency. The forces arrested one person and confiscated a number of weapons in Al-Mashtal area, south of Baghdad. During a search campaign in Al-Mahmudiyah area, the forces discovered ammunition and weapons, including mortar shells, machine-guns, and RPG anti-armoured shells. (Al-Sharqiyah, Baghdad, in Arabic 10 Jan 05)


IRAQI PRESS QUOTES on Tuesday, 11 Jan. 05

``Iraqis have to learn a lesson from Palestinian elections'' Al-Sharq al-Awsat commentary

Al-Sharq al-Awsat [Baghdad edition of London-based daily Al-Sharq al-Awsat, Saudi-owned] [From commentary by Ahmad al-Rub'ii] 11 Jan 05: "Iraqis have a great lesson to learn from the recent Palestinian elections. Held in a peaceful democratic atmosphere, these elections have succeeded in dealing Israel the hardest blow ever. For one thing, from now on Israel will have to deal with an elected Palestinian leader, assuming power through civilized democratic means and thus, fully recognized by the world community, particularly and most crucially, by the United States. Though still under occupation, the Palestinians have managed to weaken, even to embarrass, their occupiers merely by conducting a truly democratic election. This is exactly what Iraqis need to do. Only through free democratic elections can they institute their own national assembly and put in place a legitimate government commanding enough respect to force the US to succumb to its demands, first and foremost of which is for the Americans to pull out of Iraq."

``Iraq, an endless Marathon of crises''- Al-Bayan commentary

Al-Bayan [Baghdad, daily newspaper in Arabic published by the Islamic Al-Da'wah Party] [From commentary by Salim Rasul]11 January 2005: "Having gone such a long way through this seemingly endless Marathon of crises we are running without the slightest hope of ever seeing the promised light at the end of the dark 'power and fuel' tunnel. Aren't we, common Iraqis, entitled, just for once, to a clear and honest explanation as to, granted that half of the problem is attributable to terrorist sabotage, why is it that so little reconstruction effort has gone into addressing the other half?"

``Iraqis, are they a violence-prone people?''- Al-Nahdhah commentary

Al-Nahdah [Baghdad, daily political newspaper,by Adnan al-Pachachi [From commentary by Dr Salim al-Wardi]11 January 2005: "When we describe Iraqis in general, ourselves included, as violence-prone people, it is not out of a desire to smear the cultural heritage of the Iraqi nation or discredit their enormous sacrifices that we feel impelled to do so. Far from it. It would not even have dawned on us to shed the slightest light on the issue were it not for the very tragic repercussions with which it has come to engulf our lives. This is a phenomenon that Iraqi political thought can no longer satisfy itself by blaming on external forces running the show from positions across our borders. Making the transition to a violence-free Iraq requires that we acknowledge the national roots of this ailment, reveal its causes, past and present, and be honest enough to face up to the task of seeking a way out of the vicious circle it is sucking us into."

``Iraqis have not shown enough interest in getting together''- Al-Zaman commentary

Al-Zaman [daily, independent, Baghdad edition of London-based Al-Zaman] [From commentary by Fatih Abd-al-Salam]11 January 2005: "It is a pathetic paradox that, while Iraq's neighbours have been so busy convening one conference after another to discuss the Iraqi issue, Iraqis themselves have not shown enough interest in getting together to discuss their own problems. Have we become so crippled as to be incapable of saying a word on vital issues crucial to our own destiny? Have we become so gullible as to think that our problems can be solved by others who are not as directly involved as we are?"


IRAQI PRESS HEADLINES, 11 Jan. 05
Al-Zaman [Baghdad edition of London-based independent daily newspaper]

¨        

Limited military operation to consolidate security in Mosul - bridges closed, National Guardsmen intensively deployed following air strikes on city periphery (AFP quoted)

¨        

Car bomb detonated in Ba'qubah,
¨         election office employee kidnapped in Qarah Tappah
¨         Two US soldiers killed, fuel tanker set ablaze in Dulu'iyyah Agricultural firm plundered, burned by unidentified assailants in Salah al-Din
¨         Al-Anbar governorate notables assert readiness to cooperate in maintaining security
¨         More British troops to be deployed in Iraq, says Hoon (AFP quoted)
¨         US embassy declares refusal to set time table for withdrawal (of US forces from Iraq), with association of Muslim scholars saying no official response (to their proposal) received (from embassy).

Al-Mada [Baghdad, political daily newspaper published by Al-Mada Corporation for Media, Culture and Art]:
¨        

Supported by photos and other evidence, Allawi discloses part of security file to the press: several key detained terrorists confess to ties to neighbouring states

¨        

Smuggled fuel being sold in broad daylight and under the government's very nose
¨         Iraqi Army to take part in safeguarding oil pipelines
¨         Senior Baghdad police officer gunned down with son.


IRAQI MEDIA PROGRAMME SUMMARIES, 10 Jan. 05

Al-Sahrqiyah TV news summary 10 Jan 05:
¨        

US forces name operation to pursue leaders of armed groups in Iraq the "El Salvador option"

¨        

Terrorist attacks paralyse oil production in Iraq; engineers repair generators to restore electricity to area between Kirkuk and Bayji. Video of burning oil wells
¨         Three oil engineers killed by unidentified armed men in Kirkuk this morning
¨         The five bridges over River Tigris in Mosul are closed following a night of US bombing .
¨         Two US soldiers killed in attack on their Abrams tank south of Baghdad
¨         Armed men kill deputy head of Baghdad police in Al-Dura area of the city ...
¨         US marine killed west of Iraq
¨         Four Iraqi police killed, 10 injured by car bomb attack on Al-Za'faraniyah police station in Baghdad
¨         Blair hints at extensive military operations in central Iraq this month
¨         US military patrols and Iraqi National Guard forces launch campaign against drivers of right-hand drive cars in suspicion of their involvement in terrorist attacks in Samarra
¨         Allawi praises Iraqi police achievements in visit to Baghdad police headquarters
¨         Car bomb explodes in Ba'qubah without causing any injury
¨         Higher education minister expresses great concern for the violence directed against intellectuals which causes a shortage of academics in universities
¨         Higher education minister prohibits the use of university campuses for propaganda and incitement purposes
¨         French ambassador in Iraq holds talks with Islamic leaders regarding the French hostage
¨         US diplomat announces US does not intend to commit to a date for leaving Iraq
¨         South Korean government investigates news that of two of its citizens have been kidnapped in Iraq.


Al-Diyar TV news summary 10 Jan 05:
¨        

Three policemen were killed and dozens of citizens were wounded in the explosion of a booby-trapped car in southern Baghdad; the deputy Baghdad police chief and his son were assassinated

¨        

Iraqi President Al-Yawir and the Iranian charge d'affaires discuss Iraqi-Iranian relations
¨         Prime Minister Allawi urges the Iraqis to participate in the election
¨         The deputy National Council speaker says the political entities have the right to send representatives to monitor the polls
¨         Sources close to Al-Sistani's office stress that Al-Sistani does not support a certain slate to the exclusion of others. They say Al-Sistani supports the electoral process in general and calls on the Iraqis to participate in it and render it successful
¨         American and Iraqi forces close the bridges in Mosul
¨         A car bomb targeted an American convoy in Al-Musayyab
¨         The undersecretary of justice says Iraq has 160 foreign detainees from 19 countries
¨         An Iranian official says Iraqi border guards are preventing visits by Iranians to Iraq
¨         The minister of state for women affairs stresses the important role of women in the society and urges women to participate in the election
¨         Report on a conference by an Iraqi women organization on the role of women in the election
¨         In a press conference on 9th the oil minister said the problem of fuel shortage in Iraq will not be solved soon
¨         The transport minister says a new plane has joined the Iraqi Airways fleet
¨         The minister of higher education says the ministry obtained a grant from the cabinet and will use it to develop universities and educational establishments
¨         Egyptian universities will accept Iraqi students in their post-graduate programmes based on a protocol of cooperation between the two countries
¨         Report on the shortage of some medicines in Iraqi public hospitals

Al-Iraqiyah TV news summary 10 Jan 05:

¨        

Prime Minister Iyad Allawi says several terrorist leaders arrested

¨        

Over 150 gangs held in custody says Allawi
¨         Death toll of Baghdad car bomb blasts rises to three
¨         Minister of the Interior Falah al-Naqib stresses role of tribes in maintaining security
¨         Basra police crack down on criminal activity
¨         Member of interim National Assembly Husayn al-Sadr says election civilised way of choosing people's representatives; He denies Shi'a marjiyah supports any political parties in election
¨         Independent Electoral Commission spokesman denies "rumours" about commission officials resignations
¨         Iraqis committed to voting in January polls despite security threat
¨         Election forum held for disabled voters
¨         Team from Muslim Ulema Association has asked US for timetable for withdrawal from Iraq--US embassy source. Association may encourage voting if its conditions are fulfilled--its spokesman
¨         Anti-riot police mount mock training in Sammawa
¨         Vice-President Ibrahim al-Ja'fari tells urges Iraqis to cast vote
¨         Photo gallery in Karbala marks day of police

Updates from Iraqi Kurdish Press, 10 - 11 Jan. 05

Kirkuk Election Only After Situation Normalization Not Before, Massoud Barzani Says:

Khabat daily issued by the KDP: in broad gathering with social dignitaries from Palani tribe (living around Erbil and in Makhmour area), the KDP leader Massoud Barzani highlighted the importance of the upcoming Iraqi and Kurdistani elections fort the Kurdish people and urged for active Kurdish participation. On Kirkuk, Barzani stressed once again that the election for a new municipal council for Kirkuk governorate should be done only after the normalization of the extraordinary situations that the former regimes created there.

Kurds Will Legally Void Next Constitution if Not Fair, Talabani Says

: Kurdistani Nwe daily issued by the PUK: the PUK leader Jalal Talabani told a large audience of male and female social dignitaries from Garmyan area on Sunday that Kurdistan people would retain their right to void the next Iraqi constitution through legal means if it did not guarantee all the rights of the Kurdish people. The leader praised Garmyan area people for their active role in the Kurdish revolutions against the previous tyrant regimes and said he was happy that the gathering also included genuine Arabs who have been living with the Kurds in area in peace throughout decades. The same day, Talabani met with a large number of high-ranking Kurdistan Peshmarga commanders and senior officials at KRG-Sulaymanya Peshmarga Affairs Ministry. The rights of the Kurdish people should be clearly established in the forthcoming Iraqi constitution, Talabani stressed during the meeting.

KDP Leader, Nechirvan Barzani Receive Iraq Planning Minister, Demand Fairness to Kurdistan

: Khabat daily issued by the KDP: the KDP leader Massoud Barzani received Monday the Iraqi federal minister for planning and development Mehdi Al-Hafiz, who was heading a senior technical delegation of his ministry. KRG-Erbil Prime Minister Nechirvan Barzani and other KRG ministers from both Erbil and Sulaymanya administrations had also met in Erbil with Al-Hafiz the day earlier. Both the Party leader and the PM demanded that Kurdistan Region should net be deprived from strategic [infrastructure] projects anymore and the imbalance in [geographic] distribution of the projects should end.

3 Kurds killed, 3 Kidnapped on Kirkuk-Tikrit Highway, Police says

: Kurdistani Nwe daily issued by the PUK: A commander of Kirkuk Police Department announced that unknown terrorists killed 3 Kurds and abducted another 3 citizens on Kirkuk-Tikrit road in two separate operations Sunday, in addition to throwing a hand grenade at Arafa police station in the city tat did not result in any casualties.

Peshmarga, ING, US Troops Prepare Mosul Attack, Official Kurdish Says Mosul

: www.peyamner.com <http://www.peyamner.com> More than 10,000 armed elements from Kurdish Peshmarga, Iraqi National Guards (ING) and US troops are indulged in serious preparations for attacking Mosul and clearing the city from insurgents, Emirate-based al-Khaleej newspaper quoted a Kurdish official, who reportedly spoke on condition of anonymity.

Faiiz Al-Jirba to Replace Al-Yawar as Iraq President with Al-Sistani Blessing

: www.peyamner.com <http://www.peyamner.com> According to www.Iraq4all.dk <http://www.Iraq4all.dk> website, sources close to the Shiite Alliance candidacy list announced that the major moderator s of the list have agreed to candidate Faiz Al-Jirba for Iraq presidency replacing his nephew Al-Yawar as Iraq President The same sources said that Shiite atom scientist Hussein Al-Shahristani has been nominated for the post of Prime Minister and that the US and Arab countries have played a major role in formalizing the agreement that is also blessed by Grand Ayatollah Ali Al-Sistani.

Another 170,000 Kirkukis Retain Voting Right, Kirkuk Rep Says

: www.peyamner.com <http://www.peyamner.com> A 4-member delegation representing Kirkuk Municipal Council (KMC), political parties in the governorate and the joint Kurdistani candidacy list visited Baghdad last week and met with the higher commissioner of the Independent electoral Commission for Iraq (IECI) Hussein Al-Hidawi on Kirkuk people's elections-related problems. After a series of meetings with the commissioner, it was decided to open 3 voting centers in Shwan, Qarahanjeer and Sargaran areas, in addition to providing voting coupons to the 170,000 Kirkuki citizens (including 145,000 Kurds) that were deprived or received erroneous ones between 15 and 20 of this month and allowing the Kirkuki IDPs that were registered in Erbil and Sulaymanya to vote in [and for] Kirkuk. KMC member Ahmed Askari confirmed that the Al-Hindawi promised to meet all the demands abut the IECI Kirkuk office has to receive conformation yet. Rizgar Ali, another KMC member confirmed the same information.

3,000 Kurdish IDPs Escaping Haweeja Live Hard in Kirkuk

: www.peyamner.com <http://www.peyamner.com> After the murder of 4 Kurdish youths in Haweeja town on 18 December 2004, more than 650 Kurdish families totaling about 3,000 persons escaped the town and are temporarily reside in Kirkuk in miserable situations. All the efforts of the KMC to resend the escapees to Haweeja went in vain due to the prevailing instability in the town due to continuous threats from terrorists controlling the town,

Briefly from Kurdistani Nwe daily issued by the PUK:

-        PUK Leader Talabani Heads To Baghdad To Address The Interin National Assembly On Wednesday

-        New Police Chief Appointed For Mosul As Terrorist Re-Arrange Their Ranks And Clash Wit The Police.
-        KRG-Sulaymanya Appoints Dr. Saeed Ali As New President For Sulaymanya University Replacing Late Dr. Kamal Khoshnaw.
-        New Mass Grave Of 12 Kurds Found Downtown Kirkuk In Suburb Of Arab Settlers As Police Arrests Heads of More Terrorist Networks Arrested
-        Talabani's Envoy Attends Burial Of Ainkawa Bishop.
-        Amman FM Meeting Communiqué Reiterates Iraq Transformation To A Pluralistic, Democrat And Federal State.
-        Kurdish Expatiates In Sweden Demand Activation Of TAL Article 58.
-        Iraqi Is Riskiest Place For Journalists, Agencies Say.

Briefly from Khabat, issued by the KDP:

-        KDP Leader Massoud Barzani And KRG-Erbil PM Receive Korea's Iraq Ambassador, Military Commander Monday

-        US Gen. Batest Visits Barzani, Expresses Commitment To Normalize Kirkuk Situation Before Elections
-        %86 Of Salahaddin University Students Will Vote In The Elections: Paper Poll
-        Leader Barzani Received A Delegation Of The US-Based National Democratic Institute (NDI) Sunday And Promises Support And Cooperation.
-        Kirkuk Is Not Ready For Elections Due To Iraqi Government Carelessness.
-        Kirkuk Elections Must Be Postponed, Arab Chieftain And KMC Member Says In An Interview.

Briefly From www.peyamner.com <http://www.peyamner.com>:

-        A Saudi terrorist arrested in Mosul with 3 others and explosives today, an Iraqi Army statement says.

-        KDP representation office in Zummar town north of Mosul attacked by gunmen and mortars Monday for the fifth time this year. No casualties and 20 suspects were arrested in relation to the incident.
-        KRG-Erbil will compensate the owners of the 512 houses that were damaged in Shorish quarter of Erbil city in September 2003 during an unsuccessful suicide car blast on a US office at that location. One civilian died in the attack and anther one was wounded in the attack. The compensation amount range between ID 45 to 150 million for each household according to the level of the damage.




***
NB: This is not an official document. The information contained therein was compiled by the United Nations Assistance Mission for Iraq, Information Office. If you have any questions/suggestions, please contact us at (+ 962 550 -4631/4632 or Cell. + 962 77 619 731 jarrar@un.org <mailto:jarrar@un.org> or alsokhni@un.org <mailto:alsokhni@un.org>



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