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AN/TPY-2 Transportable Radar Surveillance
Forward Based X-Band Transportable [FBX-T]

On 15 March 2013, US Secretary of Defense Hagel announced that, with the support of the Japanese government, the US was planning to deploy an additional radar in Japan. This second AN/TPY-2 radar was to provide improved early warning and tracking of any missile launched from North Korea at the United States or Japan.

The radar element (TMD-GBR) in the THAAD system meets an immediate requirement for a more capable wide-area defense radar in the theater. It provides surveillance and fire control support as an integral part of the THAAD system and cueing support to lower-tier systems such as Patriot. The TMD-GBR utilizes state-of-the-art radar technology to accomplish its required functions of threat attack early warning, threat cueing, and launch and impact point estimation. In particular TMD-GBR will be able to provide a capability to perform threat classification against tactical ballistic missiles, and kill assessment after intercept. The Theater and National Missile Defense ground-based radar programs have evolved using technologies developed by SDIO, BMDO and ARPA as well as from commercial off-the-shelf equipment. The common core software processing programs resident in the TMD and NMD radars were developed in the SDIO program.

The Army's Ground Based Radar (GBR-X) is a new radar evolving out of the Upper Tier Theater Missile Defense Program which is part of the Ballistic Missile Defense (BMD) program, known as the Strategic Defense Initiative (SDI) prior to May 1993.[EN452] The GBR-X, also referred to as the GBR-T and formerly referred to as the Terminal Imaging Radar, is a transportable radar operating in the 8.55-10 GHz bands. The radar will search and track enemy tactical ballistic missiles, cruise missiles, and other air-breathing threats. It will have fire control capability against such threats. The GBR Theater Missile Defense Radar requires spectrum in the 8.55-10 GHz band.

Previously designated as the Forward Based X-Band Transportable [FBX-T] Radar, the THAAD radar is now designated the Army Navy/Transportable Radar Surveillance, or AN/TPY-2. The AN/TPY-2 operates in the X-band frequency, and is capable of tracking and identifying small objects at long distance and at very high altitude, including space. The AN/TPY-2 radar plays a vital role in the Ballistic Missile Defense System, protecting the U.S., deployed forces and allies from ballistic missile threats. [The unrelated Marine Corps AN/TPY-1 Tactical Terminal Control System is designed to replace the MATCALS system to provide a rapidly deployable surveillance and precision approach radar system.]

Raytheon IDS designed and built the AN/TPY-2 radar drawing on extensive sensor knowledge from its X-Band "Family of Radars." A high-power, transportable X-Band radar, the AN/TPY-2 is designed to detect, track and discriminate ballistic missile threats. It maximizes the capability of the BMDS to identify, assess and engage threats to the U.S., deployed forces and allies.

The Forward Based Sensors (FBS) effort develops discrimination algorithms that take advantage of unique FBS observables to provide robust discrimination solutions. FBS develops algorithms for both radar sensors and electro-optical sensors. The initial Hercules radar discrimination algorithm suite enables the AN/TPY-2 to perform the forward based discrimination function. Additional Hercules radar discrimination algorithms expand the AN/TPY-2 discrimination capability. Hercules will also support the integration of these algorithms on the Sea-Based X-Band (SBX) radar. Hercules works with the MDA Sensors program to integrate the initial passive optics algorithms into an AIRS. Hercules also works with the Aegis program to provide an adapted FBS capability for the SPY-1 radar.

BMDO is using solid state transmit and receive radar modules for the radar antenna of the mobile TMDGBR. The non-mobile Ground-Based Radar for national missile defense is using traveling wave tube technology. BMDO chose different technologies because (1) the lighter, solid-state modules facilitate meeting THAAD'S mobility requirement and (2) the production of solid-state modules for both the theater and national radars would overwhelm the production base. Even so, as of 1992 officials in the TMD-GBR Technology Division assessed the production of the more than 68,000 modules required for three radars and spares as among the most challenging areas during the TMDGBR'S demonstration and validation phase. According to these officials, manufacturers had never demonstrated the production rate required to meet the demonstration and validation schedule. In addition, the TMD-GBR contractor anticipated an initial 40- to 50-percent defect rate. While a reduced defect rate is likely as the contractor gains experience, a 40-percent rate would require producing and testing over 110,000 of the modules to produce 68,000 acceptable units.

The BMDS program has been designed to counter evolving threats through the development and release of spiral capabilities. The first forward-based capability spiral was released on schedule in October 2006 became operational. Raytheon IDS developed the second forward-based capability spiral with release planned in early 2008.

On February 15, 2007 Raytheon Company was awarded a $212 million contract by the Missile Defense Agency for the manufacture, delivery and integration support of one Terminal High Altitude Area Defense radar, also called the AN/TPY-2 radar. Under the terms of the contract, Raytheon Integrated Defense Systems will manufacture one AN/TPY-2 radar. Work will be performed at Raytheon's Missile Defense Center in Woburn, Mass., and at the company's Integrated Air Defense Center in Andover, Mass.

On July 11, 2007 the Missile Defense Agency awarded Raytheon Company a $304 million contract to develop advanced tracking and discrimination capabilities for the Ballistic Missile Defense System (BMDS) forward based AN/TPY-2 radar. Under the contract, Raytheon is responsible for the development and test of radar software, various engineering tasks, maintenance and support, infrastructure upgrades and deployment mission planning. Work will be performed at the company's Missile Defense Center, Woburn, Mass., and the Warfighter Protection Center, Huntsville, Ala.

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