Zol Janah’ satellite carrier
The first test launch of this "Zul-Jannah" satellite launcher took place on February 4, 2017, less than two weeks after the inauguration of the Biden administration in the United States; The move was met with strong protests and criticism from the United States and European powers. Zul-Jannah is a three-stage Iranian combined fuel satellite , which was built by experts from the Ministry of Defense and Armed Forces Support.
Iran's defence ministry on 01 February 2021 said it has test launched a new satellite carrier with its "most powerful" solid-fuel engine to date, state TV reported. The test was "the first launch of the Zoljanah hybrid satellite carrier for sub-orbital testing", said Ahmad Hosseini, the spokesman for the ministry's space division. "This three-stage carrier can compete with the world's current carriers, and has two stages of solid propulsion and a single liquid one," he added, noting that the rocket was for "research purposes". "The carrier rocket is capable of launching satellites weighing 220 kilograms [485 lb] to the altitude of 500 kilometers [310 miles]," the ministry said, specifying that the launch was experimental.
The length of the Zol-Jannah satellite is 25.5 meters, its diameter is 1.5 meters and its weight is 52 tons. The first and second stages use the same solid fuel engine with a diameter of 1.5 meters and a thrust of 74 tons, and the third stage uses a liquid fuel engine with a diameter of 1.25 meters and a thrust of 3.5 tons. Zul-Jannah can place a 220-kilogram satellite or a satellite system consisting of ten lighter 20-kilogram satellites in near - Earth orbit.
The satellite of Zul-Jannah was implemented in the form of a project called Hazrat Fatemeh Al-Zahra (PBUH). This launch was the first launch of the Zul-Jannah Combined Satellite. A combination of solid and liquid fuels is the first solid fuel used. With this launch, for the first time, the most powerful solid fuel engine was used. The satellite uses comprehensive fuel in the first and second stages and liquid fuel in the third stage.
Zul-Jannah was the name of the winged horse of Imam Hussein bin Ali (AS), the third Imam of the Shiites, horse, who on the day of Ashura rubbed his forehead with the blood of Imam (AS)'s body, announced the news of his martyrdom. Zul-Jannah was very agile and showed speed of action on the battlefield, and was called so because of his resemblance to birds. His special agility and cleverness took his owner (Hussein ibn Ali) off the battlefield to take him to the tent. When Umar ibn Sa'd's army tried to capture the horse, Zul-Jannah attacked them and kicked them to death. The number of people killed by Zul-Jannah was recorded by 40 fighters, and others have mentioned more than this number. Ibn Sa'd shouted, "Release him, or he will kill everyone.""
Iran has tried to launch satellites into space in recent years, but many of its efforts, especially from Imam Khomeini's space terminal, have failed. Iran's satellite program, despite sending several satellites into space in the short term and sending monkeys by Bar satellite in September 2013, has faced many challenges and problems. In recent years, the launch of the Simorgh satellite failed five times, and in the winter of 2009, an explosion at the Imam Khomeini space terminal killed three researchers.
In the summer of the same year, there was an explosion at the center, which also caught the attention of former US President Donald Trump, who posted on his Twitter page a "classified" photo of a satellite launch pad at the Semnan Space Center in Iran where the explosion took place.
The Air Force of the Islamic Revolutionary Guard Corps used the three-stage satellite "Ghased" from the Shahroud desert to place the "Noor 2" satellite in a 500-kilometer orbit. The IRGC's first space operation began in 1999 with the launch of the Noor-1 satellite, and despite forecasts of one year, the Noor satellite is still alive and well and transmits its information to the ground station.
The Zol-Jannah satellite was tested and evaluated for the first time in February 1999 with the aim of achieving the technology of the most powerful solid fuel engine in the country. This three-stage satellite is competitive with the world's top satellites in terms of technical features.
The Zol Janah’ satellite carrier appears to be a derivative of the Sajjil / Ashura / Ghadr-110 two-stage solid propellant MRBM. This Iranian missile appears to be related to Pakistan's Shaheen-III, itself a derivative of the Chinese DF-21 / CSS-5 / M-18. A direct program connection with Pakistan seems probable, though a direct Chinese connection seems rather improbable. All these projects share a common solid rocket motor diameter of about 1.5 meters. In contrast to other missiles using liquid propellant, the solid propellant Iranian program does not appear to have a North Korean counterpart. North Korea's primary large solid rocket program, the Pukguksong-3 family, uses a larger 2-meter diameter motor.
Previously the largest diameter of solid fuel propellants in Iran was related to the 2-stage "Sajil" missile, with a diameter of 1.25 meters, according to some sources. The reported 1.25 meter diameter of the Iranian Sajil is 25 cm [10 inches] less than the reported 1.5 meter diameter of the Chinese and Pakistani missiles, although such small differences approach the margin of error in OSINT estimations [is, is the measured across the actual rocket motor body, or the somewhat larger motor base??]. While the slighly larger diameter solid rocket motors on Zol Janah’ might provide for an improved medium range ballistic missile [MRBM], Zol Janah’ itself is probably not that missile. This long spindly vehicle would be inconvenient if deployed vertifcally in one of Iran's "magic mountain" underground bases. The length is probably at the upper limit of what might be deployed horizontally on a transorter erector launcher [TEL]. Although Iran has made great claims about the transportability of this rocket, the ground vehicle used in transportation did not appear in initial photographs of the rocket, so its suitability as a TEL cannot be judged. In general, Iranian TELs appear to be road-mobile heavy trucks, relying on Iran's highway network, rather than the cross-country ground-mobile TELs favored by North Korea [a country notably lacking in paved roads].
Seyed Ahmad Hosseini, the Space Spokesman of the Ministry of Defense, announced the successful launch of the Zol-Jannah Combined Satellite on the "Wheel" TV program of the Chahar Radio and Television on the occasion of Space Technology Day and said: "Al-Zahra (AS) was executed. This launch was the first launch of the Zul-Jannah Combined Satellite. A combination is a combination of solid and liquid fuels. We used solid fuel for the first time on the Zul-Jannah satellite. With this launch, the most powerful solid fuel engine flew for the first time, and with this launch, we achieved the most powerful solid fuel engine. The satellite uses comprehensive fuel in the first and second stages and liquid fuel in the third stage."
Regarding the space plan roadmap, he said: "So far, our emphasis and focus has been on the use of liquid fuels." Given the capabilities that had been developed in the field of liquid fuel, the Ambassador satellite used liquid fuel in both stages. The ambassador's definition was that we could reach orbit in any situation we could. Then, with the plastering that we had in Safir engines, the same generosity engine was used and Samirgh was defined as going through the final stages of his research. Inshallah Simorgh will be stabilized in the near future and will join the operational circuit.
Hosseini said: "For several years, considering the capabilities that had been created in the field of solid fuel and the existing field, the idea was raised to use solid fuel in the field of space as well." Other countries that have the strength and potential of solid fuels have used this potential in space. Solid and liquid fuels each have their own achievements and characteristics. Solid fuel is mainly used in the early stages of launching satellites; To get up and out of the atmosphere because it gives us a lot of energy in a short period of time.
A spokesman for the Ministry of Defense said: "The idea of using solid fuel and building a combined satellite of Zul-Jannah was seriously proposed about two or three years ago. During this time, great jihadist work was done. I thank my friends who work in this field anonymously. Jihadi management was formed in this project.
He pointed out: This was done at a very low cost and in the shortest time. What was displayed was the first research launch of a satellite. It has always been argued that when a product is not fixed, we claim to inject a satellite into orbit. Our determination was to go through the research process and the steps of technology consolidation. This route is well planned. This was our first research step. Our main goal in this launch was to validate the solid fuel engine flight. Our goal in this launch was the performance of the solid-liquid fuel engine. Alhamdulillah, he completed the first stage of the flight completely. Stage one takes about seventy seconds and takes us to an altitude of 15 km. At this height, the booster detaches, which we both reached the desired height and the separation occurred.
Hosseini said: "At the payload site, we had placed a research payload to see the effects of all subsystems on each other in the satellite carrier, which is very complex and at the edge of technology. The researchers tested some of the subsystems at this stage.
A spokesman for the Ministry of Defense said: "The mission designed and defined for Zol-Jannah satellite is to place a satellite with a maximum weight of 220 kg at an altitude of 500 km." This capability is very close to Simorgh capability. Our goal was not to reach the orbit and the launch was aimed at the submarine. As far as we were concerned, the flight took place. We can also launch a set of satellites with a total weight of 220 kg.
Regarding the engine, Hosseini said: "The Zul-Jannah satellite engine is the most powerful solid fuel engine of all engines, even military engines." It can be upgraded to about one hundred tons.
In another part of the program, the official said: Simorgh is a two-stage satellite launcher to which we add a middle stage and it becomes a three-stage satellite launcher. The testbed will be capable of one ton at an altitude of one thousand kilometers, and upon reaching operatieonal status, Simorgh will be staged out and we will use Zul-Janah for weights less than one ton. Zol-Jannah satellite is for payload up to 220 kg and Serir is for heavier payload. For Geo, we will also have Soroush satellite. So we plan to have three satellites. Of course, Soroush satellite is also used to launch a large number of satellites at low altitudes.
Hosseini said: "With the Zol-Jannah satellite, we can place 10 cubic satellites at an altitude of 500 kilometers." In designing the Zol-Jannah satellite and other satellite satellites, we were able to capture several satellites. The satellite is 25 meters long and weighs about 52 tons. One and a half meters in diameter is the first and second stages and one meter and 25 centimeters is the diameter of the third stage. We have taken 75 tons of it, which can be upgraded to 100 tons, which is the first time in solid fuel engines.
Explaining why liquid fuel is used in the final stage of Zol-Jannah satellite, he said: "In the upper stages, we need high burning times, in Zol-Jannah we fly 300 seconds or more, controllability and accuracy of injecting satellites into orbit using It is more than liquid fuel.
He pointed out: One of the characteristics of Zul-Jannah is that it does not need a fixed launch base and can be launched in a mobile manner. Today, the discussion of systematization using light satellites is very common. Systematization in space requires that we be able to launch from different angles of orbit, which is possible with Zol-Jannah. We follow refrigeration engines in domestic industries and in the future we will have avalanche engines for high tonnage refrigeration engines.
The new Zul-Jannah satellite launcher has three stages, the first two of which are solid fuel and the third stage is liquid fuel. Zol-Jannah's first launch test, which was the first stage of its research launches, was defined to validate the performance of solid fuel propellant, but in addition to the correct operation of the first stage, the separation of the first stage and the start of the second stage at the desired height. It was a remarkable success.
According to the plans, three research launches are planned for Zul-Jannah, the first of which has been completed, and the other stages should be completed in the next one to one and a half years. Satellite payloads may also be included in subsequent launches of this stage. The purpose of designing this 25.5-meter and 52-ton satellite is to place payloads up to 220 kg in a 500 km circular orbit. In this regard, Zolnahnah's capability is close to the larger and heavier Simorgh satellite, which can carry 250 to 350 kg of payload in a 500 km orbit.
It should be noted that Zol-Jannah, like Simorgh, has the ability to place a number of small satellites instead of one satellite, and for example, it can put 10 20 kg cube satellites in orbit with the aim of developing satellite system technologies. In terms of comparison with the previous two satellites, namely Safir-1 and Simorgh, while the diameter of Zul-Jannah is close to Safir-1, it has a performance power close to Simorgh and is placed between the two in terms of weight, while it is much easier to launch than both satellites launchers.
|Safir-2 / Simorgh|
| * Regarding the amount of Simorgh payload, |
some sources have mentioned the number 250 and some the number 350 kg.
A research payload carrying various sensors or sensors with the aim of collecting technical information and data collection in a telemetry method of satellite performance and other conditions in the launch path was placed instead of a satellite payload in Zol-Jannah, which provides important information especially about actual incoming accelerations. Various types of vibrations, acoustic waves, temperature, etc. were collected and provided to specialists. Comparing this information with data from design and simulation steps helps to improve design methods. Part of the sub-systems of Zul-Jannah launch research payload is similar to the types used by the country's satellites that will be used in the future, which in this regard will help to test and stabilize their capabilities.
Zol-Jannah satellite in the first test launch was next to the service tower at Semnan launch base. The Zul-Jannah satellite project started in earnest less than 3 years earlier, in around 2018. This short time is very valuable for a carrier satellite that can carry payload to the same orbit with two thirds of Simorgh weight in the same category. This low-cost satellite, as well as low cost and time to operate, helps accelerate the country's space program in the launcher sector.
One of the characteristics of Zul-Jannah is the lack of a fixed launch base. For the satellite system, it is necessary to launch with different angles of inclination or orbital inclination. If a fixed launch base is used, orbital transfer blocks should be used, but with a launcher such as Zul-Jannah, which can use a mobile launcher, it can be launched from latitudes. Various people in the country took advantage of the current location in Semnan to the southern coast of the country, and there is also a plan to launch from the southeast of the country for Zul-Jannah.
With the help of this feature of Zol-Jannah satellite, payloads can also be injected in the sun synchronous orbit [SSO orbit], which provides valuable capability for sensing satellites because accurate imaging can be done at fixed angles at the same time each day. One of Zul-Jannah's plans in the near future is to achieve this orbit.
After the Ghased-1 satellite built by the IRGC Air Force, which in May 2016, in its first operational launch, successfully placed the Noor-1 satellite in a 430-kilometer orbit, Zolnahnah is the second three-stage satellite lacunher and the second satellite launcher using solid fuel stages. Until now, Iranian satellite satellites included Safir-1 and Simorgh (Safir-2), both of which had only two stages of liquid fuel. However, with the construction of Ghased and Zul-Jannah, solid fuel was also opened to the country's space arena, so that the advantages of this type of propulsion would also come with the help of the country's satellites in the path of orbits.
Although solid fuel has not yet reached liquid propellants in the final amount of the specific impilse [ISp] quantity that is important in space missions, it can generate a large amount of propulsive power in a short period of time and, to put it more simply, provide more acceleration to mission designers. This makes the use of solid fuel propellants in the early stages of satellite carriers attractive depending on the scientific and technical capabilities of the countries or manufacturers. This high propulsion force from solid fuel helps to overcome the air resistance force that exists at low altitudes and dense atmospheres and is used to pass through these altitudes quickly.
In addition, the cost of developing solid fuel propellants and the number of mechanical parts required in it is less than that of liquid fuel. But in the upper stages of the satellite, especially the final stage due to the need for high burning time, the need to shut down the engine at some point in the flight process, higher controllability and the need to fine-tune the thrust in the final stage of separating the satellite or injection stage in the orbit Liquid fuels are used. It should be noted that in the same satellite, the third stage of Zol-Jannah will be working for more than 300 seconds.
It should be noted that to solve the problem of high acceleration from payload satellite to payload, a special insulator or separator has been developed in the Iranian Space Research Institute for the first time, which will also be used in Zol-Jannah satellite missions. In the operational design of the Zol-Jannah satellite launcher, the first stage takes about 70 seconds and brings the complex to an altitude of 15 km. The second-stage propulsion then operates, and then the third-stage propulsion, which has low thrust but a much longer operating time, turns on. The use of two types of propellants, solid and liquid fuel, in different stages of a satellite, leads to the creation of a combined satellite launcher, which, of course, should not be confused with the use of combined propellants or solid and liquid hybrids. In hybrid propellants, one component, which can be fuel, is stored in solid form, and the other component, such as oxidant, is stored in liquid form so that the amount of thrust and combustion process can be controlled relative to solid fuel propellants. It should be noted that in solid fuel propellants, unlike liquid fuels, after combustion, the propulsion process is not instantaneously controlled and only based on the design done from the beginning and based on available parameters such as fuel composition, and the holes placed in it are pre-designed. However, in liquid fuel propellants, by controlling the fuel flow and oxidizing, there is a large amount of control over the combustion process and the amount of thrust produced, which makes it possible to precisely adjust the speed of the payload when injected into the circuit.
Numerous satellite satellites from the past decades in different countries such as Japan, India and the United States, etc. have been built and operated using solid fuel in the early stages, either independently or as an accelerator (booster). Prior to the 1.5-meter-diameter Zol-Jannah satellite, the country's largest solid-fuel propulsion diameter was the 1.25-meter-long Sejil two-stage rocket. With the construction of Zul-Jannah, not only a step was taken to increase the diameter of solid fuel propellants, but also a propulsion with a force of more than 74,000 kg-force or 74 tons-force, which became the strongest solid fuel propulsion made in the country and for the first time in a Civilian use is used.
In the video shown from the hot ground test of this engine, which was broadcast for the first time on the scientific television program of Charkh on the fourth channel of Sima, 65 seconds out of 70 seconds of the performance of this engine from the beginning of the thrust generation process were shown.
According to Engineer Ahmad Hosseini Mons, spokesman for the Ministry of Defense's space group, these propellants, which have been specially developed for the space field, also have a new propulsion in terms of specific impulse or thrust, filling coefficient, type of chemical composition of fuel and formulation and other design parameters. It is different and its superior performance has been achieved with the help of these improvements. The possibility of increasing the thrust in these propellants to nearly 100 tons can be done, which is a serious upgrade in the field of solid fuel propulsion in the country.
It should be noted that Simorgh 85-ton satellite with a diameter of 2.4 meters in its first stage has four clusters of liquid fuel engines that produce about 144 tons of thrust, and Zol-Jannah solid fuel with a diameter of 1.5 meters produces more than half of this thrust in its first stage.
Another important point about Zul-Jannah propulsion is to use the same engine in its first two stages. According to Hosseini Pishran, the first two stages of Zul-Jannah are similar in terms of length and diameter, and only the nozzle of the second stage is different from the first stage and is proportional to the relevant operating height. This in itself reduces the cost and time of product development as well as increases reliability, although it may be less optimal than a custom design for that height. In the first stage, Zul-Jannah did not have fins, but in the second stage, four small stabilizer fins are installed.
Zul-Jannah satellite launcher control is based on the thrust vector at all stages. In the first and second stages, control blocks installed in the nozzle are used, which is the basic method of this type of control in the country's rocket engines. In the third stage, the total rotation of the two existing nozzles, according to the conventional method, occurs in the second stage of Safir-1 satellite.
In the future, more powerful Zol-Jannah models are set to be developed with the development of solid fuel propulsion, which, to be more precise, will be accompanied by an upgrade to the engine's specific impact. The use of lighter bodies, possibly of non-metallic materials, is also on the agenda, leading to a significant increase in portable payload.
The use of movable nozzles that eliminate the loss of kinetic energy of the exhaust gases from the propulsion due to collision with the fins installed in the nozzle orifice in the current method of thrust vector control, such as Salman engine in Ghased-1 IRGC satellite is another feature that improves the launched payload.
Increasing the speed of Iran's space program more safely and cheaply in a situation where many countries are entering the field of space launches such as Spain, Brazil, Argentina and many actors in less than a decade from small countries such as New Zealand to private companies in prominent countries The world has entered the field of space launches and it has become a serious obligation that is hoped to be done as soon as possible with the full support of the entire space program, especially the satellite on Zul-Jannah.
Dhul Jinnah / DU'L-JANAH, Imam Hosayn’s winged horse, is known from popular literature and rituals. Du’l-Janah was mentioned in medieval narratives of Hosayn’s martyrdom at Karbala (maqatel), for example, Ebn A'tam Kufi’s 9th-century Ketab al-fotuh and al-Lohuf by Ebn Ta'us Ta'usi (d. 664/1266), which became sources for later Turkish and Persian maqtal-namas. In al-Lohuf the horse, unnamed but said to be descended from the Prophet Mohammad’s mount, is supposed to have dipped its head in its master’s blood and attacked the enemy. It then returned, smeared with Hosayn’s blood, to the tents of the Ahl-e Bayt. As it approached, Hosayn’s infant daughter Sokayna began to cry, joined by the other women in the family. At least from Safavid times representations of Hosayn’s horse were led in the processions and pageants that developed into ta'zia performances of the martyrdom of Hosayn. This “nationalist” tradition also found its way into the literature of such plays. Du’l-Janah appears in various other ta'zia episodes, for example, at Qasem b. Hasan’s marriage at Karbala': Hosayn orders the horse brought to his daughter Fatema, who rides it to the bridal chamber.
Iran's Minister of Defense Brigadier General Amir Hatami in a message on the occasion of the National Space Technology Day said that Iran proved its domestic capability in advanced science and technology monopolized by the world's major scientific and technological powers.
“The Islamic Republic of Iran has a permanent plan to develop its space program and it has passed several stages and has several stages ahead. The country needs heavier payloads over 100kg to be carried into the space and we plan to carry heavier payloads to the higher altitude orbits which will be done by Simorq and Zol Janah satellite carriers,” General Hatami told reporters in Tehran on the threshold of the Defense Industry Day in Iran 16 August 2020. He noted that Simorq satellite carrier is still in the research stage, hoped for its success in the next launch.
General Hatami explained that Zol Janah satellite carrier is also similar to Simorq in form and size but with a solid-fueled engine and can be launched from a mobile launcher. “I think we will have both these satellite carriers this year,” he said, adding that Qassed satellite carrier which has been developed by the Islamic Revolution Guards Corps (IRGC) Aerospace Force will be used for smaller payloads. “We have Sarir satellite carrier for payloads weighing between 300kg to 1,000 kg and we will, of course, have Soroush-1 and Soroush-2 satellite carriers for higher altitude orbits at 36,000km,” General Hatami said.
Iranian Minister of Communications and Information Technology Mohammad Javad Azari Jahromi announced in June that the number of the country's manufactured satellites will increase to 18 by the end of the current Iranian year (March 19, 2021). "Iran had made 3 satellites by the year 2013, it increased to 7 in 2017, 15 in 2020 and God willing, we will have 18 home-made satellites by the end of this year," Azari Jahromi said, addressing the parliamentarians in Tehran.
Also in June 2020, Head of the Iranian Space Agency (ISA) Morteza Barari announced earlier this month Iran's plan to orbit high-quality satellites in an altitude of 1,000km above the Earth. "We will reach the 2,000-km orbit in two years and our next step is reaching the 36,000-km orbit," Barari said. He added that Iran is not dependent on any foreign country to advance its space program. "Fortunately, today we are self-sufficient in designing and building satellites, platforms, satellite carriers, control and guide stations, data collection land stations and the whole cycle of this technology relying on the capabilities of the Iranian scientists and specialists and this whole cycle is operating with a fully indigenized mechanism," Barari said.
A spokesman for the Ministry of Defense of the Islamic Republic of Iran announced on Sunday, 26 July 2022, the second test launch of the Zul-Jannah satellite launcher from the first site of "Imam Khomeini Space Terminal" Semnan space base. Ahmad Hosseini said that the three-stage satellite launcher has two stages of solid propulsion and one stage with liquid propulsion. He added: "The third phase of the development of this satellite has started by using the information obtained from this launch."
He stated that the launch of the satellite on Zul-Jannah was carried out with the aim of sub-orbit: "By the power of God, the third phase of the development of this satellite on a combination has begun, using the information obtained from this launch."
It was not immediately known whether the second Zul-Jannah satellite launch test was successful, but the Associated Press reported that satellite images over the past few days showed preparations at the Imam Khomeini space terminal in Semnan province for a satellite launch. The report also added that it was not yet clear whether the satellite had actually been launched. However, the Islamic Republic of Iran Radio and Television broadcast a film from a satellite that was launched from the heart of a desert.
"Seyyed Ahmad Hosseini", the space spokesman of the Ministry of Defense and Armed Forces Support, stated about the research launches of the satellite "Zul-Jannah" that three research launches are planned for the satellite on Zol-Jannah, one research launch and two other research launches in Pishstavi.
The launch of the Zul-Jannah came just one day after an agreement was reached between Iran and EU foreign policy chief Joseph Borrell to resume nuclear talks. The White House said that it was "aware of this" and that such actions were "destabilizing and ineffective" in response to the launch of the Zul-Jannah satellite: The United States is committed to using sanctions and other measures to prevent further development of Iran's ballistic missile program.
State Department spokesman Ned Price recently said in response to Iran's readiness to launch the satellite that the United States wants Iran to defuse tensions. "Iran has consistently chosen to escalate tensions," he claimed. "It is Iran that has consistently chosen provocative measures." Pentagon spokesman Maj. Rob Ludwig said "The U.S. military will continue to closely monitor Iran's pursuit of appropriate space launch technology and how it relates to developments in Tehran's ballistic missile program".
|1st and 2nd stage diameter||1.5 m|
|3rd stage diameter||1.25 m|
|Thrust of solid-fuel engines||74,000 KgF|
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