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Space


NAME on Cyrillic

Progress Machine-building Plant
named after D.F.Ustinov
(Progress Plant)

Samara Progress Plant
Contact Information
Address: 443009 Samara, Pskovskaya st.,18
Tel: +7 462 58-47-72
(8462) 58-47-72,
55-02-81, 58-49-33
Telex: 224869 ZALP, 214242 zalp [2]
Tetetype: 214204 ZALP
Fax: +7 462 27-12-91
+7 462 27-12-14 (8462) 58-46-11 [1], 27-12-91 [2]

JSC "RCC" Progress "occupies leading positions in the sphere of development, production and operation of middle-class carrier rockets both among Russian and foreign enterprises. The Progress Rocket and Space Center is a unique enterprise. The whole history is a way of creating completely new technology and continuous mastering of the most advanced technologies.

The enterprise originates from the Duks bicycle plant, established in Moscow in 1894 (the 100th anniversary was selebrated in December of 1994). Along with bicycles it mastered production of automobiles and propeller-driven sleds.In 1910s the Duks plant was converted into aircraft factory, producing airplanes and dirigibles. In 1920s it was renamed the Aviation Plant #1. In 1941, during the World War II, the Plant was evacuated from Moscow to Samara (then Kuibyshev).During the war the Plant produced Il-2 attack planes, afterwards - new MiG-9 and MiG-15 jet fighters and Il-28 and Tu-16 jet bombers.
When in late 1957 after successful demonstration of capabilities of the R-7 ICBM the issue of serial production of R-7 was raised, the Aviation Plant #1 (together with the adjacient Motor Plant #24) were picked for that purpose. In 8-10 months the Plant #1 was reconstructed, while the personnel underwent practical training at OKB-1 and Plant #88 in Moscow. As early as on 17 February 1959 the first series-produced R-7 was successfully launched from the Baykonur test range.
Later the Plant manufactured ICBMs and SLVs, developed by OKB-1 and later - by Branch #3 of OKB-1, collocated with the Plant (since 1974 - TsSKB).
With establishment of the Ministry of General Machine-building (MOM) in 1965 the Plant #1 was subordinated to the 3d Main Administration of MOM and renamed Progress plant. With dissolution of MOM in 1991 was temporarily included into Korat association. After breakup of USSR Progress Plant reported to Russian authorities. In 1994 it was subordinated to Russian Space Agency.
On April 12, 1996 Progress Plant was merged with TsSKB into the State Science and Production Rocket and Space Center (GNPRKTs "TsSKB-Progress") by the Edict of President Yeltsin [3]. "Progress" was a great talented and hardworking team. Direct involvement in the affairs of SP Korolev and work with the Korolev collective gave employees the importance in their own eyes, the power that sometimes slipped, but the modesty of simple producers prevailed. Even the dominant tonality of subordination was felt. Plant "Progress" made a good impression. the material was mastered. The plant can only be reproached for the slow development of production, the slow construction of structures, the experimental assemblies and units for testing, but this property is common for production. The customer-designer always had to see his work faster, and the plant had various difficulties. These are all life situations.

Starting in 1894 with the first serial production of bicycles in Russia, the Moscow plant "Dux" in the next 15 years radically changed its destiny and took up the most difficult task - the production of the first Russian aircraft and airships. By 1917 the enterprise was already one of the largest aircraft-building centers of tsarist Russia. "Dux" produced the famous aircraft "Newport", "Moran", "Farman", "Sopwich", as well as airships "Krechet", "Dux", "Hawk".

In the Soviet years, the State Aviation Plant No. 1 (formerly Duks) successfully mastered the production of numerous experimental and serial aircraft equipment: reconnaissance planes P-1, P-5; fighters I-1, I-3, I-5, I-15, I-153, MiG-3. On account of these aircraft, many world records on the speed and altitude of flight, gold medals of international aviation competitions, as well as participation in combat operations.

In autumn 1941, a new stage in the history of the development of the State Aviation Plant No. 1 began. It was evacuated from Moscow to Kuibyshev (now Samara), where the factory workers, in incredibly difficult conditions, established the production of IL-2 attack planes. The first of them took off in the sky in December 1941. During the Great Patriotic War the plant made a significant contribution to the Victory of the Soviet people over fascist Germany - every sixth aircraft that fought on the fronts of the Great Patriotic War was manufactured in the workshops of plant No. 1. In the post-war years, Aviation Plant No. 1 mastered the production of jet fighters MiG-9, MiG-15, MiG-17 and IL-28 and Tu-16 jet bombers.

On January 2, 1958, the Resolution of the Council of Ministers of the USSR on the organization of serial production of intercontinental ballistic missiles R-7 on the basis of the State Aviation Plant No. 1 in Kuibyshev was adopted. For this purpose, the chief designer of OKB-1 S.P. Korolev sent his deputy, D.I. Kuibyshev to Kuibyshev. Kozlova, who first organized the design department, and later the branch number 3 OKB-1 and became its leader. Aviation plant number 1 under the leadership of V.Ya. Litvinova, while continuing to produce Tu-16 aircraft, reconstructed production and mastered the production of R-7 ICBMs in the fourth quarter of 1958.

On February 17, 1959, the first launch of the R-7 ICBM manufactured in Kuibyshev took place. This confirmed the technical capabilities of the plant and the readiness to take on the armament of the Soviet Army intercontinental ballistic missiles. In 1959, the R-7 missile was sent to missile units and put on alert duty, and the plant was given the right to serial production of products ordered by the USSR Ministry of Defense. The country received a reliable nuclear shield in the troubled years of the Cold War.

The triumph of the rocket and space industry of the country was the first manned space flight in the world Yu.A. Gagarin. The first and second stages of the "Gagarin" missile were manufactured at the Kuibyshev plant "Progress". From 1961 to the present, all launches of domestic manned spacecraft are carried out by rocket-carriers of Samara production.

Since the early 1960s, the company has been developing and manufacturing various types of spacecraft: Zenit, Yantar, Resurs-F, Bion, Foton, Resurs-DK1, Resurs-P and others.

On the basis of the legendary R-7 (R7A) missile, three-stage medium-range missiles were developed: Vostok-2M, Voskhod and the legendary Soyuz. Significant modernization of the carrier rocket "Union" was subjected in 1973, received the name "Soyuz-U". Further modifications of the Soyuz-U carrier rocket are the Soyuz-FG, Soyuz-2-1a, Soyuz-2-1b, Soyuz-ST rockets (for the Guiana Space Center). A launch vehicle of light class "Soyuz-2-1v" was created. In 1962-1991 the enterprise participated in such large-scale space projects as the creation of the "lunar" complex H1-L3 and the reusable space system "Energia-Buran" and acquired a colossal design and production experience.

At present, the Soyuz-FG and Soyuz-2 launch vehicles are the base vehicles in the Russian launch vehicle system. They account for the bulk of launches of space vehicles in the framework of the Federal Space Program and international cooperation in the field of space. The confirmed indicator of the operational reliability of the Soyuz-FG carrier rockets is 0.985. This is the highest reliability index among missile technology in the world. In JSC "RCC" Progress "more than 12 modifications of middle-class launch vehicles and 29 types of space vehicles for various purposes have been developed and put into operation.

As of the beginning of 2018, JSC RCC Progress has carried out more than 1880 launches of launch vehicles, orbited about 1,000 spacecraft of its own production. JSC RCC Progress is the only company in the world launching launch vehicles from four cosmodromes: Baikonur, Plesetsk, Guiana Space Center and Russia's first civilian cosmodrome Vostochny.

Projects participated
From 1958 the Plant produced:

  • R-7, R-7A and R-9A ICBMs, designed by OKB-1 (some of series-produced R-7s and R-7As were delivered to the Plant #88 and refurbished for space launches with addition of appropriate third stages). After those went out of production (presumably in late 1960s) the Plant was completely occupied with production of space launchers. Launchers produced included:
  • all derivatives of the baseline R-7 rocket
    • 8A92M (Vostok-M),
    • 11A57 (Voskhod)
    • 11A511 (Soyuz) and all its derivatives,
    • 8K78 (Molniya) and 8K78M (Molniya M)
  • 11A52 (N-1) heavy launcher (late 1960s - early 1970s),
  • Energia heavy launcher (1980s)
Currently in production
  • Soyuz-U and Soyuz-U2 three-stage launchers
  • Molniya-M four-stage launcher
Future projects
  • Soyuz-2 universal launcher to replace Soyuz and Molniya. As of August 1995, delivery of the first flight-ready sample of Soyuz-2 was scheduled for 1997, with the launch in the 1st quarter of 1998. Until testing program is completed (no less than 10 launches, 3-4 per year) and serial production of Rus is established, Soyuz and Molniya will remain in production, expectedly by the year 2000 [4].
  • (there were mentions of plans for serial production of Energia-M, but this is not realistic, since the Government is not financing development of Energia-M).
Organizational Structure
Progress Plant includes:
  • main production shops;
  • auxiliary production shops;
  • services of senior specialists (Chief Engineer, etc.);
  • functional support, supply and maintenance services.
The plant also had the special assembly and testing complex at Baykonur Cosmodrome, which was deployed in 1960s for final integration of the N-1 launcher. In late 1970s the facility was refurbished to handle Energia launcher.It is not clear, whether this facility remains as a Branch of Progress Plant till now or has it been separated to become an independent entity, subordinate to RSA. Production capabilities
The Plant is capable of manufacturing of:
  • welded shells from aluminium alloys with wall thicknesses from 3 to 40 mm.
  • hydraulic and pneumatic equipment including cut-off valves with pneumatic and electric actuators and with nominal cross sections from 4 to 25 mm. Valves operate with a gas at tempartures from - 70 to +50 degrees C and under pressure of up to 200 atm.
  • elements from sheets and extruded profiles, including frames with complex assymetric cross- sections. Elements may by up to 315 mm in height, up to 200 mm in width and with wall thickness up to 40 mm.
  • sharply bent connecting pipes from steel or aluminium alloys with tube diameter from 20 to 100 mm, ratio between bending radius and inner tube diameter from 0.5 to 1.5 and the wall thickness of l.5mm.
  • sharply bent half-pipes made from pressed sheets of high-strength steel with subsequent calibration of the semi-finished product in a heated state.
  • Tubes made of steel and aluminium alloys with diameter from 8 to 40 mm, highly accurate bending radius, and smoothing of corrugations appearing on the external surfaces.
  • Spherical high-pressure tanks made of titanium alloys with volume from 3 to 100 liters, working pressure from 27 to 350 atm, operational temperature range from -253 to +50 degrees C, wall thickness from 1.5 to 7.2 mm.
  • Elements from composite materials.
  • Communications cables of various configurations with cross-sections from 0.03 to 13 mm and lengths up to 40 m[2].
Economic Status
Decline of state orders is illustrated by the annual launch rate of vehicles, produced by Progress over the last decade (see Chart).
Chart




As of December of 1994 debts on credits stood at 63 billions rubles and the Plant was listed as potential bankrupt [5]. Short and late payments from customers (Space Forces and particularly RSA) complicated situation and interaction with suppliers/subcontractors. According to [5], in late 1994 Progress had eight rockets without engines, which were not received from associated plants.
Employment: 28000-30000 (as of 1992-1993?); 8000 laid off (as of late 1994) [5].
At a peak time 5500-6000 people worked on production of Energia launcher.
Salaries: "as of early December of 1994 were paid for September" [5]
Membership/Shareholding
Progress is exempt from privatization in accordance with the Decree of the Government #802 of July 18, 1996 [6]. Progress is a member of Sovinformsputnik Interbranch Association, Kosmos Concern.
Production Cooperation Principal partners of Progress Plant are:
  • Energomash NPO for engines development and supervision
  • Frunze PO for engines manufacturing (1st and 2nd stages)
  • VMZ -"- (3d stage)
  • Lavochkin NPO for kick stages (Block L for Molniya, Fregat for Soyuz-2)
  • Khartron NPO (Ukraine) for guidance systems.


International cooperation
Launch vehicles, made by Progress, provided launching of many spacecraft developed under international cooperative agreements (Prognoz magnetosperic probes, Interkosmos-Bulgaria-1300 satellite, Prognoz-M2/Interball probes) as well as first commercial launches of foreign satellites (Indian IRS-1A, IRS-1B and IRS-1C in 1988, 1991 and 1995).
For current international project, involving Progress, see TsSKB entry.

Conversion / Diversification
Conversion products of Progress include:
  • disposable syringes (the plant is the largest syringe production facility in Russia and Europe);
  • automatic sausage machines;
  • furniture and household items
  • tank container with a volume of 23 m3 for transporting of various liquids, from flammables and toxics to food stuff. Production of railroad cars for electric trains was planned in 1993.


References

1. Russian Defense Business Directory - U.S.Department of Commerce.Sep 1993 p.1-112-113
2. Directory of Russian Space Industry 1994-1995 Ed. Peter Berlin - Sevig Press p.138-139.
3. Kommersant-DAILY 13 April 1996 p.2
4. Kommersant-DAILY 15 August 1995 p.10.
5. Trud 10 December 1994
6. Decree of the Government of the Russian Federation #802 of July 18, 1996 'About list of enterprises and organizations of defense complex, privatization of which is prohibited'/ Rossiyskaya Gazeta - 18 July 1996 - p.6.




Spaceborne Imaging Radar-C/X-band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SIR-C/X-SAR) - 01 October 1994.





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Page last modified: 09-07-2018 13:24:34 ZULU