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China - Solid Rocket Motors

With the continuous acceleration of the peaceful use of space and the further expansion of the field of deep space exploration, the world's major aerospace powers are committed to accelerating the development of launch vehicle technology. By matching the solid booster and the liquid core-stage engine, the perfect combination of the technology and economy of the launch vehicle power system can be realized. Most large-scale launch vehicles abroad use solid power as the main driving force, but our country is still blank in this field.

It has always been the dream to develop the solid-assisted driving force of carrier rockets. In order to adapt to the new trend of world aerospace development and further expand the application field and space of aerospace solid power technology, the Fourth Academy follows the principle of "power first", pays close attention to the application and development of foreign solid booster engine technology, and closely follows technological trends. While actively organizing project demonstrations, we simultaneously carried out relevant technical research work, and successively achieved a number of major achievements and technological advances.

Segmented solid rocket motor refers to a solid rocket motor that is divided into several sections, and each section forms a whole through a sealed connection structure. Each section of it has its own shell, adiabatic structure and propellant grains, etc. The front section has a front head part, and the last section has a back head and a part connected to the nozzle. They are connected into a whole through a specially designed sealed connection structure.

Each section has its own shell, insulation structure and propellant grains, etc. The front section has a front head part, and the last section has a back head and a part connected to the nozzle. Each section They are connected as a whole through a specially designed sealed connection structure. Functionally segmented solid rocket motors are mostly used in super-large solid rocket motors to solve the difficulties in charging and transportation of super-large solid rocket motors.

Large-scale segmented solid rocket motors have pressure and thrust vibration phenomena, and the stability is usually predicted by the classic stability evaluation method. In order to obtain the required experimental confirmation, a parameterized reduction ratio combustion test is required. The goal is to compare the experimental data with the theoretical prediction results. This requires the design, manufacturing and testing of the reduction ratio solid booster.

Some small and medium-sized solid rocket motors can also adopt a segmented structure according to the special needs of structural installation. The sealed connection structure between the segments of the segmented solid rocket motor is very important. On January 28, 1986, the US "Challenger" space shuttle crash was caused by a gas leak in the segmented sealing connection structure of the solid booster engine.

Over the years, the designers of the Institute of Aerospace Power Technology have actively collected data and analyzed the segmented structures of large foreign segmented solid engines such as the Hercules series of carrier rocket solid boosters, space shuttle boosters and Ariane 5 solid boosters. To sum up, compare various technical solutions in detail, successfully solve many technical problems, and form a complete set of segmented solid engine design and analysis methods, and overcome many key technologies of large segmented engines.

In March 2009, the 120-ton high-thrust monolithic solid rocket engine key technology assessment ground hot test run was the first in China to achieve a complete success; in April 2010, the 1-meter segmented docking technology verified the engine ground hot test run successfully; the first time in China Successfully verified the solid rocket motor segmented docking technology; July 2012; the 2m segmented solid boost technology verification engine successfully completed the first test run in China; September 2015, the Fourth Academy provided China’s first four-stage main engine. The successful maiden flight of the solid carrier rocket CZ-11 indicated that China's rapid launch capability had been greatly improved, and the application of solid power has achieved a historic expansion.

On 15 April 2016, the full-scale engineering prototype of a solid rocket engine with a diameter of 2 meters, which was developed by the institute with the largest charge so far, was successfully tested on the ground. This test further verified the design scheme and many key technologies of the large-scale segmented solid rocket motor, marking a major breakthrough in the key technology of China's large-scale segmented solid rocket motor, which will promote the solid boost of China's new generation of solid-bundled carrier rockets. The development of technology and engineering applications have laid a solid foundation. This is also another milestone in the fourth academy in promoting the expansion of solid rocket motors into the aerospace carrier field after the successful first flight of the Long March 11.

The segmented engine with a diameter of 2m is a representative product of the solid propulsion of the launch vehicle. After years of hard work, the designers of the Fourth Academy have actively collected foreign data, and evaluated the solid thrusters of Hercules series carrier rockets, space shuttle boosters and Ariane 5 solid boosters and other large-scale segmented solid engines abroad. The structure was analyzed and summarized, various technical solutions were compared in detail, and many technical problems were successfully solved successively, and a complete set of segmented solid engine design and analysis methods were formed, and a large segmented engine was overcome.

On May 13, 2016, Deputy Director Wu Yanhua of the National Defense Science and Industry Bureau visited the Fourth Academy to investigate the development of solid engines for launch vehicles. Li Guoping, Director of the First Department of System Engineering of the National Defense Science and Industry Bureau, Liu Jizhong, Director of the Lunar Exploration and Aerospace Engineering Center, Liu Puxuan, Deputy Secretary of the Provincial Office of Science and Technology for National Defense, Sun Weigang, Chief Engineer of the Group Company, and Hao Zhaoping, Secretary of the Party Committee of the First Academy, accompanied the investigation. Dean Tian Weiping, Party Secretary Zhang Kangzhu, Vice Dean Gao Bo, and relevant persons in charge of the two models, departments, and factories attended the research meeting.

Wu Yanhua and his entourage visited the new solid engine charge assembly area and the new solid engine test area of the Fourth Academy. They learned about the research and development of solid engines and the solid power capacity construction of the Fourth Academy. They listened to the report on the development of solid engines for carrier rockets of the Fourth Academy. Affirmed the achievements made by the Fourth Academy in the key technology research of large solid booster engines for transportation.

In response to the follow-up work, Deputy Director Wu put forward three specific requirements: First, it is necessary to promote solid power to achieve military-civilian integration and development, and take the country’s development of heavy launch rockets and a new generation of medium-sized bundled rockets as an opportunity to strengthen cooperation with experts and experts. The higher-level agencies and the overall unit communicate and report, earnestly do a good job of deepening the demonstration of key technologies, and systematically plan the future development of China's large-scale solid engine technology. The second is to take the initiative to benchmark first-class standards, and with the help of major national innovation projects, step up the core technology research work of large-scale solid rocket engines for carrier, especially to target the demand of heavy-duty carrier rockets for large-scale solid-boosted engines, and actively carry out project demonstrations and issues, raise funds through multiple channels, promote the research on core key technologies, and make sufficient technical reserves for the establishment of the project. The third is to accelerate the promotion of large-scale solid engine engineering applications, make full use of existing resources, accelerate the development of large-scale solid-boosted engines, pay attention to the extended application of existing technologies, and make overall considerations of engine advancement, economy and usability. To continuously improve the maturity and competitiveness of engine technology, to provide important support for the realization of engine systemization and combination development, and to promote the development of solid power technology for space launch vehicles.

A number of key technologies have set a number of records in the history of solid engine development in China. The successful completion of this test opened the prelude to the solid engine's entry into the field of launch vehicle bundling aid propulsion, and also brought new opportunities for the development of solid carrier power technology of the Fourth Academy. The development and molding capabilities of large-size composite core components have been greatly improved, the high-precision design simulation capabilities have been fully utilized, the green and environmentally friendly thermal insulation materials have been used for the first time, the new high-efficiency thermal insulation layer molding and curing process has achieved substantial breakthroughs, and all raw materials and manufacturing equipment have been made domestically. change. The Fourth Academy said that the follow-up will focus on the high cost of composite materials, propellants, etc., and adopt low-cost design methods and design ideas at the design source to simplify the process and improve efficiency, so that the solid engine will not only be safe and reliable, but also "High quality and low price", easy to use and durable.

In the future, the 3-meter engine will be used in the solid booster of a heavy-duty launch vehicle to achieve a low-Earth orbit carrying capacity of more than 100 tons, meeting the development needs of China's manned moon landing and deep space exploration. From monolithic solid engines to today’s solid-boosted engines, the diameter of the engine is increasing while the thrust is also increasing. In the near future, solid carrier will help the Chinese people to expand their horizons to the farther space.

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Page last modified: 04-11-2021 18:32:16 ZULU