Civil Support Team Operations
Chapter 4 briefly addresses the tiered emergency response system. It discusses CST mission planning, response operations, operational phases, and risk management (RM).
TIERED EMERGENCY RESPONSE SYSTEM
4-1. In the US, response to an emergency is primarily a local responsibility. When faced with emergency incidents or threats of incidents, local governments employ EFRs, including fire, police, and emergency medical services (EMS). They are supported by emergency dispatch systems, emergency managers, or emergency management agencies. When local resources are overwhelmed by an event, or if specific technical capabilities required are not available, local leaders may implement existing mutual aid agreements to request additional support from neighboring communities and seek supplemental assistance through county and state emergency management systems. If the state, including its NG, lacks sufficient assets to mitigate a disaster, in quantity or technical response capability, the governor may request outside assistance (either state or federal). Support from another state may be arranged on a bilateral basis or under existing agreements. If federal, the President directs the federal response to disasters (natural and man-made). For most disasters, the FRP guides the cooperative process that orchestrates the actions of the federal agencies. For an incident involving a CBRNE, assets from all tiers of government may be needed in a nearly simultaneous response to maximize recovery (see Figure 4-1).
Figure 4-1. CSTs in Tiered Response
INCIDENT COMMAND SYSTEM
4-2. The ICS is used by local, state, and federal emergency response communities to manage operations at an incident site. The ICS is designed to facilitate changes in C2 responsibilities during a response by providing a common organizational architecture. As more and more responders arrive at a scene, the C2 may change hands many times between local responders, state responders, and federal response forces; but the organizational structure will remain the same. Federal law requires the use of ICS for response to HAZMAT incidents (29 CFR 1910.120). See Figure 4-2 and Table 4-1 for information on the ICS organization and its roles and responsibilities.
Figure 4-2. ICS Organization
STATE EMERGENCY MANAGEMENT RESPONSE
4-3. Though state emergency management systems vary in name and structure, their function is to coordinate response between state, county, and city governments; community businesses; and private organizations. State emergency management agencies will also coordinate with FEMA when available state assets are insufficient to meet incident mitigation requirements.
4-4. The state emergency management agency coordinates movement of state response assets into an incident scene to fill requirements not supported by the local responders.
4-5. States without an assigned CST may request, through the NGB, a CST from another state. States with a CST may request an additional unit, if necessary. These requests may be facilitated by the use of interstate compacts, such as the EMAC. Although compacts facilitate interstate support, they are not mandatory for interstate assistance.
4-6. Local and state governments routinely respond to a wide array of domestic emergencies without any federal assistance. Even some CBRNE incidents may not overwhelm local response capabilities, but they may require technical advice and assistance that is not readily available in local or state agencies. However, a large-scale incident may overwhelm local and state responders, requiring considerable federal assistance.
4-7. RFAs from civil authorities are coordinated through the FRP process. If local or state authorities submit an RFA, FEMA develops a mission assignment and tasks the appropriate primary agency according to 12 functional areas titled emergency support functions (ESFs) in the FRP. If the tasked primary agency needs additional assistance, it may request military support through the on-scene defense coordinating officer or the SECDEF. Military elements capable of providing the necessary response are then sent to the incident area under the OPCON of the DCO or JTF (during a CBRNE incident) to perform the tasks. The CST can aid in developing the requests for assistance that are forwarded to their state coordinating officer.
4-8. The CST may be federalized and deployed as a part of a federal response for an incident in or outside their assigned state.
Table 4-1. Roles and Responsibilities Within the ICS
REQUESTS FOR SUPPORT
4-9. Local, county, and state officials may request support from TAG or the appropriate state authority according to the assigned state plan. Normally, these requests flow through the same process as other emergency requests for state assistance.
4-10. The state emergency management agency, working in close coordination with the state NG OPCEN (which may or may not be collocated), will process requests for assistance. The governor or his designated representative can approve the request and have the CST deploy to the incident site. CSTs are designed to be initial assets from the state with the ability to communicate using the UCS. They also and have an understanding of other specialized response assets available. The CST will most often be deployed to an incident site under other-than-federalized status prior to the declaration of a federal emergency.
4-11. State requests for CST support can originate from the governor's office, officials in an affected community (emergency management center), or from the state NG HQ.
4-12. Federal requests may originate from any federal agency, but they must be validated by the DCO.
4-13. Key questions must be answered and evaluated to ensure the request for CST support is valid and that the team can perform the required functions. Questions that may be asked include-
4-14. Each state develops and publishes validation procedures for requests for CST support and ensures that personnel involved in the mission assignment process are trained on these procedures.
CIVIL SUPPORT TEAM MISSION PLANNING
4-15. This section briefly addresses CBRNE hazard analysis, contingency, logistical support, coordination, process, FP, and communications planning.
HAZARD ANALYSIS AND CONTINGENCY PLANNING
4-16. CST capabilities include contingency planning and assistance, advisement, and assessment support. Participation in local, state, and federal regional planning meetings and exercises can help ensure that the CST capabilities are understood and applied appropriately. Through the conduct of education, training, and exercises with emergency response personnel and supporting organizations, the CST can have a significant impact on the preparedness of the areas they support.
4-17. CST planning should be coordinated with local emergency action plans, state emergency response plans, and the FRP.
4-18. CST mission planning includes CBRNE hazard analysis and contingency planning. The analysis assesses the hazard from CBRNE weapons and/or material, including its potential location, quantity, specific physical and chemical hazards, and the possible risk of release. Contingency planning develops comprehensive, coordinated responses to potential CBRNE incidents. The contingency planning builds on the hazard analysis and recognizes that no single public or private sector agency is capable of managing a CBRNE incident by itself.
Hazard Analysis Planning
4-19. CBRNE hazard analysis is one of the foundations of the planning process. It is conducted for potential CBRNE incident situations. In addition to the CBRNE hazard analysis, vulnerabilities (such as, What is susceptible to damage should an incident occur?) must also be examined. A CBRNE hazard analysis provides the following benefits:
4-20. The CST can assist and advise local and state emergency planners in the CBRNE hazard analysis process. CST capabilities support the hazard analysis process through-
4-21. Time and resources will dictate the depth and extent to which the CBRNE hazard analysis can be conducted. The completed analysis enables a better understanding of the potential implications of a CBRNE incident and what resources may be required to achieve a response.
4-22. CBRNE planning is a multidisciplined (such as emergency planning, medical, survey) approach that goes beyond the resources and capabilities of any single agency. The CST assists and advises emergency planners in the comprehensive planning process. The CST advises and assists emergency planners, as required, through-
4-23. The CST may develop contingency plans and OPORDs (see Appendix F for a sample CST OPORD) in conjunction with other agencies. CST response plans are updated regularly and coordinated with the appropriate response agencies in the region. (See Table 4-2 for sample planning considerations.)
Table 4-2. Sample Planning Considerations
LOGISTICAL SUPPORT PLANNING
4-24. The Defense Consequence Management Support Center (CMSUPCEN) is a DOD activity established to supply, sustain, and assist with initial equipment fielding for designated WMD response forces. The Defense CMSUPCEN conducts stock management and warehousing, warranty management, integrated logistics support (ILS), and coordination and monitoring of forward-area resupply and sustainment. The Defense CMSUPCEN uses a life cycle management (LCM) handbook that establishes its concept for performing selected life cycle sustainment tasks for the CSTs. The handbook provides guidance for initial equipment issue and subsequent sustainment of CSTs.
4-25. The Defense CMSUPCEN emergency resupply activity provides environmental, pre-positioned reconstitution and float packages formed into prepackaged, stand-alone sets to be transported to resupply units engaged in operations, contingencies, special-event support, or exercises.
4-26. Certain items of standard military equipment are provided by the state or procured locally at the scene.
4-27. Detailed and coordinated planning results in the preparation and use of SOPs and guidance that support unit operations. Each team develops SOPs that are continually updated to reflect evolving CST doctrine, command guidance, and lessons learned.
4-28. Detailed planning and coordination of CST activities should consider the following to ensure the orderly progression through all phases of CST operations. Coordination topics include-
4-29. Participation in the military decision-making process and involvement in the development of plans and orders support coordinated planning. Involvement in the planning process furnishes the CST with advance notification of potential missions, facilitating more detailed planning.
FORCE PROTECTION PLANNING
4-30. FP is a paramount concern of all commanders. CSTs work as small units that interact with a wide variety of agencies (civilian and military). This interaction implies a degree of risk that may be higher than the risks encountered by conventional forces. The risks can, however, be mitigated by a thorough analysis of the environment as it relates to mission requirements and by strict adherence to resultant FP measures.
Operational Security Planning
4-31. Deployed CSTs consider the following sample OPSEC considerations in their FP planning (the list is not all inclusive):
Communications Security Planning
4-32. COMSEC is protection resulting from all measures designed to (1) deny unauthorized persons information of value that might be derived from the possession and study of telecommunications, or (2) mislead unauthorized persons in their interpretation of the results of such possession and study. Additionally, CSTs apply the planning guidance provided by the NGB on COMSEC matters (See NGB HQ, Security Classification Guidance for CSTs, October 2001). Sample COMSEC considerations include the following:
4-33. The primary goal of communications planning is to ensure voice and data (secure and nonsecure) connectivity (internally and externally). The CST must be prepared to coordinate, integrate, and incorporate team communications capability into any incident. CST communications support differs from the support provided to tactical Commanders in that support requirements for communications planning are generally different for every operation. This is due to a number of factors. For example-
4-34. CST communications planning ensures that each section can communicate with on-scene units and support assets and the CST communications link through the IC communications center (COMCEN). Communications planning addresses key areas such as frequency management and restricting access to CST satellite and radio frequencies. Encryption equipment will be accounted for and safeguarded at all times. CST communications planning identifies available radio and telephone communications at an incident site. Planning also considers the availability of mutual-aid radios, programmable scanner radios for monitoring emergency radio frequencies, and access to National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) weather frequencies, if applicable. CST planning further identifies the sources for reach-back data. Additionally, communications planning identifies backup emergency power sources and monitoring of local and national news coverage. Incident operations require frequency management for interoperability. A frequency listing and other information (such as call signs, communications-electronics operating instructions [CEOI], and COMSEC information) are provided for distribution to users. Specific planning considerations should include-
4-35. The CST is equipped to assist in bridging communications between response units, but it can also provide on-scene information to other state and federal units preparing to deploy to the site. The main communications support for CST units comes from the Trojan Spirit Team, Fort Belvoir, Virginia. The Trojan Spirit Team provides multiple secure and nonsecure means, including voice and messaging services, via a satellite link from the UCS to the Defense Threat Reduction Agency (DTRA). This link provides the deployed CST access to the Defense Information Systems Network (DISN). The Trojan Spirit Team also assigns satellite communications frequencies to individual CST elements. UHF/VHF communications coordination is accomplished at the state level to ensure that frequencies are available prior to and during the response mission.
4-36. Communications planning also provides for direct linkages between the CST UCS and the C2 HQ. On-site sections within the CST will have the capability to communicate within the unit, and select teams (such as operations) have the capability to communicate on any UCS radio net. CSTs may also go to other agencies for applicable information; some information cannot be obtained ahead of time and must be obtained on site. Some of these plans require direct input of CSTs; others are done by other agencies but are useful to CSTs. While CSTs are performing mission functions, input may be provided to other agencies that facilitate their planning.
TYPES OF CIVIL SUPPORT TEAM RESPONSE OPERATIONS
4-37. The CST has a broad range of assessment, advisement, and assistance capabilities that can be applied across a spectrum of operational missions prior to or in response to an attack. The unit has the capability to conduct predictive analysis and identify vulnerabilities within its AOR. Based upon unit assessment, recommendations can be provided to appropriate officials. The CST can conduct passive monitoring or conduct sampling at various points within the area of concern to verify or deny the presence of a contaminant. The unit is able to transfer military knowledge and expertise to local and state response organizations and emergency managers on CBRNE-related issues. The unit's response to a suspected, threatened, or actual terrorist attack can include providing a nondeployment informational response, deploying in a no-notice response, or providing preplanned coverage.
NONDEPLOYMENT INFORMATIONAL RESPONSE
4-38. The CST may be able to meet an IC's RFA without deployment. The CST may furnish advice and assistance, such as POC information, technical information, or operational data that does not require deployment (such as plume projections that can be critical to emergency planners and first responders).
4-39. A CST may be deployed to respond if a terrorist strike is about to occur or has occurred. For this type of operation, the commander must review the on-hand assets of the unit and deploy with the appropriate personnel and equipment to meet expected mission demands. In order to expedite the arrival of the CST to the incident site, the commander deploys an ADVON, as soon as possible. The ADVON is a small forward element of the CST that possesses limited capability and is sent to the incident site ahead of the main body of unit equipment and personnel. Generally, the ADVON performs link up operations with the IC, site quartering, verifies hot-zones, plans site entry, and provides advice (to include hazard modeling). The ADVON may be able to determine that deployment of the main body is not required.
4-40. Most employments during peacetime will be in a prestaged role. Units may provide on-scene assets to the IC if a terrorist attack occurs at an event that draws large attendance or if disrupting the event will achieve terrorist goals and objectives. The CST enters into deliberate planning for CST mission support; conducts an area assessment predeployment site survey; conducts initial, mid, and final planning conferences; deploys to the event; executes mission support; redeploys to the home station; and conducts postmission activities.
4-41. There are five operational phases: preincident, alert, deploy, response, and postincident (see Figure 4-3). (See Appendixes H through M for information on CST section actions during these five phases.)
Figure 4-3. Operational Phases
4-42. In the preincident phase, the team completes planning, training, maintenance, and exercises to prepare for and improve response operations. Key activities include coordination, training, and maintaining an appropriate response posture or capability.
4-43. Unit preparation ensures that personnel and equipment are prepared and maintained at the highest levels of readiness. Commanders must ensure that soldiers are trained and evaluated in all procedures they may be called upon to perform in a CBRNE response environment. Equipment maintenance for vehicles and special response items must be a high priority during the preincident phase of operations. (See Appendix O for information on CST equipment.)
4-44. CST preincident actions (and through all phases) support the decision-making process, and are based on the mission as defined by the commander. Missions, taskings, priorities, and command or support relationships (as required) are coordinated and established by the commander. Based on the commander's guidance, CSTs prepare and update plans.
4-45. During the preincident phase, the CST commander provides opportunities through exercises and training for identification, assessment, advisement, and assistance activities. For example, training with civilian first responders provides the opportunity to conduct exercises using the CST organic identification capabilities, assist in preparing RFAs, or advise responders on the results of assessments conducted during an exercise scenario. The following provides representative actions that could be considered when providing identification, assessment, advisement, and assistance (the sample list is multiple and varied; planners war-game multiple scenarios to outline other possible variables):
4-46. In the alert phase, the command team receives the alert/WO, validates it according to approved state procedures, executes the unit recall, assembles the unit, alerts the reach-back and ILS systems, begins identifying required information, and plans the deployment. Members are equipped with pagers to expedite this process.
4-47. The alert phase includes those specific actions needed to notify CST commanders and the primary staff to a potential deployment. This phase consists of two elements-notification of a potential incident response mission and receipt of a valid WO from higher HQ and assembly. Local procedures will be established to allow for the most expeditious call-up of unit members. When a CST is alerted for a mission, other CSTs may be notified and alerted to a standby to provide follow-on support if required. In the event that a CST is activated by TAG or a state governor, the NGB OPCEN will be notified as soon as possible.
4-48. Notification occurs when CST commanders and their primary staffs have a valid mission WO from higher HQ. Notification can begin prior to the receipt of a WO and/or RFA through official channels. However, deployment cannot occur without a valid RFA. Notification of team members can begin when it is determined (through any means available) that a CBRNE event exists or is imminent.
4-49. During assembly, unit members arrive at the designated assembly area to complete final loading of essential equipment and execute premission checklists. At the direction of the unit commander and according to local SOP, an ADVON may be deployed to the incident site during assembly to begin an initial assessment. The ADVON deployment depends on the time available, the distance to the incident site, and the necessary mode of transportation. Distances requiring air movement of the team may prohibit dispatching an ADVON. Representative ADVON functions are shown in Table 4-3.
Table 4-3. Representative ADVON Features
4-50. During the alert phase, multiple actions continue. The CST continues internal unit preparation and conducts advance coordination with applicable agencies at the incident scene to obtain and maintain SA. During the alert phase, the CST focuses on obtaining responses to commander's critical information requirements (CCIR). Obtaining required information is crucial in providing support for the CST identification assessment, advice, and assistance functions. The needed information may be obtained by the ADVON, or unit liaison personnel, or it can be provided from the incident scene through the unit chain of command or ICS. CCIR could include the following:
4-51. During this phase, the CST is providing assessment, assistance, and advice. The CST ADVON may be assisting the IC staff with information on the types of support that could be available or may be assisting with identification efforts. Alternatively, assistance could be furnished from off site (such as nondeployment information response) using CST secure or nonsecure communications with personnel at the incident site.
4-52. The CST may advise applicable personnel at the incident scene on other types of available support. This information may be required to help frame the RFA or provide recommendations on PPE options. The CST ADVON may also furnish assessments to incident-scene officials on the implications of CBRNE contamination (such as toxicity, hazard estimates).
4-53. CST planning continues to refine the integrated incident contingency plan, revise section plans (such as survey section CBRNE reconnaissance plan), and coordinate through the ADVON for updated information.
4-54. In the deploy phase, the team receives a valid deployment order and deploys to the designated staging area in the AO.
4-55. Communications with the local IC and/or the supported emergency response organization will be initiated as soon as possible. The means of deployment will be determined by METT-TC. Each requires detailed planning, coordination, and training. The CST ADVON continues to provide responses to unit IR.
4-56. Timely mission support planning during this phase requires maintaining SA of events at the incident scene. The impact of relocating from home station places a premium on maintaining communications with officials at the incident site and updating response measures as required. During deployment, the CST continues to receive updates on CCIR to support the identification, assessment, advisement, and assistance functions; however, priority may be placed on receiving updates in areas such as-
4-57. In the response phase, the team arrives at the incident site or staging area, reports as a support asset to the IC or designated authority, and commences operations.
4-58. During the response phase, tasks may range from establishing the CST OPCEN to advising the IC. Once on scene, the CST continues to maintain liaison with external agencies and organizations; provides advice, assistance, and assessment support; executes reach-back capabilities; receives updates through the unit chain of command and the ICS on priorities and missions; and continues to receive CCIR updates.
4-59. During the response phase, assessments may be conducted that support-
4-60. The CST may advise the IC on the results of assessments. After identifying the CBRNE hazard, the CST can provide initial assessments of the effects or the potential impact on public health, property, and the environment. The advisement may be based on any one of several CST capabilities (such as use of survey and medical team, reach-back, decision support tools, and SME expertise). Assessment tools include the following:
4-61. The CST may assist the IC in the preparation of plans for the establishment of incident site restrictions, required exclusion areas/control zones (cold, warm, and hot), or various protection options. CST modeling and reach-back tools can also be used to assist the IC in the refinement of the hazard predictions. This assistance in the planning process can be supported by-
4-62. The CST contribution at the incident scene includes providing identification. The identification process is supported through accomplishing the following representative tasks:
4-63. The CST may maintain engagement for further incident mitigation if state or federal authorities determine that it should be employed in a capacity, beyond its primary mission (identify, assess, advise, and assist). The redeployment decision will be made by the deploying authority.
4-64. In the postincident phase, the CST prepares to redeploy. It begins to provide support for its next mission.
4-65. In the postincident phase, the unit redeploys, debriefs operations, performs equipment maintenance and resupply, reconstitutes its operational readiness, and resets its response posture.
4-66. During this phase, the CST addresses key operations and logistics actions that will help ensure CST readiness for its next mission. Key considerations include-
4-67. RM is the process of identifying and controlling hazards to protect the force. It is applicable to any mission and environment. The five steps of the RM process are-
4-68. Team members and individual personnel should be constantly alert for indicators of potentially hazardous situations and for signs and symptoms in themselves and others that warn of hazardous conditions or exposures. Immediate recognition of dangerous situations can avert an emergency and prevent injuries and loss of life.
4-69. In a WMD response situation, critical information must be conveyed quickly and accurately. Personnel must be able to communicate such information as the location of injured personnel, orders to evacuate, and safe evacuation routes. Internal emergency signals should be developed and rehearsed regularly.
4-70. Detailed information about the site is essential for advance planning and incident operations. At a minimum, commanders need to develop a sketch containing the locations and types of specific hazards. The sketch should contain, at a minimum, the following information:
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