AN/TPY-2 Transportable Radar Surveillance
Forward Based X-Band Transportable [FBX-T]
The radar element (TMD-GBR) in the THAAD system meets an immediate requirement for a more capable wide-area defense radar in the theater. It provides surveillance and fire control support as an integral part of the THAAD system and cueing support to lower-tier systems such as Patriot. A single THAAD battery usually consists of six to nine truck-mounted launchers, 48 to 72 interceptors, a fire control and communications unit, and an AN/TPY-2 X-band radar. Twelve AN/TPY-2 radars have been produced, with no additional radars planned for production [by 2016]. According to most estimates, THAAD’s X-band radar has a range up to approximately 2,000 kilometers (1,250 miles) in “forward-based mode,” which reaches most of the eastern half of China from the deployment site in the southeastern county of Seongju, North Gyeongsang Province, South Korea. In some situations, even the TPY-2’s superior tracking range is not adequate for a robust defense, and a moderate increase in sensitivity would be very useful.
The Army Navy/Transportable Radar Surveillance and Control Model 2, or AN/TPY-2, is a transportable X-band, high-resolution, phased-array radar designed specifically for ballistic missile defense. The AN/TPY-2 is capable of tracking all classes of ballistic missiles and identifying small objects at long distances. In the forward-based mode, this radar plays a vital role in the Ballistic Missile Defense System (BMDS) by acting as a forward based sensor for the system, detecting ballistic missiles early in their flight and providing precise tracking information for use by the system. Use of multiple sensors provides overlapping sensor coverage, expands the BMDS battle space, and complicates an enemy's ability to penetrate the defense system. In the terminal mode, the same radar provides surveillance, track, discrimination and fire control support for the Terminal High Altitude Area Defense (THAAD) weapon system.
The TMD-GBR utilizes state-of-the-art radar technology to accomplish its required functions of threat attack early warning, threat cueing, and launch and impact point estimation. In particular TMD-GBR will be able to provide a capability to perform threat classification against tactical ballistic missiles, and kill assessment after intercept. The Theater and National Missile Defense ground-based radar programs have evolved using technologies developed by SDIO, BMDO and ARPA as well as from commercial off-the-shelf equipment. The common core software processing programs resident in the TMD and NMD radars were developed in the SDIO program.
The Army's Ground Based Radar (GBR-X) is a new radar evolving out of the Upper Tier Theater Missile Defense Program which is part of the Ballistic Missile Defense (BMD) program, known as the Strategic Defense Initiative (SDI) prior to May 1993.[EN452] The GBR-X, also referred to as the GBR-T and formerly referred to as the Terminal Imaging Radar, is a transportable radar operating in the 8.55-10 GHz bands. The radar will search and track enemy tactical ballistic missiles, cruise missiles, and other air-breathing threats. It will have fire control capability against such threats. The GBR Theater Missile Defense Radar requires spectrum in the 8.55-10 GHz band.
Previously designated as the Forward Based X-Band Transportable [FBX-T] Radar, the THAAD radar is now designated the Army Navy/Transportable Radar Surveillance, or AN/TPY-2. The AN/TPY-2 operates in the X-band frequency, and is capable of tracking and identifying small objects at long distance and at very high altitude, including space. The AN/TPY-2 radar plays a vital role in the Ballistic Missile Defense System, protecting the U.S., deployed forces and allies from ballistic missile threats. [The unrelated Marine Corps AN/TPY-1 Tactical Terminal Control System is designed to replace the MATCALS system to provide a rapidly deployable surveillance and precision approach radar system.]
Raytheon IDS designed and built the AN/TPY-2 radar drawing on extensive sensor knowledge from its X-Band "Family of Radars." A high-power, transportable X-Band radar, the AN/TPY-2 is designed to detect, track and discriminate ballistic missile threats. It maximizes the capability of the BMDS to identify, assess and engage threats to the U.S., deployed forces and allies.
The Forward Based Sensors (FBS) effort develops discrimination algorithms that take advantage of unique FBS observables to provide robust discrimination solutions. FBS develops algorithms for both radar sensors and electro-optical sensors. The initial Hercules radar discrimination algorithm suite enables the AN/TPY-2 to perform the forward based discrimination function. Additional Hercules radar discrimination algorithms expand the AN/TPY-2 discrimination capability. Hercules will also support the integration of these algorithms on the Sea-Based X-Band (SBX) radar. Hercules works with the MDA Sensors program to integrate the initial passive optics algorithms into an AIRS. Hercules also works with the Aegis program to provide an adapted FBS capability for the SPY-1 radar.
BMDO is using solid state transmit and receive radar modules for the radar antenna of the mobile TMDGBR. The non-mobile Ground-Based Radar for national missile defense is using traveling wave tube technology. BMDO chose different technologies because (1) the lighter, solid-state modules facilitate meeting THAAD'S mobility requirement and (2) the production of solid-state modules for both the theater and national radars would overwhelm the production base. Even so, as of 1992 officials in the TMD-GBR Technology Division assessed the production of the more than 68,000 modules required for three radars and spares as among the most challenging areas during the TMDGBR'S demonstration and validation phase. According to these officials, manufacturers had never demonstrated the production rate required to meet the demonstration and validation schedule. In addition, the TMD-GBR contractor anticipated an initial 40- to 50-percent defect rate. While a reduced defect rate is likely as the contractor gains experience, a 40-percent rate would require producing and testing over 110,000 of the modules to produce 68,000 acceptable units.
The BMDS program has been designed to counter evolving threats through the development and release of spiral capabilities. The first forward-based capability spiral was released on schedule in October 2006 became operational. Raytheon IDS developed the second forward-based capability spiral with release planned in early 2008.
On February 15, 2007 Raytheon Company was awarded a $212 million contract by the Missile Defense Agency for the manufacture, delivery and integration support of one Terminal High Altitude Area Defense radar, also called the AN/TPY-2 radar. Under the terms of the contract, Raytheon Integrated Defense Systems will manufacture one AN/TPY-2 radar. Work will be performed at Raytheon's Missile Defense Center in Woburn, Mass., and at the company's Integrated Air Defense Center in Andover, Mass.
On July 11, 2007 the Missile Defense Agency awarded Raytheon Company a $304 million contract to develop advanced tracking and discrimination capabilities for the Ballistic Missile Defense System (BMDS) forward based AN/TPY-2 radar. Under the contract, Raytheon is responsible for the development and test of radar software, various engineering tasks, maintenance and support, infrastructure upgrades and deployment mission planning. Work will be performed at the company's Missile Defense Center, Woburn, Mass., and the Warfighter Protection Center, Huntsville, Ala.
The U.S. Department of Defense and Japanese Ministry of Defense announced 26 December 2014 the deployment of a second Army Navy/Transportable Radar Surveillance (AN/TPY-2) radar in Japan to Kyogamisaki to enhance sensor coverage for ballistic missile defense of Japan and the U.S. homeland. The Kyogamisaki Communications Site (KCS) radar will augment an existing radar located at Shariki in northern Japan. With the assistance of the Japanese Ministry of Defense, the U.S. Department of Defense fielded and tested the radar and constructed the facility in Japan. The radar has now been delivered for use by the U.S. Pacific Command and U.S. Northern Command. The AN/TPY-2 radar is a transportable system that performs as a highly-capable sensor for both homeland and regional missile defense.
Other AN/TPY-2 forward-based radars are located in Turkey and the Middle East. The TPY-2 radar site that Turkey hosts is important to the European Phased Adaptive Approach and to efforts to protect Allies and partners against growing Iranian ballistic missile threats.
To address future requirements and as part of its spiral development process, AN/TPY-2 transitioned from its Increment 2 software development phase to its Configuration 3 software development phase. The transition results in Configuration 3 subsuming all unfinished Increment 2 content including 44 percent of development costs ($60 million), 31 percent of productions costs ($61 million), 88 percent of operations and support costs ($2,281 million), and 100 percent of disposal costs ($30 million).
Four Knowledge Points and Technical Performance Metrics for the program were also carried over from Increment 2. New capabilities were also added in Configuration 3 including electronic protection and discrimination improvements. Additionally, the Conditional Materiel Release of software upgrade CX 2.1.0 was delayed from the first quarter of fiscal year 2017 to the first quarter of fiscal year 2018.2 To mitigate this delay, MDA executed an Urgent Software Release for CX 2.1.1 to support the fielding of Command, Control and Battle Management (C2BMC) S6.4-3 in December 2016.
MDA and the Army have been directed by the Deputy Secretary of Defense to develop a memorandum of agreement that would guide the transfer of the THAAD and AN/TPY-2 programs to the Army, and the National Defense Authorization Act for fiscal year 2018 requires the Secretary of Defense to transfer the acquisition authority of all missile defense programs that have received full-rate production authority, which includes THAAD, to the military departments not later than the date the President’s fiscal year 2021 budget is submitted.
By March 2019 an acquisition strategy had been approved to solicit and negotiate with only one source, the Raytheon Company, 225 Presidential Way, Woburn, Massachusetts 01801-1060, in support of Foreign Military Sales (FMS) to the government of the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA) for the procurement of seven Army Navy/Transportable Surveillance and Control Model 2 (AN/TPY-2) radars, radar spares, obsolescence redesign, sustainment services, and initial Contractor Logistics Support (CLS). As an element of the THAAD system, the radars must be able to detect, track, and discriminate threat missiles and communicate with the THAAD interceptor during the various phases of the THAAD mission. The radars must be effectively integrated into the THAAD system in support of KSA ballistic missile defense.
Raytheon Missiles & Defense, a Raytheon Technologies business, received a $2.3 billion U.S. Missile Defense Agency production contract on 26 June 2020 for seven gallium nitride (GaN)-based AN/TPY-2 radars as part of the Terminal High Altitude Area Defense (THAAD) system, which is designed to protect against incoming ballistic missile threats. The contract is part of a foreign military sale to the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. The mobile AN/TPY-2 missile defense radar uses X-band to clearly see ballistic missile threats. Of the 14 AN/TPY-2 radars produced, seven are fielded as a part of U.S.-operated THAAD systems, five operate in forward-based mode for the U.S., and two are part of foreign military sales.
"These highly capable X-band radars are the sharpest eyes in the global missile defense system," said Bryan Rosselli, vice president of Strategic Missile Defense at Raytheon Missiles & Defense. "The addition of GaN technology delivers capability for threats to be detected, tracked and discriminated with improved radar reliability."
The radar system operates in two modes: forward-based mode — which detects ballistic missiles and identifies any lethal objects as they rise after launch — and terminal mode as part of the THAAD system, which guides interceptors toward a descending missile's warhead.AN/TPY-2 can operate in two modes: Forward-based mode and Terminal mode. In Forward-based mode, the radar detects ballistic missiles after they are launched. In Terminal mode, the radar helps guide interceptors toward a descending missile to defeat the threat. Most notably when operating in Terminal mode, AN/TPY-2 leads the Terminal High Altitude Area Defense ballistic missile defense system by guiding the THAAD missile.