Since 1993, work began on a system of a new generation, called "Liana." Originally it was to consist of four satellites of radar reconnaissance "Lotos-S", created in cooperation with the Moscow TsNIRTI, TsSKB "Progress" (Samara) and the St. Petersburg plant "Arsenal" (he also participated in the work on the ICRC). Satellites will fly in orbit in the altitude of about 1000 km. It is reported that even at this altitude the satellite locators have a much higher resolution than the MKRC devices and will be able to distinguish objects with a size of 1 m. Liana will work not only by sea but also by land, taking over also the functions of the Soviet system "Celina". Subsequently, "Liana" will be supplemented by satellites "Peony-NKS".
The design of the new RTR system was started in 1993 , the deadlines for system readiness were repeatedly transferred, both for financial reasons and in connection with the changes introduced by the customer into the project. So, in 1996, the developers were asked to adapt the satellites to the carrier rocket of the Soyuz series, instead of the originally planned Zenith rocket (created in the 1970s and 1980s in the USSR primarily for RTR satellites of the Tselina system), production Which remained in Ukraine. And in 2002 it was required to unify the projected spacecraft on a satellite platform with the satellites of the detailed photo reconnaissance "Cobalt-Resource".
As of the beginning of 2009 , the state defense order provided for the completion of the ground information and control complex of the system of marine space reconnaissance and target designation (Moscow region) to ensure the reception of information from the product 14F138. Not without the "first pancake". The first Lotus-S satellite was launched on November 20, 2009 , the satellite had a simplified configuration of target systems and, in accordance with the GUKOS index, was designated as 14F138. After the satellite was launched, it turned out that about half of the on-board systems did not function, which required the postponement of the launch of new satellites to a later date for the finalization of the equipment.
"The first satellite" Lotus-C "with the index 14F138 had a number of shortcomings. After being put into orbit, it turned out that almost half of the on-board systems do not function. That's why we demanded from the developers to bring the equipment to mind, "said the representative of the Space Forces, who are now included in the Aerospace Defense. As of September 2012, the problems with the first satellite, which consisted in the software underdevelopment of the spacecraft, were solved, and Lotus-S functioned normally. Specialists explained that all the satellite's shortcomings were associated with flaws in the software of the satellite. "Our programmers have completely reworked the software package and have already reflashed the first "Lotus". Now the military has no complaints against him, "the Ministry of Defense said.
December 25, 2014 from the cosmodrome Plesetsk was successfully launched the second spacecraft Lotus-C No. 2.
The Lotus-S has one important capability that its US-A predecessor didn't: the ability to listen in on communications sent by enemy ships and vehicles, including communications using closed channels. This is possible thanks to the satellite's highly sensitive equipment, along its onboard signal-processing equipment.
The Ministry of Defense bought the satellite-scout "Lotus-M" at the forum "Army-2017". This is reported to TASS correspondent from the signing ceremony 24 August 2017. The deputy minister of defense of the Russian Federation, Yury Borisov, and Alexander Ustinov, general director of the open joint-stock company Arsenal Engineering Plant, signed the agreement on the manufacturing and supply of the spacecraft. Spacecraft "Lotus-M" should provide additional opportunities for the Space Forces of the Russian Federation.
According to the data posted on the Arsenal design bureau’s website, as of 2017 the company was assembling two types of satellites: the Lotos-S and the Pion-NKS. The first type of the satellites was designed to determine the coordinates of radio-technical means of ground-based facilities and exercise control in various radiofrequency bands of the ionosphere and in the near-Earth space. The second type was designed for radar and radio-technical surveillance of ground objectives and control in various radiofrequency bands in the ionosphere and in the near-Earth space.
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