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ORBITER PURGE, VENT AND DRAIN SYSTEM...

ORBITER FLIGHT CREW ESCAPE SYSTEMS

ORBITER FLIGHT CREW ESCAPE SYSTEMS

IN-FLIGHT CREW ESCAPE SYSTEM

    The in-flight crew escape system is provided for use only when the orbiter would be in controlled gliding flight and unable to reach a runway. This condition would normally lead to ditching. The crew escape system provides the flight crew with an alternative to water ditching or to landing on terrain other than a landing site. The probability of the flight crew surviving a ditching is very slim.

    The hardware changes required to the orbiters enable the flight crew to equalize the pressurized crew compartment with the outside pressure via the depressurization valve opened by pyrotechnics in the crew compartment aft bulkhead that would be manually activated by a flight crew member in the middeck of the crew compartment; pyrotechnically jettison the crew ingress/egress side hatch manually in the middeck of the crew compartment; and bail out from the middeck through the ingress/egress side hatch opening after manually deploying the escape pole through, outside and down from the side hatch opening. One by one, each flight crew member attaches a lanyard hook assembly, which surrounds the deployed escape pole, to his or her parachute harness and egresses through the side hatch opening. Attached to the escape pole, the crew member slides down the pole and off the end. The escape pole provides each crew member with a trajectory that takes the crew member below the orbiter's left wing.

    Changes were also made in the software of the orbiter's general-purpose computers. The software changes were required for the primary avionics software system and the backup flight system for transatlantic-landing and glide-return-to-launch-site abort modes. The changes provide the orbiter with an automatic-mode input by flight crew members through keyboards at the commander's and/or pilot's panel C3, which provides the orbiter with an automatic stable flight for crew bailout. This software change, which is required to allow the flight crew commander's departure, automatically controls the orbiter's velocity and angle of attack to the desired bailout conditions.

    The crew would make the escape decision at an altitude of approximately 60,000 feet and would immediately make an input to the flight control system software autopilot mode.

    When the orbiter descends to an altitude of approximately 30,000 feet, its airspeed must be decreased to approximately 200 knots (230 mph). At approximately 25,000 feet, a crew member in the middeck (referred to as the jump master and seated in the forward left seat in the middeck) raises a cover on the left side of the crew compartment middeck at floor level and pulls the T-handle, which activates the pyrotechnics for the depressurization valve at the crew compartment X o 576 aft bulkhead. This equalizes the crew compartment cabin and outside pressure before the side hatch is jettisoned.

    At approximately 25,000 feet, the software for the automatic autopilot mode changes the orbiter's angle of attack to approximately 15 degrees. This angle of attack must remain nearly constant for approximately three minutes until the orbiter reaches an altitude of approximately 2,000 feet.

    At approximately 25,000 feet, the jump master jettisons the side hatch by pulling the hatch jettison T-handle next to the depressurization T-handle. When the T-handle is pulled, pyrotechnics separate the hatch assembly by severing the side hatch hinge, and three pyrotechnic thrusters jettison the tunnel/hatch from the orbiter at a velocity of approximately 50 feet per second.

    The jump master pulls the pip pin on the escape pole and pulls the ratchet handle down, which permits the two telescoping sections of the escape pole to be deployed through the hatch opening by spring tension.

    A magazine assembly located near the side hatch contains a lanyard assembly for each flight crew member. Each lanyard assembly consists of a hook attached to a Kevlar strap that surrounds the escape pole. Five roller bearings on each strap surround the pole and permit the lanyard to roll freely down the pole. Each flight crew member positions himself or herself at the hatch opening and attaches himself or herself to the escape pole via the lanyard hook assembly and jumps out the hatch opening.

    Each lanyard assembly incorporates an energy absorber rated at 1,000 pounds. The Kevlar strap consists of two sections of permanent Nomex thread stitching and a section of breakaway Kevlar thread stitching. When the crew member exits the side hatch on the escape pole, the breakaway Kevlar thread stitching can break away, providing the crew member with an energy absorber. The crew member slides down the escape pole and off the end into a free-fall. The escape pole extends downward 9.8 feet from the side hatch and provides the crew member with a trajectory that will carry him or her beneath the orbiter's left wing.

    It would take approximately 90 seconds for a maximum crew of eight to bail out. After the first crew member bails out from the middeck, the remaining crew members follow at approximately 12-second intervals until all are out by approximately 10,000 feet altitude.

    A handhold was added in the middeck next to the side hatch to permit the crew members to position themselves through the side hatch opening for bailout.

    The escape pole is constructed of aluminum and steel. The arched housing for the pole is 126.75 inches long and is attached to the middeck ceiling above the airlock hatch and at the 2 o'clock position at the side hatch for deployment during launch and entry. The escape pole telescopes from the middeck housing through the side hatch in two sections. The primary extension is 73 inches long, and the end extension is 32 inches long. The diameter of the housing is 3.5 inches. The two telescoping sections are slightly smaller in diameter. The escape pole weighs approximately 241 pounds-248 pounds with attachments.

    On orbit, the escape pole's primary stowage position requires unpinning the escape pole at the starboard and port attachments, rotating the pole so it is flat against the middeck ceiling and strapping it to the ceiling. An alternate on-orbit stowage approach also requires unpinning the escape pole at the starboard and port attachments, rotating it so it is flat against the middeck ceiling and strapping it to the ceiling.

    The side hatch water coolant lines for side hatch thermal conditioning were modified to accommodate the installation of the side hatch pyrotechnic separation system.

    The flight crew members' seats were also modified to accommodate the seat/crew altitude protection system suit for each crew member.

    The pyrotechnically operated crew compartment depressurization valve consists of two flapper valves with debris screens on the crew compartment side and payload bay side that open to depressurize the crew compartment and close when the pressure equalizes.

    It is noted that the hatch jettison features could be used in a landing emergency.

    The crew member's altitude protection suit includes an emergency oxygen system, pilot and drogue parachutes that are operated automatically and have manual backup, a main parachute that is operated automatically and has manual backup, a seawater activation release system, flotation devices, a life raft and survival equipment. The crew altitude protection suit and its associated equipment weigh approximately 70 pounds.

    The side hatch jettison thruster contractor is OEA, Denver, Colo. The pyrotechnics contractor for the hatch tunnel, hinge and the energy transfer system lines is Explosive Technology, Fairfield, Calif. The escape pole is government-furnished equipment that is supplied by NASA's Johnson Space Center, Houston, Texas, as is the crew altitude protection suit.

EMERGENCY EGRESS SLIDE

    The emergency egress slide provides the orbiter flight crew members with a rapid and safe emergency egress through the orbiter middeck ingress/egress side hatch after a normal opening of the side hatch or after jettisoning of the side hatch at the nominal end-of-mission landing site or at a remote or emergency landing site.

    The emergency egress slide replaces the emergency egress side hatch bar, which required the flight crew members to drop approximately 10.5 feet to the ground. This drop could cause injury to the flight crew members and prevent an injured flight crew member from moving to a safe distance from the orbiter.

    The emergency egress slide will support return- to- launch- site, transatlantic-landing, abort-once-around and normal end-of-mission landings.

    The system will be activated manually by the flight crew rotating the slide from the middeck through the egress side hatch opening onto the side hatch if the hatch has not been jettisoned or through the egress side hatch opening if the hatch has been jettisoned. The flight crew pulls a lanyard to inflate the slide with a self-contained air bottle supply. The slide allows the safe egress of the flight crew members to the ground within 60 seconds after the side hatch is fully opened or jettisoned; accommodates the egress of the flight crew members wearing the launch and entry crew altitude protection system; accommodates the egress of incapacitated crew members; withstands and remains functional in the egress environment for a minimum of six minutes after deployment; and can be released from the side hatch to permit fire truck access.

    The slide is installed inside the middeck below the side hatch where it will not inhibit ingress/egress when the system is not required and not interfere with normal on-orbit operations.

    The egress slide contractor is Inflatable Systems Inc., a division of OEA, Denver, Colo.

SECONDARY EMERGENCY EGRESS

    The left-hand flight deck overhead window provides the flight crew with a secondary emergency egress route. The left overhead window consists of three panes of glass, an inner pane attached to the crew compartment and a center and outer pane attached to the upper forward fuselage.

    When the secondary emergency egress path is utilized, pulling the T handle located forward of the flight deck center console (between the commander and pilot) activates the overhead window jettison system. When initiated, the center and outer panes are jettisoned as a unit, upward and aft. A time delay in the pyrotechnic firing circuit delays the initiation of the jettisoning of the inner pane 0.3 of a second after the center and outer panes are jettisoned. Upon the initiation of the jettisoning of the inner window pane, it rotates downward and aft into the crew compartment aft flight deck on hinges located at the aft portion of the window frame. A capture device attenuates the opening rate and holds the window in position.

    The overhead window jettison system consists primarily of expanding tube assemblies, mild detonating fuses, frangible bolts and associated initiators.

    The left overhead window jettison system can be initiated from the outside of the orbiter on the right side of the forward fuselage by ground personnel.

    Egress steps are mounted at the aft flight deck station (left side) to assist the flight crew up through the window.

    Emergency ground descent devices are stowed on the overhead aft flight deck adjacent to the left overhead window. One device is provided for each flight crew member. The emergency ground descent device enables flight crew members to lower themselves to the ground over the side of the orbiter.

SIDE HATCH JETTISON

    The middeck ingress/egress side hatch was modified to provide the capability of pyrotechnically jettisoning the side hatch for emergency egress on the ground. In addition, a crew compartment pressure equalization valve provided at the crew compartment aft bulkhead, X o 576, is also pyrotechnically activated to equalize cabin/outside pressure before the jettisoning of the side hatch.

    A panel on the left side of the middeck of the crew compartment contains two T-handles. One T-handle controls the initiation of the pyrotechnic pressure equalization valves, which equalize the cabin pressure with outside pressure.

    The other T-handle in the same panel in the middeck jettisons the side hatch pyrotechnically. When this T-handle is activated, pyrotechnics sever the hinges of the side hatch and three pyrotechnic tunnel/hatch thrusters are initiated, which jettisons the side hatch from the orbiter.

    The side hatch jettison thruster contractor is OEA, Denver, Colo. The pyrotechnics contractor for the hatch tunnel, hinges and the energy transfer system lines is Explosive Technology, Fairfield, Calif.

CREW EQUIPMENT

FOOD SYSTEM AND DINING

    The middeck of the orbiter is equipped with facilities for food stowage, preparation, and dining for each crew member. The food supply is categorized as either menu food or pantry food. Menu food consists of three daily meals per crew member and provides an average energy intake of approximately 2,700 calories per crew member per day. The pantry food is a two-day contingency food supply that also contains food for snacks and beverages between meals and for individual menu changes. It provides an average energy intake of 2,100 calories per crew member per day. The types of food include fresh, thermostabilized, rehydratable, irradiated, intermediate-moisture, and natural-form food and beverages.

    If a payload is installed in the middeck in lieu of the galley, the food preparation system is limited. It consists of the water dispenser, food warmer, food trays and food system accessories.

    The water dispenser provides the flight crew with ambient and chilled water for drinking and reconstituting food. The water dispenser consists of a housing assembly, rehydration station, hygiene water quick disconnect and water lines. Two flex lines 10 feet long connect the housing assembly to the ambient and chilled potable water system. Both lines have quick disconnects. A 12-foot-long flex line with a quick disconnect and water-dispensing valve supplies water for personal hygiene. The water selector valve amb position provides ambient water to the rehydration station between 65 and 75 F. The off position prevents water from flowing to the rehydration station (it does not shut off water flow to the personal hygiene water outlet quick disconnect). The chd water position provides chilled water to the rehydration station between 45 and 55 F.

    Depressing the hygiene water valve handle allows a constant flow of ambient water. Releasing the handle prevents water flow. The locked-open position allows a constant flow of ambient water without holding the handle.

    The rehydration station is an electronic dispensing system that interfaces directly with food and beverage packages to provide rehydration capability and drinking water for flight crew members. The system dispenses 2, 3, 4 and 8 ounces of water through a replaceable needle. A spare needle is stowed at the rear of the rehydration unit and another in the in-flight maintenance middeck locker. The needles are removed and installed with a 3/8-inch open-end wrench. Depressing the pwr push button at the rehydration station provides power to the electronic rehydration system and an indicating light is illuminated within the switch upon activation. Depressing the pwr push button again deactivates the system. The water quantity rotary switch's 2, 3, 4 and 8 positions provide 2, 3, 4 and 8 ounces of water, respectively. The needle must be inserted into the package before depressing the fill push button to prevent free water from being dispensed into the crew cabin environment. Depressing the fill push button activates the electronic filling mechanism when the water quantity selection has been made. A light comes on within the fill switch during filling and goes out when filling is complete. The operation is automatically deactivated. The bypass valve provides a continuous flow of water to the food rehydration unit when the handle is depressed or lifted to the up locked-open position.

    The rehydratable food container is inserted into the rehydration station, the water dispenser needle penetrates the rubber septum on the rehydratable container, and the specified amount of water is discharged into the container. The rehydrated food is mixed and heated, if required. The rehydrated food container is opened by grasping the center portion of the lid liner with the fingers, piercing the liner with a knife or scissors and pulling the liner up to aspirate air. While grasping the center of the liner, the astronaut swings container in a gentle forward and backward semicircular motion to place food contents at the bottom of the container. The inside edge of the lid liner (three sides) is cut with a knife or scissors to expose the food.

    The rehydratable beverage container is inserted into the rehydration station, the water dispenser needle penetrates the rubber septum on the rehydratable container, and the specified amount of water is discharged into the container. The rehydratable beverage is mixed and heated, if required. A plastic clip is affixed to the straw in the closed position, the probe end of the straw is inserted into the container rubber septum, the straw is placed in the mouth, the clip is released, and the beverage is drunk. All straws are color-coded for each crew member.

    Food trays are kept in a middeck stowage locker (or in the galley, if installed) at launch and are removed and installed in the use locations during preparations for the first meal. The tray is a clear, anodized aluminum sheet that restrains food and accessories during dining. The trays are color-coded for each crew member. Velcro on the bottom of the food trays allows them to be attached to the front of the middeck lockers (or the galley door, if installed) for food preparation or dining. The straps will also hold the trays on the crew member's leg for dining. A cutout on the tray allows three rehydratable food packages to be secured to the tray. Another cutout with rubber strips adapts to various-sized food packages, including cans, pouches and rehydratable food packages. Two magnetic strips hold eating utensils and two 0.75-inch-wide binder clips on the tray retain such things as condiment packets and wipes. Accessories used during food preparation and dining include condiments, gum and candy, vitamins, wet wipes, dry wipes, drinking containers, drinking straws, utensils and a re-entry kit that contains salt tablets and long straws.

    Condiments include salt, pepper, taco sauce, hot pepper sauce, catsup, mayonnaise and mustard. The salt and pepper are liquids stored in small plastic squeeze bottles. The remaining condiments are packaged in individual, sealed, flexible plastic pouches. Vitamin tablets supplement dietary requirements. Wet wipes are packaged in 21 individual packets per dispenser for cleaning utensils after dining. A light spring action retains and positions wipes for dispensing. Empty beverage containers of rigid plastic for drinking and storing water are carried in crew members' clothing and can be filled at the water dispenser. Approximately five to 10 different color-coded straws are provided for each crew member (depending on the flight's duration) for drinking beverages and water. Additional straws are kept in the pantry beverages and various menu locker trays. Color-coded utensils include a knife, two spoons (large and small), a fork and a can opener for each crew member. They are stowed with a soft plastic holder that has a Velcro snap cover. Dry wipes are packaged in a 30-wipe container that can be attached to the crew cabin wall with Velcro for cleanup after dining. The re-entry kit consists of one package containing eight salt tablets for each crew member and long straws (four per crew member). Two salt tablets are to be taken with 8 ounces of water or other beverage by each crew member four times before entry. The re-entry kit may be stowed in one of three locations depending on space available-with the accessories, near the last meal to be consumed on orbit or with the pantry beverages.

    The food warmer is a portable heating unit that can warm a meal for at least four crew members within one hour when the galley is not flown. It is stowed in a middeck locker at launch and is removed and installed during meal preparation activity. The food is heated by thermal conduction on a hot plate (element). The warmer is thermostatically controlled between 165 and 175 F. The case is constructed of aluminum with an exterior envelope of 13 by 18 by 6 inches. It has latches and is lined with clear urethane foam insulation coated with room-temperature vulcanizing compound. The case has straps for handling and on-orbit installation. The exterior contains controls and displays, a power connector that interfaces with the power cable and Velcro attachment. A hinged element is sandwiched between two aluminum plates and is contained by a fiberglass frame. The aluminum plates have spring-bungee restraints for foil-backed food packages on one side. An on/off switch provides two-phase ac power to the unit and a light indicates the warmer is operating. The power cable is 156 inches long and attaches to a middeck ac utility outlet. The cable is stowed inside the case at launch.

    A maximum of 14 packages can be installed on the side of the spring bungees and eight on the other side. Rehydratable beverages should be placed on the side opposite the spring bungees, and the foam on the other side is additionally relieved to prevent the packages from popping out in zero gravity. When 14 rehydratable packages are heated, no foil-backed food pouches can be heated. A maximum of six foil-backed food pouches can be heated in conjunction with 12 rehydratable packages. When foil-backed pouches are heated, only four rehydratable packages can be heated on the side of the spring bungees. The foil-backed pouches are stacked three deep. Four rehydratable packages are inserted in the outer recessed foam cutouts. At the bottom of the cutouts, 0.5-inch-thick uncoated foam absorbs moisture or spilled liquids.

    The galley is a multipurpose facility that provides a centralized location for one individual to handle all food preparation activities for a meal. The galley has facilities for heating food, rehydrating food and stowing food system accessories and food trays. The galley consists of a rehydration station, oven, food trays and food system accessories.

    The oven is divided into two principal compartments-a lower compartment designed for heating at least 14 rehydratable food containers inserted on tracks and an upper compartment designed to accept a variety of food packages, including the rehydratable containers. At least seven food pouches can be heated in the upper compartment and are held against the heat sink by four spring-loaded plates. The oven has a heating range of 145 to 185 F. During launch and entry, the oven door is held closed by a restraining strap, which is removed from the door by releasing the snap for on-orbit operations. An on/off switch enables and removes power to three fans.

    The rehydration station dispensing system interfaces directly with food and beverage packages, providing rehydration capability and drinking water for crew members. A gauge indicates hot water temperatures of 100 to 220 F. The volume/ounces switch selects the volume of water to be dispensed by the rehydration station in 0.5-ounce increments from 0.5 of an ounce to 8 ounces. The yellow hot push button indicator allows hot water to be dispensed when it is depressed and is illuminated when energized. When the selected volume of water has been dispensed, the push button will begin to flash on and off. The light will be extinguished when the food package is retracted, releasing the hydration station lever arm/limit switch. The rehydration station lever arm/limit switch serves as an interlock so water can be dispensed only when a food package is connected to the needle. The food package makes contact with the rehydration station lever, which activates the limit switch (note that the flight crew does not physically actuate the lever). The blue cold push button indicator allows cold water to be dispensed when it is depressed and is illuminated when energized. When the selected volume of water has been dispensed, the push button will begin to flash on and off. The light will be extinguished when the food package is retracted, releasing the rehydration station lever arm/limit switch.

    The galley light is located on the upper left-hand side of the galley structure surface and has a single light brightness control. Moving the knob clockwise from off applies power to the light and provides variable brightness control.

    Two condiment dispensers are attached to the galley by Velcro tabs on the back of the dispensers. The dispensers are available for holding individual packets, such as catsup, taco sauce, mayonnaise and mustard, on the front panel below the oven. The dispensers are open-ended boxes designed to hold the stack of packets together so they may be individually removed as needed. A slide plate keeps the packets from becoming loose as the items are depleted.

    A single dispenser for holding individual packets of wet wipes is located on the front panel below the oven and is slightly different in design than the condiment dispensers.

    Dispensers for liquid salt and pepper and vitamins can be restrained by clips conveniently located below the rehydration station.

    Food trays and food system accessories are the same as those used on flights without the galley.

    On the upper left-hand corner of the galley behind a Teflon cloth panel is an MV3 valve that has emer off and on positions. The on position serves as the nominal open position of the manual shutoff valve, and emer off serves as a manual shutoff valve for the ambient temperature water supply to the galley.

    On the upper right-hand corner of the galley behind a Teflon cloth panel are test connectors, a dc power bus A and B switch and a flush port quick-disconnect test port. The two test connectors serve as a hookup for ground support equipment. The dc power bus A switch's on position activates the galley oven heaters, rehydration station system and one of six water tank strip heaters; the off position deactivates the heaters. The dc power bus B switch's on position activates five of the six galley water tank strip heaters, and the off position deactivates them. The flush port quick disconnect serves as the galley water system GSE flush port.

    On the lower left-hand side of the galley is an auxiliary port water quick disconnect that allows the crew members to obtain ambient potable water when the MV3 valve is off or hygiene water when the 12-foot flex line and water dispensing valve are attached to the quick disconnect.

    Three one-hour meal periods are scheduled for each day of the mission. This hour includes actual eating time and the time required to clean up. Breakfast, lunch and dinner are scheduled as close to the usual hours as possible. Dinner is scheduled at least two to three hours before crew members begin preparations for their sleep period.

SHUTTLE ORBITER MEDICAL SYSTEM

    The shuttle orbiter medical system is required to provide medical care in flight for minor illnesses and injuries. It also provides support for stabilizing severely injured or ill crew members until they are returned to Earth. The SOMS consists of two separate packages: the medications and bandage kit and the emergency medical kit. The MBK is blue and the EMK is also blue with red Velcro.

    The medical kits are stowed in a modular locker in the middeck of the crew compartment. If the kits are required on orbit, they are unstowed and installed on the locker doors with Velcro.

    Each kit contains pallets. The MBK pallet designators are D, E and F. The D pallet contains oral medications consisting of pills, capsules and suppositories. The E pallet contains bandage materials for covering or immobilizing body parts. The F pallet contains medications to be administered by topical application.

    The EMK pallet designators are A, B, C and G. The A pallet contains medications to be administered by injection. The B pallet contains items for performing minor surgeries. The C pallet contains diagnostic/therapeutic items consisting of instruments for measuring and inspecting the body. The G pallet contains a microbiological test kit for testing for bacterial infections.

    The diagnostic equipment on board and information from the flight crew will allow diagnosis and treatment of injuries and illnesses through consultation with flight surgeons in the Mission Control Center in Houston.

OPERATIONAL BIOINSTRUMENTATION SYSTEM

    The operational bioinstrumentation system provides an amplified electrocardiograph analog signal from either of two designated flight crew members to the orbiter avionics system, where it is converted to digital tape and transmitted to the ground in real time or stored on tape for dump at a later time. The designated flight crew members wear the OBS during the ascent and entry phases. On-orbit use will be limited to contingency situations.

    The OBS electrodes are attached to the skin with electrode paste to establish electrical contact. The electrode is composed of a plastic housing containing a non-polarizable pressed pellet. The housing is attached to the skin with double-sided adhesive tape and the pellet contacts the skin. There are three electrodes on the harness marked LC (lower chest), UC (upper chest) and G (ground).

    The ECG signal conditioner is a hybrid microcircuit with variable gain (adjusted for each crew member before flight). It provides a zero- to 5-volt output and has an on/off switch within the input plug, which is actuated when the intravehicular activity biomed cable is plugged in. The unit has batteries that will not be replaced in flight.

    The IVA biomed cable connects to the signal conditioner and is routed under the IVA clothing to connect to the biomed seat cable. The biomed seat cable is routed to one of the biomed input connectors located on panel A11, A15 or M062M. Rotary control switches on panel R10 provide circuits from the biomed outlets to the orbiter's network signal processor for downlink or recording. The two rotary switches on panel R10 are biomed chan nel 1 and channel 2 . Extravehicular activity positions provide circuits for the EVA UHF transceiver.

    The electrode application kit contains components to aid in the application of electrodes. The components include wet wipes, double-sided adhesive tape, overtapes, electrode paste and a cue card illustrating electrode placement.

RADIATION EQUIPMENT

    The harmful biological effects of radiation must be minimized through mission planning based on calculated predictions and monitoring of dosage exposures. Preflight requirements include a projection of mission radiation dosage, an assessment of the probability of solar flares during the mission and a radiation exposure history of flight crew members. In-flight requirements include the carrying of passive dosimeters by the flight crew members and, in the event of solar flares or other radiation contingencies, the readout and reporting of the active dosimeters.

    There are four types of active dosimeters: pocket dosimeter high, pocket dosimeter low, pocket dosimeter FEMA and high-rate dosimeter. All four function in the same manner and contain a quartz fiber positioned to zero by electrostatic charging before flight. The unit discharges according to the amount of radiation received; and as the unit discharges, the quartz moves. The position of the fiber along a scale is noted visually. The PDH unit's range is zero to 100 rads. The PDF and PDL units' ranges are zero to 200 millirads and the HRD unit's range is zero to 600 rads.

    The rad is a unit based on the amount of energy absorbed and is defined as any type of radiation that is deposited in the absorbing media, and radiation absorbed by man is expressed in roentgen equivalent in man, or rems. The rem is determined by multiplying rads times a qualifying factor that is a variable depending on wavelength, source, etc. For low-inclination orbits (35 degrees and lower), the qualifying factor is approximately equal to one; therefore, the rem is approximately equal to the rad. In space transportation system flights, the doses received have ranged from 0.05 to 0.07 rem, well below flight crew exposure limits.

    The flight crew's passive dosimeters are squares of fine-ground photo film sandwiched between plastic separators in a light-proof package. Radiation striking the silver halide causes spots on the film, which can be analyzed after the flight. Included in the badge dosimeters are thermoluminescent dosimeter chips, which are analyzed on Earth.

    Passive radiation dosimeters are placed in the crew compartment before launch by ground support personnel and removed after landing for laboratory analysis. Each flight crew member carries a passive dosimeter at all times during the mission. The remaining dosimeters are stowed in a pouch in a middeck modular locker. If a radiation contingency arises, the PDL, PDH, HRD and PDF active dosimeters will be unstowed, read, and recorded for downlink to the ground.

CREW APPAREL

    During launch and entry, crew members wear the crew altitude protection system, which consists of a helmet; communications cap; pressure garment; anti-exposure, anti-gravity suit; gloves; and boots.

    The crew wears escape equipment over the CAPS during launch and entry. It consists of an emergency oxygen system; parachute harness, parachute pack with automatic opener, pilot chute, drogue chute and main canopy; a life raft; 2 liters of emergency drinking water; flotation devices; and survival vest pockets containing a radio/beacon, signal mirror, shroud cutter, pen gun flare kit, sea dye marker, smoke flare and beacon. Manual activation of the parachute automatic opening sequences is provided, as well as manual release of the parachute main canopy.

    On orbit, optional clothing and equipment include underwear, urine collection devices, eyeglasses, communications headset, emesis bag, flashlight, Swiss army knife, kneeboard, pens and pencils, stowage bags, watches and food and drink containers.

    Crew clothing and equipment used during on-orbit activities include flight suits, IVA trousers, IVA jackets, IVA shirts, sleep shorts, IVA soft slippers, underwear, scissors/lanyard, pocket dosimeter and pocket food.

    Crew clothing is designed for use by 90 percent of the male and female population, the 5th to 95th percentile.

SLEEPING PROVISIONS

    Sleeping provisions for flight crew members consist of sleeping bags, sleep restraints or rigid sleep stations. The sleeping arrangements can consist of a mix of bags and sleep restraints or rigid sleep stations on a given mission. During a mission with one shift, all crew members sleep simultaneously. If all crew members sleep simultaneously, at least one crew member will wear a communication headset to ensure reception of ground calls and orbiter caution and warning alarms.

    If sleeping bags are used, they are installed on the starboard middeck wall and deployed for use on orbit.

    If the rigid sleep station is used on a mission, it is installed on the starboard side of the middeck. There are two types of rigid sleep stations. One sleep station type accommodates three crew members and the other accommodates four.

    If the rigid sleep station is not installed for a mission, a sleeping bag is furnished each crew member. Each sleeping bag contains a support pad with adjustable restraining straps and a reversible/removable pillow and head restraint. Apollo sleeping bags may be provided for the crew members on request. The Apollo sleeping bag is constructed of beta material and is perforated for thermal comfort.

    Six adjustable straps permit the sleeping bag to be adjusted to its proper configuration. Three helical springs above the adjustable straps on one side of the bay relieve loads exerted by the crew member on the crew compartment structure. Six pip pins allow the bag to be attached to the middeck locker face in either a horizontal or vertical configuration. Two elastic adjustable straps restrain the upper and lower parts of the body in the bag. Velcro strips on the ends of both sides of the head restraint attach it to the pillow. A double zipper arrangement permits the sleeping bag to be opened and closed from the bottom to the top of the bag. One zipper on each side of the sleeping bag allows the bag to be attached to a support pad for better rigidity.

    The Apollo beta cloth sleeping bag has four adjustable straps with pip pins that are connected to any two lockers in the middeck separated by a distance equal to a four-tiered locker configuration. For torso restraint, a single two-piece strap is provided and a single zipper opens the bag. The bags are stowed in a middeck locker during launch and entry.

    A sleep kit is provided for each crew member and is stowed in the crew member's clothing locker during launch and entry. Each kit contains eye covers and ear plugs for use as required during the sleep period.

    The three- or four-tier rigid sleep stations contain a sleeping bag, personal stowage provisions, a light and a ventilation inlet and outlet in each of the tiers. The cotton sleeping bag is installed on the ground in each tier and held in place by six spring clips. The light in each tier is a single fluorescent fixture with a brightness control knob and an off position. The air ventilation inlet duct is an air diffuser similar to an automobile ventilation duct. It is adjusted by moving the vane control knob. The air ventilation outlet duct is located in the fixed panel at each tier and is opened or closed by moving the vane control knob. The air inlet is located at the crew member's head. The outlet is at the feet. All crew members' heads are toward the airlock and their feet toward the avionics bay.

    In the three-tier configuration, the upper and middle crew members face the ceiling and the lower tier crew member faces the floor. The fixed panel at the lower sleep station is removable to provide access to the cabin debris trap door for cleaning the cabin filter, to gain access to floor locker MD76C and to enter the forward portion of the lower equipment bay to clean the avionics bay fan filter.

    In the four-tier configuration, the bottom tier sleep restraint hookup provision allows the crew member to position himself at a 15-degree angle, which provides more room, or in the normal horizontal position. The sleeping bag, personal stowage provisions, light and ventilation inlet and outlet are the same as in the three-tier configuration. The head and feet orientations of the crew members are also the same as in the three-tier configuration. The lowest tier is removable so access can be obtained to the cabin debris trap door to clean the cabin filter, gain access to floor locker MD76C and enter the forward portion of the lower equipment bay to clean the avionics bay fan filter.

    The three-tier rigid sleep station is made of plastic honeycomb panel and weighs approximately 205 pounds. The four-tier rigid sleep station is made of metal and weighs 173 pounds.

    A 24-hour period is normally divided into an eight-hour sleep period and a 16-hour wake period for each crew member. Forty-five minutes are allocated for the crew members to prepare for the sleep period and another 45 minutes when they awake to wash and get ready for the day.

PERSONAL HYGIENE PROVISIONS

    To maintain good hygiene and appearance, personal hygiene and grooming provisions are furnished for both male and female flight crew members. Water is provided by the water dispensing system.

    A personal hygiene kit is furnished each crew member for brushing teeth, hair care, shaving, nail care, etc. A kit is also furnished with articles essential to female hygiene and grooming.

    Two washcloths and one towel per crew member per day are provided in addition to two paper tissue dispensers per crew member for each seven days. The washcloths are 12 by 12 inches and the towels 16 by 27 inches. The tissues are absorbent, multi-ply, low-linting paper. Rubber restraints with a Velcro base allow the crew members to restrain their towels and washcloths on the waste management door or middeck walls.

    The personal hygiene provisions are stowed in middeck stowage lockers at launch and are removed for use on orbit.

HOUSEKEEPING

    In addition to time scheduled for sleep periods and meals, each crew member has housekeeping tasks that require from five to 15 minutes of his time at intervals throughout the day. These include cleaning the waste management compartment, the dining area and equipment, floors and walls (as required), the cabin air filters; trash collection and disposal; and changeout of the crew compartment carbon dioxide (lithium hydroxide) absorber canisters.

    The materials and equipment available for cleaning operations are biocidal cleanser, disposable gloves, general-purpose wipes and a vacuum cleaner. The cleaning materials and vacuum are stowed in middeck lockers. The vacuum cleaner is powered by the orbiter's electrical power system.

    The biocidal cleanser is a liquid detergent formulation in a container approximately 2 inches in diameter and 6 inches long. The container has a built-in bladder, dispensing valve and nozzle. The cleanser is sprayed on the surface to be cleaned and wiped off with dry general-purpose wipes. It is used for periodic cleansing of the waste collection system urinal and seat and the dining area and equipment. It is also used, as required, to clean walls and floors. Disposable plastic gloves are worn while using the biocidal cleanser.

    General-purpose wipes are also used for general-purpose cleaning.

    The vacuum cleaner is provided for general housekeeping and cleaning of the crew compartment air filters and Spacelab fil ters (on Spacelab missions). It has a normal hose, extension hose and several attachments. It is powered by the orbiter dc electrical power system.

    Trash management operations include routine stowage and daily collection of wet and dry trash, such as expended wipes, tissues and food containers. Wet trash includes all items that could offgas. The equipment available for trash management includes trash bags, trash bag liners, wet trash containers and the stowable wet trash vent hose.

    Three trash bags are located in the crew compartment. Each bag contains a disposable trash bag liner. Two bags are designated for dry trash and one for wet trash. At a scheduled time each day, the trash bag liner for dry trash is removed from its trash bag. The liner is closed with a strip of Velcro and stowed in an empty locker.

    When more than 8 cubic feet of wet trash is expected, the trash bag liners for wet trash are removed at a scheduled time each day and placed in a wet trash container. The container is then closed with a zipper and the unit is stowed. If expansion due to offgassing is evident, the container is connected to a vent in the waste management system for overboard venting of the gas.

    The wet trash container is made of airtight fabric and is closed with a seal-type slide fastener. The container has a volume of approximately 0.7 cubic foot and has an air inlet valve on one end and a quick disconnect on the other end. It is attached to the waste management vent system beneath the commode, enabling air to flow through the wet trash container and then overboard. It is attached through a 41-inch- long vent hose filter. When the container is full, it is removed and stowed in a modular locker.

    An 8-cubic-foot wet trash stowage compartment is available under the middeck floor. Each day, the trash bag liners for wet trash are removed from the trash bags and stowed in the wet trash stowage compartment, which is vented overboard. If the compartment becomes full, the trash bag liners for wet trash are stowed in wet trash containers.

SIGHTING AIDS

    Sighting aids include all items used to aid the flight crew within and outside the crew compartment. The sighting aids include the crewman optical alignment sight, binoculars, adjustable mirrors, spotlights and eyeglasses.

    The COAS is a collimator device similar to an aircraft gunsight. Two are installed in the crew compartment flight deck. One COAS is mounted during launch and entry over the positive X commander's forward window and on orbit is removed and mounted next to the aft flight deck overhead right negative Z window. The other COAS is mounted at the aft flight deck station for checking the alignment of the payload bay doors.

    When the COAS is mounted at the commander's station, it allows the viewers to reassure themselves of proper attitude orientation during the ascent and deorbit thrusting periods. When the COAS is removed from the commander's station to the aft flight deck for on-orbit operations, it provides a backup to the orbiter star trackers for inertial measurement unit alignment. It is also used as the primary optical instrument for measuring range and rotational rates and allows the flight crew members to align the vehicles and dock.

    The COAS consists of a lamp with an intensity control, a reticle, a barrel-shaped housing, a mount, a combiner assembly and a power cable. The reticle consists of a 10-degree circle, vertical and horizontal cross hairs with 1-degree marks, and an elevation scale on the right side of minus 10 degrees to 31.5 degrees.

    For IMU alignments, the flight crew member at the aft flight deck station maneuvers the orbiter using the COAS at the right overhead negative Z window until the selected star is in the field of view. The crew member continues maneuvering the orbiter until the star crosses the center of the reticle. At the instant of crossing, the crew member makes a mark, which means he depresses the att ref (attitude reference) push button. At the time of the mark, software stores the gimbal angles of the three IMUs. The mark can be taken again if it is felt the star was not centered as well as it could have been. When the crew member feels a good mark was taken, the software is notified to accept it. Good marks for two stars are required for an IMU alignment.

    By knowing the star being sighted and the COAS location and mounting relationship in the orbiter, software can determine a line-of-sight vector from the COAS to the star in an inertial coordinate system. Line-of-sight vectors to two stars define the attitude of the orbiter in inertial space. This attitude can be compared to the attitude defined by the IMUs, and if the IMUs are in error, they can be realigned to the more correct orientation by the COAS sightings.

    The COAS requires 115-volt ac power for reticle illumination. The COAS is 9.5 by 6 by 4.3 inches and weighs 2.5 pounds.

    The 10-by-40 binoculars are a space-modified version of the commercial Leitz Trinovid binocular noted especially for its small size, high magnification, wide field of view, and rugged sealed construction. The 7-by-35 binoculars are noted for close focal distance at high magnification. The 14-by-40 gyrostabilized binoculars contain a gyrostabilized system that enhances target acquisition and retention. When the crew member is subjected to ambient vibrations or hand tremor while using the gyrostabilized binoculars, the target image remains clear and stable. The gyrostabilized binoculars are electrically powered by six alkaline-type AA batteries and will operate continuously up to three hours on one battery pack.

    Adjustable mirrors are installed before launch on handholds located between windows 2 and 3 for the commander and windows 4 and 5 for the pilot. During ascent and entry, the commander and pilot use the adjustable mirrors to better see controls that are in obscured areas of their vision. On orbit, the mirrors can be removed and stowed if desired. Each mirror is approximately 3 by 5 inches and weighs approximately 1 pound.

    The spotlight is a high-intensity, hand-held flashlight powered by a battery pack consisting of five 1.2-volt one-half D size nickel-cadmium batteries. The spotlight produces a 20,000-candlepower output with a continuous running time of 1.5 hours. The lamp is a 6-volt tungsten filament and cannot be replaced in flight. A spare battery pack is available on board.

    For those crew members requiring them, two pairs of eyeglasses are available on board.

MICROCASSETTE RECORDER

    The microcassette recorder is flown primarily for voice recording of data but may also be used to play prerecorded tapes. A microcassette tape has a recording time of 30 minutes per side. It is powered by two 1.5-volt AAA alkaline batteries.

PHOTOGRAPHIC EQUIPMENT

    Three camera systems-16mm, 35mm and 70mm-are used by the flight crew to document activities inside and outside the orbiter. All three camera systems are used to document on-orbit operations. The 16mm camera is also used during the launch and landing phases of the flight.

    The 16mm camera is like a motion picture camera with independent shutter speeds and frame rates. The camera can be operated in one of three modes: pulse, cine, or time exposure. In the pulse mode, the camera operates at a continuous frame rate of two, six or 12 frames per second. In the cine mode, the camera operates at 24 frames per second. In the time exposure mode, the first switch actuation opens the shutter and the second actuation closes it. The camera uses 140-foot film magazines and has 5mm, 10mm and 18mm lenses.

    The 35mm camera is a motorized, battery-operated Nikon camera with reflex viewing, through-the-lens coupled light metering and automatic film advancement. The camera has the standard manual operation and three automatic (electrically controlled) modes-single exposure, continuous and time. It uses an f/1.4 lens.

    The 70mm camera system is a modified battery-powered, motor-driven, single-reflex Hasselblad camera that has 80mm and 250mm lenses and film magazines. Each magazine contains approximately 80 exposures. This camera has only one mode of operation, automatic; however, there are five automatic-type camera functions from which to select. The camera has a fixed viewfinder for through-the-lens viewing.

    Interdeck light shades are provided to minimize light leakage between the flight deck and middeck during in-cabin photography. The light shade is attached with Velcro to the middeck ceiling around the interdeck access. Adjustable louvers are provided to regulate the amount of light between the flight deck and middeck.

WICKET TABS

    Wicket tabs are devices that help the crew member activate controls when his vision is degraded. The tabs provide the crew member with tactile cues to the location of controls to be activated as well as a memory aid to their function, sequence of activation and other pertinent information. Wicket tabs are found on controls that are difficult to see during the ascent and entry flight phases on panels O8, C3 and R2.

REACH AID

    The reach aid, sometimes known as the ''swizzle stick,'' is a short adjustable bar with a multipurpose end effector that is used to actuate controls that are out of the reach of seated crew members. The reach aid is used to push in and pull out circuit breakers and move toggle switches. It may be used during any phase of flight, but is not recommended for use during ascent because of the attenuation and switch-cuing difficulties resulting from acceleration forces.

    Operation of the reach aid consists of extending it and actuating controls with the end effector. To extend the reach aid, one depresses the spring-loaded extension tab and pulls the end effector out to the desired length.

RESTRAINTS AND MOBILITY AIDS

    Restraints and mobility aids are provided in the orbiter to enable the flight crew to perform all tasks safely and efficiently during ingress (1-g, orbiter vertical), egress (1-g, orbiter horizontal) and orbital flight (orbiter orientation arbitrary). Restraints and mobility aids consist of foot loop restraints, the airlock foot restraint platform and the work/dining table. In-flight restraints consist of temporary stowage bags, Velcro, tape, snaps, cable restraints, clips, bungees and tethers.

    Mobility aids and devices consist of handholds, footholds, handrails, ladders and the ingress-egress platform.

    Foot loop restraints are cloth loops attached to the crew compartment decks by adhesive to secure crew members to the deck. Before launch, the foot loop restraints are installed on the floor areas of the aft flight deck work stations, middeck lockers, waste collection system and galley (if installed). Spares will be stowed in the modular lockers. To install a foot restraint, the protective backing on the underside of the restraint is removed and the restraint is placed in its desired location. The foot loop restraints are easily used by placing one or both feet in the loop.

    The temporary stowage bag is used to restrain, stow or transport loose equipment temporarily. It is snapped or attached with Velcro to the crew station standard Velcro and snap patterns.

    Mobility aids and devices are located in the crew compartment for movement of the flight crew members during ingress, egress and orbital flight. These devices consist of handholds for ingress and egress to and from crew seats in the launch and landing configuration, handholds in the primary interdeck access opening for ingress and egress in the launch and landing configuration, a platform in the middeck for ingress and egress to and from the middeck when the orbiter is in the launch configuration, and an interdeck access ladder to enter the flight deck from the middeck in the launch configuration and go from the flight deck to the middeck in the launch and landing configuration.

    The flight data file is a flight reference data file that is readily available to crew members aboard the orbiter. It consists of the onboard complement of documentation and related crew aids and includes documentation, such as procedural checklists (normal, backup and emergency procedures), malfunction procedures, crew activity plans, schematics, photographs, cue cards, star charts, Earth maps and crew notebooks; FDF stowage containers; and FDF ancillary equipment, such as tethers, clips, tape and erasers.

    Four permanently mounted containers are located to the left and right side of the commander's and pilot's seats for stowing FDFs on the flight deck. The remaining FDF items are stowed in a middeck modular stowage locker.

    The flight data file quantity and stowage locations are similar for all flights. The baseline stowage volume is sufficient to contain all FDF items for all orbiter configurations except the pallet-mounted payload. In this case, a larger flight data file and, consequently, additional locker space are required because all payload operations are performed in the orbiter.

    FDF items are used throughout the flight-from prelaunch use of the ascent checklist through crew use of the entry checklist.

    Flight data files are packaged and stowed on an individual flight basis. FDF items will be stowed in five types of stowage containers: lockers, the flight deck module, the commander's and pilot's seat-back FDF assemblies, the middeck FDF assembly and the map bag. The portable containers are stowed in a middeck modular locker for launch and entry.

    If the flight carries a Spacelab module, all Spacelab books are stowed for launch in a portable container on the middeck and transferred in flight to the Spacelab. The FDF stowage is flexible and easily accessible.

CREW EQUIPMENT STOWAGE

    Crew equipment on board the orbiter is stowed in lockers with insertable trays. The trays can be adapted to accommodate a wide variety of soft goods, loose equipment and food. The lockers are interchangeable and attach to the orbiter with crew fittings. The lockers can be removed or installed in flight by the crew members. There are two sizes of trays: a half-size tray (two of which fit inside a locker) and a full-size tray. Approximately 150 cubic feet of stowage space is available, almost 95 percent of it on the middeck.

    The lockers are made of either epoxy- or polyimide-coated Kevlar honeycomb material joined at the corners with aluminum channels. Inside dimensions are approximately 10 by 17 by 20 inches. The honeycomb material is approximately 0.25 of an inch thick and was chosen for its strength and light weight. The lockers contain about 2 cubic feet of space and can hold up to 60 pounds.

    Dividers are used in the trays to provide a friction fit for zero-g retention. This will reduce the necessity for the straps, bags, Velcro snaps and other cumbersome attach devices previously used. Soft containers will be used in orbiter spaces too small for the fixed lockers.

    The trays are packed with gear so that no item covers another type of gear. This method of packing will reduce the confusion usually associated with finding loose equipment and maintaining a record of the equipment.

    Stowage areas in the orbiter crew compartment are located in the forward flight deck, the aft flight deck, the middeck, the equipment bay and the airlock module.

    In the aft flight deck, stowage lockers are located below the rear payload control panels in the center of the deck. Container modules can be mounted to the right and left of the payload control station. Since these side containers are interchangeable, they may not be carried on every mission, depending on any payload-unique installed electronic gear.

    In the middeck, container modules can be inserted in the forward avionics bay. Provisions for 42 containers are available in this area. In addition, there is an area to the right side of the airlock module where nine containers can be attached.

    Harness stowage bags stowed in a middeck stowage locker or airlock are used on orbit to stow flight crew members' launch equipment, such as helmets, harnesses, boots and waste/trash materials.

EXERCISE EQUIPMENT

    The only exercise equipment presently being flown is a treadmill. The exact stowage location in the crew compartment middeck for launch, orbit and entry depends on the mission.

    The treadmill is used with a restraint system to allow a crew member to run or jog in orbit. The treadmill kit is stowed on top of the treadmill and contains the waist belt, two shoulder straps, four extender hooks and a physiological monitor. The treadmill kit is restrained by four force cords that are used to restrain the body during exercise. The treadmill attaches to four middeck quick disconnects. The quick disconnects contain several metal hooks that are hinged within the quick disconnect and actuated by the knurled lock ring. To release the quick disconnects, the lock push button is depressed and the knurled lock ring is pushed up, releasing the metal hooks. When the lock ring is pushed down, the metal hooks converge and capture the top of the middeck stud.

    The treadmill has a speed control knob, which controls a rapid onset braking system. When the preset speed is reached, the brake engages and produces increased drag on the running track.

    The physiological monitor provides heart rate, the time run and the distance run. The heart rate is determined by an ear clip, which has an infrared sensor that detects increased blood flow (pulses) in the ear lobe. Distance run is determined by connecting a mechanical sensor wire on the side of the treadmill to the physiological monitor. The mechanical sensor detects the number of revolutions of the track and sends an electrical signal to the physiological monitor, where the distance is computed and shown on the display along with the heart rate. The monitor is stowed on the treadmill handle while the crew member runs.

SOUND LEVEL METER

    The sound level meter is provided to determine on-orbit acoustical noise levels in the cabin. Depending on the requirements for each flight, the flight crew is required to take meter readings at specified crew compartment and equipment locations. The data obtained by the flight crew is logged and/or voice recorded. The meter is operated by four 1.5-volt batteries.

AIR SAMPLING SYSTEM

Table of Contents


Information content from the NSTS Shuttle Reference Manual (1988)
Last Hypertexed Wednesday October 11 17:42:50 EDT 1995
Jim Dumoulin (dumoulin@titan.ksc.nasa.gov)



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