Lunar Rocket Complex LRK
Development LRK began in OKB-1 in 1964 under the direction of S.P.Korolev, later the creation of the LRC was headed by V.P.Mishin. The Lunar Rocket Complex itself consisted of a lunar orbiter (LOK) with a complex orientation engine block (DLC) and an I rocket unit, a lunar vehicle (LK) for landing on the Moon's surface with an E missile unit, an accelerating rocket unit "G" and the brake rocket block "D".
It was created taking into account the experience of developing the manned spacecraft Soyuz and was practically a new ship. The leading designer was VE Bugrov. The ship consisted of a descent vehicle (CA), a household compartment (BO), a device-aggregate compartment (PAO), a complex orientation engine block (DLC), an I block and an energy compartment (EO).
The descent device (CA), 2.19 meters in length and 2.2 meters in diameter, is hermetically sealed and segmentally conical. He was the main place of work of the crew of two cosmonauts during the flight, which were supposed to start sitting in the chairs of Kazbek and fly in flight suits, without rescue suits. In the spacecraft were located the control panel of the ship's systems, the SZO, the on-board computer "S-530" with the automatic control system of the ship, the system: communications "Zarya-L3", "Luna-2R", "Luna-3 and 4" (closed communication channels) , "Rosa-L" water purification, "Granula-L" atmosphere cleaning, Alfa-3M dosimetry control, Mir-L3 telemetry, gas composition monitoring equipment of the Gas Analyzer ship, Efir-L medical equipment.
In the upper part of the SA was a sealed hatch for the transition of astronauts in the spacecraft of the ship. Outside, the CA is covered with a layer of heat shielding and screen-vacuum heat insulation. The bottom part of the CA was closed with a reinforced heat shield, which was dropped before the landing of the SA on Earth, at an altitude of several kilometers. On the lateral surface of the SA were gas engines of the Descent Control System (CMS) operating on hydrogen peroxide, and providing controlled descent of the SA in the Earth's atmosphere. The MIS consisted of 2 turbojet yaw controllers and 2 turbojet thrust controls for 7.5 kgs, as well as 4 thrust control thrust regulators of 15 kgf.
The household compartment (BO) was located ahead of the CA. It was intended for cosmonauts' rest, and was also used as a lock chamber for spacewalking with the goal of moving to LC and back to LOC. BO length of 2.26 meters and a maximum diameter of 2.3 meters was pear-shaped and consisted of two hemispheres of different diameters with an extension conical insert between them. The upper hemisphere had a diameter of 2.2 meters and was the same as that of the Soyuz spacecraft. The lower hemisphere had a diameter of 2.3 meters, since it housed a hatch with a larger diameter than the hatch on the Soyuz spacecraft. In total, there were two hermolyukes in the BW: the lower one for communication with the SA, and a side hatch with a diameter of 80 cm for the landing of the crew in the ship at the starting position, and also for the cosmonaut's escape to outer space.
In the BO housed a cabinet in which there were two spacesuits. Space suit "Orlan" was intended for the pilot of the LOC, the spacesuit "Krechet-94" - for the pilot of the LC. The suits were manufactured at the Zvezda Machine-Building Plant. In addition, there were supplies of food and water, cinematographic equipment and camera "S-7", Echo-L3 and Selena systems. Before the porthole, installed in a spherical blister, there was a control panel that allowed the pilot of the LOC to control the ship as it approached and docked with the LC. The BO housed a system of depressurization and pressurization of the compartment with a control panel, which allowed to manually adjust the atmospheric pressure in the BO. Outside, the antennas of the approach and docking system "Contact" were placed on the BO.
The Complex Orientation Engine Complex (DLC), weighing 800 kg and a length of 1.56 meters, was intended for orientation of the LRK at all stages of the flight up to the moment of launch from the lunar orbit to the Earth, and was located in the upper part of the BW. On the compartment in 4 blocks, 16 engines for the orientation of the L-3 (MLC) complex and 8 engines for docking and orientation of the LOK along the X axis (DPO-X) were installed. All engines were developed in the TMKB "Soyuz" (MAP) under the guidance of VG Stepanova. The engine of the MLC consisted of four pitch control engines and four yaw thrusters of 10 kgf (2 engines per block), and 8 thrust roll engines of 2.5 kgf (4 engines on two blocks). DPO-X engines with thrust of 20 kgf were placed on two other blocks (4 on each block). Inside the compartment of the MLC there were 6 spherical tanks with fuel.
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