1991 - Burlak
Starting in 1991, the ICB "Raduga" and ANTK imeni Tupolev conducted the development of aviation-space complex "Burlak". To launch a two-stage Burlak LV with a mass 32 tons and a length of 22m. a converted heavy bomber Tu-160SK is being used. The rocket starts from the carrier at an altitude of 9-11 km. or 12-13km. with a sufficiently high the initial speed M = 0.8 or M = 1.7 (depending on the height of the start). These conditions provide the output in orbit height of 200-1000 km. cargoes weighing 600-800kg. (polar-orbit) or 840 - 1100kg. (equatorial orbits). After using the 1st The stage was descended on a parachute and reused, the second stage was burned in atmosphere. The launch radius of the spacecraft was 5000 km. from the aerodrome of basing. Putting the system into operation was planned for 1998-2000.
Initially, the "Burlak" system had a military purpose, but then the project of the aerospace complex "Burlak" was reoriented to launch into orbit "small" satellites to create a communication system or satellite navigation. Soon the program was interested in the German firm OHB- System. Together with the Russian "Burlak" Association (except for Tupolev ASTC and ICD "Rainbow", it included TsAGI, LII, OKB MPEI, etc.) German firms have agreed on the creation of a joint venture. In 1994 Russian-German project, named "Burlak-Diana" (Burlak-Diana), was presented at the air show in Singapore. But after the first German contribution of DM600,000 dissolved in foreign cars and saunas, cooperation was suspended. Work on the project "Burlak" and its modifications continued only at the expense of the enthusiasm of the the new management of ANTK Tupolev.
The most impressive exhibit of the Russian space exposition in Le Bourget (1995) was the full-scale model of Burlac carrier launched in the air from Tu-160, although the prospects for its creation are not as clearly defined as those of Angara and Rokot. The concept of the "Burlak-Tu-160" system is similar to the American company "Orbital Sciences" implemented in the Pegasus project.On MAKS-99 were presented only models of the main elements of the complex.
The massive strategic bomber Tu-160 with the carrier "Burlak" installed under the fuselage attracted the general attention of the visitors of the exhibition. The Russian Tu-160 was presented at the Paris aerospace exhibition for the first time. The wooden model of the carrier was suspended under the Tu-160 fuselage. According to Yulia Kashtanova, Deputy Director General of Tula Yu. Tupolev, the development of the carrier has moved far enough despite insufficient funding.
"Burlak" was created on the basis of a ballistic missile. The weight of this two-stage carrier will be 32 t, length - 22 m, and diameter - 1,6 m. Unlike the "Pegasus", it does not have wings, and the tail unit of the device in the position suspended under the aircraft was folded. The carrier itself is designed by the Raduga Design Bureau. Both stages of the carrier are equipped with liquid-propellant rocket engines, and the operation of the propulsion system of the second stage will take place in two inclusions. Russian experts believe that if funds are received to develop a carrier, then with its help it will be possible to output to low Earth orbit up to 800 kg of payload. At the same time, the cost of putting 1 kg of cargo into orbit can be in the range of $ 5,000.
In the future, on the basis of the "Burlak" rocket it was planned to create new launch vehicle "Burlak-M". On the 1st stage of "Burlak-M" would be applied hypersonic jet engine. In this case, the payload mass increase by a factor of 1.5.
A "Burlak" was a wage worker in Russia the XVI century through the beginning of the XX century. Walking along the shore on a towpath, Burlaks pulled, with the help of ropes, ships in coastal waters and river barges upriver against the current. In the XVIII - XIX centuries the main type of vessel led by burlak labor was a bark. Burlatsky labor was seasonal. Boats were pulled on "big water" in the spring and in the autumn. To fulfill the order, barge haulers joined in the artels. The work of the burlak was extremely heavy and monotonous.
The "Song of the Volga Boatmen" is perhaps the most perfectly descriptive of all the peasant songs of Russia - “Ei Ukhnam’; the cry of the Volga bargees as they haul their heavy craft against the tide of the muddy river. They approach journey's end, and the melody abruptly changes to a melodious chant of hope for the early termination of their labor. But the work must be done and they resign themselves to the inevitable. They journey on into the distance.”
This melody originated with the Burlaks, a tribe of Russian peasants, who sang it in the tragic sorrow of their work of drawing grain-boats up the Volga. Bands of men walked on the shore in a steady gait and pulled on a rope to which the boat is tied.
This favorite Russian folksong belonged originally only to the peasants who lived on the banks of the famous river Volga. In olden times, when Russia did not have steamers, the only occupation of those peasants was to pull barges and boats laden with merchandise from one town to the next; and while they were engaged in this exhausting labor they sang this heartrending and yet majestic melody. As the Bargemen see in the distance a clump of birch trees approaching them, they use every effort to reach and pass it, lightening their burden by singing this chant.
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