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1.  Semenov YP.  (editor)  Raketno-kosmicheskaia korporatasiia Energia imeni SP Koroleva. 1946-1996.  ("RKK Energia: The aerospace corporation named after SP Korolev.  1946-1996.") (Korolev, Russia: Raketno-kosmicheskaia korporatisiia Eneriga, 1996), 672 p.


2.  Chertok B. Rakety i liudi ("Rockets and people.") (Four volume book series.)  (Moscow: Mashionstroenie Press, 1999, second editions).  The titles of the individual volumes included:  Rakety i liudi; Fili-Podlipki-Tiuratam; Goriachie dni kholodnoi voiny; Lunnaia gonka. ("Rockets and people; Fili-Podlipki-Tyuratam; Hot days of the Cold War; Moon race.")  415; 444; 528; 576 pages respectively.


3. Kamanin NP. Skryti Kosmos. ("Secret space.") (Four volume book series.) (The first two volumes were published by Infortesk, Moscow in 1995 and 1997; the latter two by Novosti Kosmonautiki, Moscow in 1999 and 2001).  Kniga pervaia, 1960-1963 gg.; Kniga vtoraia, 1964-1966 gg.; Kniga 3, 1967-1968 gg.; Kniga 4, 1969-1978 gg.) ("Book the first, 1960-1963; Book the second, 1964-1966; Book 3, 1967-1968; Book 4, 1969-1978.")  400; 444; 352; 384, pages respectively.



4.  Macey R.  "Space postman returns to more earthly pastimes."  Sydney Morning Herald April 21, 2005 pastimes/2005/04/20/1113854264120.html?oneclick=true. (It should also be noted here that Gorbatko was directly involved in the development of the LK lander, one of three known cosmonaut-engineers to be so-the others were Khrunov and Bykovskiy.  Leonov also appears to have had involvement as well.) 


5. Weaver KF.  "Space Rendezvous: Milestone on the Way to the Moon." National Geographic 129(4), April 1966.  p. 533 (The comment is in a picture caption on that page.) 


6. Heinz-Eyermann K. "Explosion stoppt Wettlauf zum Mond: Russische Riesenrakete N-1 als Konkurent zur Saturn-5."  ("Explosion stops race to the Moon: Giant Russian Rocket N-1 as Rival for Saturn 5.") Part 1.  December 1993.  p. 40-44;   "Explosion stoppt Wettlauf zum Mond: Vier Fehlstarts beenden das russische N-1-Projekt (Teil II)." ("Explosion stops race to the Moon: Four False Starts Finish the Russian N-1 Project.") Part 2. January 1994.  p. 42-45.  Flug Revue  (Translation courtesy of Ulrich Brocks.) 


7. Heinz-Eyermann K.  Ibid., Part 1.  p. 43.     


8.  Johnson NL.  The Soviet Reach for the Moon (Washington, DC:  Cosmos Books, 1995), p. 41.    


9. Baturin, Yu. M. (editor.) Mirovaya Pilotiryemaya Kosmonavtika:  Istoriya. Teknika. Liudi. ("World Piloted Cosmonautics: History. Technics. People.") (Moscow: "PTSoft" 2005) p. 188.   


10.  Raketno-kosmicheskaia korporatasiia Energia imeni SP Koroleva. 1946-1996.  pp. 248-261. In reviewing this manuscript, space historian Mark Wade (24 April 2006) has mentioned that it is interesting that detailed rocket and payload mass statistics for the 3L mission of February 1969 have been published by the Russians, but not so for the 5L mission of July 1969. 


11. Scott D & Leonov A.  Two Sides of the Moon: Our Story of the Cold War Space Race.  (NY: Thomas Dunne Books, 2004) p. 391. 


12. Interviews with US intelligence sources, beginning in Summer 2004. 

13. "Soviet lunar spacesuit described." Directorate of Science & Technology: Weekly Surveyor.  p. 5, 15 November 1971. (Original classification: "Top Secret [two code words redacted]").  Declassification date unknown.  (Available from the National Archives in Adelphi, Maryland.) 

14. Syromyatnikov VS.  100 rasskazov o stykovke i o drugikh prikliucheniiakh v kosmose i na Zemle. ("100 Stories about Dockings and Other Adventures in Space and on Earth.") (Moscow: Logos, 2003). 564 p.

15.  Syromyatnikov VS. 100 Stories about docking and other Adventures in Space and on EarthVolume 1: Twenty Years Back. (Moscow: Universitet Kniga, 2005). p. 247.

16. For an Internet accessible version of the main points of Nikolai Kamanin's Spring 1969 diary entries relating to the genesis of Soyuz 6, 7, 8 mission please see:  It shows that April 26, 1969 as the apparent day that the main aspects of the troika mission were finalized.

During the review of this manuscript, Mark Wade (24 April 2006) commented that:  "Note that Kamanin says in February 1969 that Soyuz 6 was to be a solo mission, and Soyuz 7/8 to dock, and remain docked for several days. He continues to use the words 'dock' all the way through the mission [discussion]. So if [one] believe[s] [the new information imparted by] Syromyatnikov, [then] Kamanin's diaries [will have to be concluded to] have been altered not just through omission of entries during key periods (December 1968 and Summer 1969) but [to] also have been edited.. there is some possible support for the "Podsadka" scenario in that Kamanin talks about training for a docking mission up to April, and the joint flight of the space laboratory; [but] by Summer there is a lack of entries concerning this, and then in September, despite no Soyuz missions since January, and Soyuz 7/8 supposedly being a repeat of Soyuz 4/5, there is a lot of discussion of how unready the spacecraft are, how untrained the crews are, how the debate on the rendezvous technique continues right up to launch day. all [the] more understandable if a different docking system was to be used (albeit with the same Igla automated rendezvous and approach system)."


17.   Mishin VP. Academician V. P. Mishin Diaries 1960-1974 from the Moscow Aviation Institute (MAI). (Moscow: MAI/ACEMAT/DROFA Publishers) (Scheduled publication date 2007, with the expressed written permission of the Perot Foundation.) Additional note: Special thanks to Charles Vick and the late Maxim V. Tarasenko for their help in explaining the abbreviations and acronyms used.


18.  Chertok B.  Lunnaia gonka. ("Moon race.")  (Moscow: Mashionstroenie Press, 1999, second edition).  p. 196.  In a side comment, it seems strange that, considering Chertok's book was published more than a half-decade ago, why current (2005) Russian publications insist on one spacecraft component being the 5L payload.


19. Vick CP. Personal communication with P. Pesavento, 27 April 2006.


20.  Chertok B.  Op. Cit.  p. 190.

21. Bykovskiy V.  Personal communication with P. Pesavento, 2 February 1997. 

22.  Klimuk PI.  Personal communication with P. Pesavento, 1 July 1997.

23. Heinz-Eyermann K.  Personal communication with P. Pesavento (via U. Brocks), 30 October 2005.


24.  Shamsutdinov S & Marinin I.  "The flights that never occurred." Aviatsia i Kosmonautika  2 (1993): 40-1.


25.  Scott D & Leonov A.  Op. cit.  p. 252.


26.  Einfrank  AR. "Spring 1970:  On being expelled from Moscow." Columbia Journalism Review, November/December 2001. p


27.  Andrew C. & Mitrokhin V.  The Sword and the Shield: The Mitrokhin Archive and the Secret History of the KGB.  (NY: Basic Books, 2001) p.204


28.  Ibid., p. 374.


29.  Sewell K & Richmond C.  Red Star Rogue: The Untold Story of a Soviet Submarine's Nuclear Strike Attempt on the US. (NY: Simon & Schuster, 2005)  320 p.


30. Ibid., p. 198. 



31.  Statement of Jesse Helms, Senator of North Carolina, relating to the "Hearings on the Confirmation of Strobe Talbott to Deputy Secretary of State, February 8, 1994." Extended excerpts can be found in the US Congressional Record, 103rd Congress, 2nd Session, as well as contemporary reportage that can be read on-line at:; and


32.  Kelinman  R  "'The real question.Europe's security.'  VII. Preventing nuclear war."  APF Newsletter, Sept. 24, 1973 mentions the nuclear policy discussion, viz a viz mainland China: iman/Kleiman10/Kleiman10.html "...Soviet commentators have vigorously denied reports from Peking, written by columnist Joseph Alsop, that the Chinese had reason to fear a Soviet preemptive attack. But a public, if indirect, threat of this kind was made in September 1969 when Soviet journalist Victor Louis, who is believed to have close ties with the secret police, reported that Soviet generals were debating nuclear retaliation against China in the event of further border clashes."


33.  Shelton W.  Soviet Space Exploration: The First Decade. (NY: Washington Square Press, 1968)  p. 266-277.  (Of special note is the commentary on page 267 that: ".the reaction of three key journalists to whatever rumors happened to be current in any given week is considered as reliable a barometer as any other in Russia.  These are Henry Shapiro of UPI, the 'old man' of foreign correspondents in Moscow; Edmund Stevens, another old-timer of very gentle manners who drives the only red Mercedes in Russia (it was Ed Stevens who had headed the Moscow Bureau for Time before Time was expelled from the USSR.); and perhaps the most important indicator, an inscrutable, personable, wealthy Russian named Victor Louis.")


34.  "Triumph and tragedy of Soyuz 11." Time magazine, July 12, 1971. Can be read online at: 




35.  Karweina G.  Wettlauf zum Mond. ("Race to the Moon.") (Cologne, Gemany: Kiepnheuer & Witsch, 1969) p. 153. "In the West the first manned flight of the new Soviet space ship is now expected daily. People even believe to know already which tasks it is to fulfill, for in Moscow rumors are spread again by semi-official sources, above all by the KGB confidant Victor Louis, who despite his Soviet nationality is accredited to a London evening paper as a foreign correspondent in Moscow.  This Louis confides to his Western colleagues in early April that they can expect a new great feat of Soviet cosmonautics in the next days: The first docking of two manned space ships." (Excerpt and its translation courtesy Ulrich Brocks.)


36.  Bassow W. The Moscow Correspondents:  Reporting on Russia from the Revolution to Glasnost (New York:  William Morrow, 1988) 385 p.


37.  Ibid., pp. 252-3.


38.   Markish D.  "Victor Louis: Questions without answers."  Lehaim 125 (5673-9), September 2002.  (Article courtesy Dima Pieson.) 


39.  Brocks U.  Personal communication with P. Pesavento 30 August 2005.


40.  Shamsutdinov S & Marinin I.  "Flight to the Moon:  A difficult path." Zemliya i Veselennaya  4 (1993): 62-9.  Also see by the same authors:  "The Flights that never occurred." Aviatsiya i Kosmonavtika 2(1993) 40-1.


41.  "Soviet Believed to Be Preparing Manned Flight Around Moon." (UPI news wire story)  New York Times, November 27 1968. p. 44.


42.  "Soviet Press Agency Says Three Zond Flights Were Made as Tests for a Manned Shot to the Moon." (AP news wire story) New York Times, November 24, 1968. p. 29.


43.  "Russians Ready for Manned Shot Around Moon: Izvestia Says Zond 6 Found Man Could Survive Level of Radiation in Space."  (UPI news wire story) New York Times, November 26, 1968.  p. 4.


44.  "Tass Says Zond Craft Open Way to Manned Flight Around Moon." (UPI news wire story)  New York Times, November 30, 1968.  p. 39.


45.  Pesavento P & Vick CP.  "The Moon Race 'End Game':  A New Assessment of Soviet Crewed Lunar Aspirations. Part 2."   Quest: the history of spaceflight quarterly  11(2):32.


46.  Rostow WW.  "A Comparison of the American and Soviet Space Programs." (Date of creation while Zond 5 was en route to the Moon.) (Original Classification: "Top Secret.") 3 p. National Security File, Memos to the President, "Walt Rostow, Vol. 95, September 19-25, 1968."  Box 39. Document 37b. (Declassified 9/07/2006 at the request of the author.)  (Accessible at the LBJ Presidential Library, Austin, Texas.)


47.  "Cosmic Spaceship 'Apollo VII': Launch Plans."  16 p.  Booklet. (Hand notations in black ink, with some data, such as launch time, written in.) [Early] October 1968.


48.  A selection of these Zond 5 documents are reviewed in: 

Pesavento P.  "Declassified American Documents Show a Broad and In-depth Interest in Soviet Space Activities."  J Brit Interplanetary Soc 56(5/6): 175-91, 2003.


49.  Rostow WW.  Ibid., p. 1.


50.  National Intelligence Estimate 11-1-67.  "The Soviet Space Program:  Memorandum to Holders." 4 April 1968.  (Original classification:  "Top Secret [two code words redacted]"). 17 p.  National Security File, Intelligence File, Miscellaneous CIA Material, Volume 3.  Document 48a. (Declassified 8/17/2004 at the request of the author.) (Accessible at the LBJ Presidential Library, Austin, Texas.)


In this NIE commenting on the USSR's manned lunar landing efforts, ".it now seems clear that if the Soviets are planning a manned lunar landing mission within the next two to four years, it will be a fairly complicated one involving two launches and at least one rendezvous in Earth or lunar orbit. the capability of a single Area J vehicle is insufficient to carry out a direct ascent and direct return lunar landing mission.  An adequate payload for the latter mission could be achieved, however, by launching separate "J" vehicles and docking them in Earth orbit. We therefore believe that the first Soviet attempt to put a man on the Moon will involve the rendezvous and docking of the two components which will eject the lunar package out of Earth orbit. the Soviets probably will be unable to begin flight tests of lunar mission payloads before early 1969." (p. 6-7)  The report also hinted at that US intelligence felt at the time that the Soviets had an insufficient manufacturing base to build enough large-sized boosters to test out their "two 'J' rocket" mission scenario in enough shakedown missions prior to the first American Moon landing attempt, targeted for mid-1969, to beat the USA.


51.  Rostow WW.  Ibid., p. 2.


52.  "Cosmic Spaceship 'Apollo VII': Launch Plans," Ibid., pp. 10-11; 14.


53.  Ibid., pp. 5, 7.


54.  Ibid., pp. 15-16.


55.  Hornig DF.  "Memorandum for the President.  Subject:  Assessment of the Soviet Space Program."  Wednesday, November 27, 1968 [Amended in hand-writing, "Monday, December 2, 2:00 PM"]  (Original classification unknown.) 5 p.  Papers of Donald Hornig, CHRONO, October 1-December 31, 1968.  Box 6. (Accessible at the LBJ Presidential Library, Austin, Texas.)


56. Ibid., p. 2 of attached report


57.  "The Periscope: The Dog Jumped Over the Moon."  Newsweek, November 25, 1968.  p. 28.  (Of special note is that in the Indian Ocean, "the Russians deployed a flotilla of fourteen ships, including a.missile cruiser, an oiler, a submarine tender and half a dozen space-tracking and survey ships.")


58.  Pesavento P. & Vick CP.  Op cit.. Part 1. 11(1):22-7.


59.  "Has the US Settled for No. 2 in Space:  An Interview with Wernher von Braun, Director, Marshall Space Flight Center."  US News & World Report, October 14, 1968. p. 74-6. 

60.  Hightower J.  "Russians getting set for shot-von Braun." Huntsville Times 6 December 1968.  p. 3.

61.  Astronautics and Aeronautics, 1972: Chronology Science, Technology and Policy.  (NASA Special Publication 4017.) (Washington, DC:  US Government Printing Office, 1974)  p. 394.  (The original article appeared in the Baltimore Sun on November 24, 1972, page A10.)

62.  Cunningham W.  Personal communication with P. Pesavento, 22 March 2006.


63.  "The Race to the Moon." TV documentary produced by Karl Heinz-Eyermann.  Broadcast on Phoenix Television, Berlin, on February 11, 2002.  1 hour.

64.  Brocks U.  Personal communication with P. Pesavento, 17 May 2005.

65.  Pesavento P. & Vick CP.  Op. cit., Part 2. p. 45.

66.  Ibid., p. 45-7.

67.  Rebrov M., & Khozin G.  Nas Zheduit Luna ("The Moon and Man") (Moscow:  Peace Pubishers, 1966) 120 p. (English translation version.)

68.  Ibid., pp. 7-8.

69.  Ibid., p. 96.

70. Levedev VV, Gilberg LA, Bymshtein CI & Anikina MS, editors.  Pokorenie Kosmosa ("The Conquest of Space.") (Moscow: Mashinstroenyie, 1969) 148 p.  (This was a limited edition book, with a two-sided 45 RPM record inserted with speeches by Tsiolkovskiy, Gagarin, Korolev, as well as the Communist Internationale being played by Luna 10 in orbit about the Moon.)


71.  Dorda N.  "Moi Vasya." ("My Vasya.") Music Recording.  1956.  Can be downloaded off the Internet at:


72.  Zaburdaev O.  Kosmonavtika Na Hudozhestvenniy Markirovanniy Konverta SSSR i Rossii.  ("Cosmonautics in the Postal Stamped Art Envelopes of the USSR and Russia.")  (Moscow: Senergiya House, 2005) p. 33.

73.  Kloetzel JE & Jones WA.  2006 Scott Standard Postage Stamp Catalogue Volume 5, Countries P-Sl.  (NY: Subway Stamp Shop, 2005). (Under "Russia" section.) All stamp issuance data is from this catalogue.

74.  Andrew C. & Mitrokhin V.  Op. cit., p. 192-3.

75.  Pear R.  "Double Agent, Revealed by FBI, Tells of Technique." (Special to the New York Times)  New York Times, March 4, 1980.  p. D16.

76.  "Spy Tried to Abort US Manned Shot."  (AP news wire story) USA Today, March 4, 1980. p. 3A.

77.  "Spy's Letter to NASA: Apollo 8 'Sabotaged.'" (AP news wire story) USA Today, March 5, 1980.  p. 1A.

78.  Coates J.  "Soviet spy tells of sabotage effort on Apollo launch." Chicago Tribune, March 4, 1980. p. 1-2.

79.  Allward M., advisory ed. "Dramatic race to the Moon," p. 828-9. [Apollo 8 entry.] The Encyclopedia of Space (Feltham, Middlesex:  Paul Hamlyn, 1969).  This is a special edition of the book, including two special extended sections at the end of the volume for Soviet and American events of  1967/1968, and for 1969 respectively.

80. Hanratty PF.  "Memorandum for Brigadier General Kendall. Subject:  Recent exchanges on the Washington-Moscow emergency link."  [Handwritten upon by Walt W. Rostow: "WWR Sent to the President."] December 25, 1968.  (Original classification: "Executive [Roster]").  1 page. White House Central Files, Subject File, "OS 4, 6/1/68-[no completion date]", Box 7.  (Accessible at the LBJ Presidential Library, Austin, Texas.)


81.  Pellegrino CR & Stoff J.  Chariots for Apollo: The Making of the Lunar Module (New York: Atheneum, 1985).  p. 84.

82.  "The Periscope:  Soviet Moon Shot that Fizzled."  Newsweek, December 30, 1968.  p. 11.


83. Baerwolf A. "Moskau plante bemannten Flug vor Apollo 8." ("Moscow planned manned flight before Apollo 8")  Die Welt, January 15, 1968.  (Translation courtesy of Ulrich Brocks.)


84.  "Cosmos 260 Launched."  (UPI news wire story)  New York Times, December 18, 1968.  p. 35.


85.  Leonov A & Sokolov A.  The Stars are Awaiting Us. (Moscow: Young Guards Press, 1967) 108 p.


86.  Ibid., p. 36.


87.  Tiede T.  "Russia could beat us to the Moon if."  Pacific Stars and Stripes (Tokyo edition) June 25, 1969. p. 9.


88.  Sheldon CS.  Soviet Space Programs, 1966-1970.  (Washington, DC:  US     

     Government Printing Office, 1971)  p. 374.


Also see the following German newspaper article:  "Wettrennen Im All-Kosmonaut Leonow Kudigt an:  Bemannte russiche Mondlandung noch vor Ende dieses Jahres! Amerikaner: Sowjetishes raumfahrtunternehmen in den nachsten Tagen." ("Space race-cosmonaut Leonov announces: Manned Russian Moon Landing Still Before the end of this year! Americans: Soviet space operation in the next days.") In this 3 June 1969 article that appeared in Westfaelische Rundschau, the newspaper reported the following:


"Tokyo.  Will there be a dramatic final spurt for the first manned Moon landing?  The Soviet cosmonaut Aleksey Leonov announced in Moscow that the USSR is planning a Moon landing in the course of the next months; 'We are able to send one man or men to the Moon still before the end of this year or else at the beginning of 1970.'.. According to the plan of the American space agency NASA the astronauts Armstrong and Aldrin will land on the Moon on 20 July, while astronaut Collins navigates the mother ship in a lunar orbit.. An American government spokesman declared in Paris that the Soviet Union will begin a big space operation already in the next days: 'A Moon landing cannot be excluded.'"


(Source and translation courtesy Ulrich Brocks)


It is possible that an American official at the Paris Air Show was the source of the UPI reportage about an imminent Soviet space shot.


89.  "Leonov 6/2."  "June 1969."  Box 116, Folder 4.  Henry Shapiro papers archive. 

      Manuscript Division, Library of Congress, Washington, DC. (James O. Jackson



90.  Vick CP. Personal communication with P. Pesavento, 12 June 2006.



91.  "Space:  Borman in the USSR."  Facts on File (NY: Facts on File Press, 1969) Thursday, July 10-Wednesday July 16, 1969.  p. 432.


92.  Clarity JF.  "Top Soviet Aides Observe the 4th: Borman Center of Attention at Fete at US Embassy." (Special to the New York Times) New York Times, July 5, 1969.  p. 28.


93.  "Moskau voller Geruchte: Mondlandung vor USA?" ("Moscow full of rumors:  Moon landing before USA?") (News service of Welt am Sonntag.  Datelined 5 July, Moscow/Cape Kennedy/New York)  (Translation courtesy of Ulrich Brocks.)


94.  "Moskaus verpasste Chance: Das 'Mondfester' fuer Russen geschlossen." ("Moscow's missed opportunity:  The 'lunar launch window' closed for the Russians.") (News service of Welt am Sonntag.  Datelined 12 July, Moscow/Cape Kennedy)  (Translation courtesy of Ulrich Brocks.)  This report's date rules out any connection to Luna 15, and explicitly ties the July 5 news item with a crewed mission.


In an additional aside, the Moscow rumors were briefly and obliquely mentioned in Charles S. Sheldon's US Congressional Report Soviet Space Programs 1971-1975.  Part 1.  (Washington, DC:  US Government Printing Office, 1976) p. 145:  "By late June or early July there were rumors in Moscow that the Russians were about to do something spectacular within a few days related to the Moon. Several accounts tied these rumors to the big (G-1-e) vehicle in the Saturn V class. Rumors say it was launched, but failed to reach orbit. It is known that tracking ships which had been on station in various oceans including the Indian Ocean shortly departed their stations for port."


95.  Vick CP.  Personal communication with P. Pesavento, 11 April 2006.  As Vick notes, "Depending on when one dates them, Russia had available into the 1980s as many as 111 research, scientific, survey and space-tracking range ships (plus support ships) over half of which could be deployed at any one time," but that never was the case, excepting for the singular time frame in late June-July 1969. He notes further that "the July 1969 ship numbers far exceeded the standard thirty observation ships seen with the Zond [circumlunar] flights.  The additional point is that the [lunar-sample return] missions had only a few deep-space tracking ships deployed for a very short period-nothing like this July recovery fleet."


96.  Vick CP.  Personal communication with P. Pesavento, 6 April 2006.


97.  Pesavento P & Vick CP. Part 2. Op. cit., page 56, reference 120.


98.  Ibid., page 25, 27.


99.  Ibid., pp. 55-56, reference 116.


100.  Seamans RC.  Project Apollo: The Tough Decisions (NASA 'Monographs in Aerospace History No. 37') (Washington DC: US Government Printing Office, 2005) p. 118.


101.  Pesavento P & Vick CP. Part 2. Op. cit., page 26.


102. Stafford T. & Cassutt M.  We Have Capture.  (Washington, DC: Smithsonian Books, 2002) p. 137.  The text states that the cosmonauts witnessed the N-1 launching from "the viewing area."


103.  Hall R.  Personal communication with P. Pesavento.  10 December 2004.




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