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Homeland Security

Appendix B


CSTs could be employed in a variety of ways to conduct CBRNE response operations. CSTs may be employed in a number of situations that may range from use in Title 32 USC status to Title 10 USC status.



B-1. CSTs could be employed in the following situations:

    • Use by the respective state governors under Title 32 USC to support a state emergency.
    • Use by the respective state governors under Title 32 USC to support another state through an interstate compact (such as EMAC).
    • Use by the respective state governors under Title 32 USC to support another state through an MOA.
    • Use through mobilization by the authority of the POTUS under Title 10 USC or transitioning from Title 10 USC status back to Title 32 USC status. According to JP 1-02, mobilization is defined as the act of assembling and organizing national resources to support national objectives in time of war or other emergencies; the process by which the armed forces or part of them are brought to a state of readiness for war or other national emergency. This includes activating all or part of the RC as well as assembling and organizing personnel, supplies, and materiel.
    • Use according to DODD 3025.1 (emergency).



B-2. On a day-to-day basis, CST use is in accordance with Title 32. CSTs receive their mission taskings through their state chain of command, from the governor through the TAG of the state.



B-3. Selected states participate in interstate compacts to provide each other required support during times of emergency. The C2 of a CST will be according to the provisions of the compact and the applicable OPLAN/OPORD. Other key issues that will be addressed in the OPLAN/OPORD will include CST sustainment requirements and reimbursement of expenses.



B-4. States may establish state-to-state MOAs to obtain CST support, if required. An MOA may be established through long-range planning and negotiation. Where no interstate compact exists, a simple MOA addressing support by a CST may be rapidly established. Under such an MOA, the CSTs receive their missions to mobilize and deploy from through their chain of command from the governor through their state adjutant general. Key operational issues, such as CST C2 and sustainment, must be addressed in the applicable OPORD. Critical CST C2 and sustainment issues that must be addressed during state-to-state MOA planning occur when C2 and sustainment requirements pass from one state to another.



B-5. When a CST is mobilized and employed under Title 10 USC, the CST will be subject to employment according to applicable command or support relationships established by the governing C2 HQ (such as COCOM or OPCON). The CST will provide support at the incident scene through the designated C2 element or DCO.



B-6. In an emergency, applicable officials (such as the governor, TAG of a state, commander or DOD/federal official) may order the CST to conduct operations to save lives, prevent suffering, or mitigate great property damage according to the guidance contained in DODD 3025.1. Any commander or official acting under this authority must advise the DOD executive agent and state through command channels, by the most expeditious means available and seek approval or additional authorization as needed.



B-7. CST employment will vary from mission to mission. The following paragraphs discuss CST transition between Title 32 USC and Title 10 USC status.

B-8. Title 32 USC Status. CSTs will most often be used in Title 32 USC status while engaged in sustainment, contingency planning/coordination, predeployment, or postdeployment activities. A state may decide to employ a CST in response to a suspected or threatened terrorist attack. This employment may occur prior to the involvement of an LFA (FEMA, FBI) and/or prior to mobilization under Title 10 USC by the POTUS.

B-9. Transition from Title 32 to Title 10 USC Status. During the change from Title 32 to Title 10 status, there are multiple factors that a CST must be cognizant of to effectively continue operations. Selected elements include-

    • Uniform Code of Military Justice (UCMJ) authority. CST personnel are now subject to the UCMJ.
    • Logistic support. CSTs receive logistics support from DOD resources.
    • Command and support relationships. CSTs are a DOD asset and will receive C2 guidance from a HQ identified in an applicable OPORD. CSTs will receive guidance from their C2 element that will indicate whether the CST will be in a command or support relationship with the supported force.
    • Other support. While operating in Title 10 USC status, other functional areas will also be impacted. These areas could include administrative support, priorities of work, rules for use of force, medical support, and FP.

B-10. Transition From Title 10 to Title 32 Status.

    • Release from duty. Command will revert to the state upon release from duty under Title 10 USC.
    • Mission completion Upon mission completion and release of control by the OSC, the CST will immediately contact its higher command for further guidance and instructions. In most cases, the CST will be ordered to redeploy and demobilize.
    • Redeploy/demobilize. When ordered to redeploy and demobilize, the CST will return to its home station and conduct postincident activities. Individual team postincident activities can be found in the separate team appendixes.



B-11. There will come a time when a CST will be relieved of its mission by other incoming responders or another CST. When this occurs, the outgoing CST and the incoming responders must ensure that a safe and seamless transition occurs.

B-12. There are three techniques for conducting a relief: sequentially, simultaneously, or staggered. A sequential relief occurs when each team within the CST is relieved in succession. A simultaneous relief occurs when all teams are relieved at the same time. A staggered relief occurs when the commander relieves each team in a sequence as determined by the situation. Simultaneous relief takes the least time to execute. Sequential or staggered relief can take place over a significant amount of time.

B-13. A relief is either deliberate or hasty, depending on the amount of planning and preparations. The major differences are the depth and detail of planning and, potentially, the execution time. Detailed planning generally facilitates shorter execution time by determining exactly what the commander believes he needs to do and the resources needed to accomplish the mission. Deliberate planning allows him and his staff to identify, develop, and coordinate solutions to most potential problems before they occur and to ensure the availability of resources when and where they are needed.

B-14. Further discussion of relief-in-place considerations can be found in FM 3-90.


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