With the advent of military satellites capable of performing many roles, a need arose for systems for their detection and control. Such sophisticated systems were needed to identify foreign satellites, as well as provide accurate orbital parametric data for the use of FFP weapon systems. For this, the “Window” and “Krona” systems are used.
The Window system is a fully automated optical tracking station. Optical telescopes scan the night sky, while computer systems analyze the results and filter the stars based on the analysis and comparison of speeds, luminosity and trajectories. Then the satellite orbits are calculated, tracked and recorded. The “window” can detect and track satellites in orbit of the Earth at altitudes from 2000 to 40,000 kilometers. This, together with radar systems, has increased the ability to monitor outer space. Dniester-type radars were not able to track satellites in high geostationary orbits.
The development of the “Window” system began in the late 1960s. By the end of 1971, prototypes of optical systems intended for use in the Window complex were tested at the observatory in Armenia. Preliminary design work was completed in 1976. The construction of the Window system near the city of Nurek (Tajikistan) in the Khodzharki village area began in 1980. By mid-1992, the installation of electronic systems and parts of optical sensors was completed. Unfortunately, the civil war in Tajikistan interrupted these works. They resumed in 1994. The system passed operational tests at the end of 1999 and was put on combat alert in July 2002.
The main object of the Window system consists of ten telescopes covered by large folding domes. Telescopes are divided into two stations, with a detection complex containing six telescopes. Each station has its own control center. Also present is the eleventh smaller dome. In open sources, his role is not disclosed. Perhaps it contains some kind of measuring equipment used to assess atmospheric conditions before activating the system.
The construction of four “Window” complexes was envisaged in various places throughout the USSR and in friendly countries such as Cuba. In practice, the “Window” complex was implemented only in Nurek. There were also plans for the construction of support systems "Window-S" in Ukraine and the eastern part of Russia. In the end, work began only on the eastern "Window-S", which should be located in the Primorsky Territory.
Window-S is a high-altitude optical surveillance system. The Window-S complex is designed for monitoring at altitudes between 30,000 and 40,000 kilometers, which allows the detection and observation of geostationary satellites that are located over a wide area. Work at the Window-S complex began in the early 1980s. It is not known whether this system was completed and brought to combat readiness.
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