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"Azov" Regiment

The fate of Ukrainian defenders of Mariupol’s Azovstal steel plant remained uncertain on 17 May 2022 after hundreds surrendered and were transported to Russian-controlled territory. The speaker of Russia’s parliament said it will consider banning the exchange of Russian prisoners of war for captured members of Ukraine’s Azov regiment. Vyacheslav Volodin, speaker of the State Duma, said its members were “Nazi criminals” who should not be included in prisoner exchanges. Legislator Leonid Slutsky, one of Russia’s negotiators in stalled peace talks with Ukraine, called the evacuated combatants “animals in human form” and said they should receive the death penalty.

The surrender came as the most devastating siege of Russia’s war in Ukraine drew to a close, capping weeks of fierce urban warfare that left much of Mariupol, a key port city between Russia and Russia-annexed Crimea, in ruins. As Russia took control of the city, Ukrainian civilians and hundreds of Ukrainian fighters, many of them from the Azov regiment, sought refuge in the Azovstal works, a vast Soviet-era plant founded under Josef Stalin and designed with a maze of bunkers and tunnels to withstand a nuclear attack.

Most civilians in the plant had been rescued in recent weeks after the United Nations and the International Committee of the Red Cross brokered a deal with Russia and Ukraine. Moscow had depicted the Azov Regiment as one of the main perpetrators of the alleged radical anti-Russian nationalism and alleged “Nazism” from which it said it needs to protect Ukraine’s Russian speakers.

Ukrainian presidential adviser Mykhailo Podolyak hailed the defenders of Mariupol, who held out against the Russian advance for 82 days, saying the fighting held up Russian plans to seize the south and east of Ukraine and “changed the course of the war”. Defense Minister Oleksiy Reznikov said that the defenders of Mariupol curbed groups of up to 20,000 Russian invaders and did not let them into Zaporizhzhia and beyond, thus fulfilling the order: "They are all heroes. They now have a new order - to save their lives."

Maxim Tucker observed "The Azovstal defenders pinned Russian forces in Mariupol until Ukraine won in Kharkiv. Encirclement of Kyiv’s troops in Donbas is now highly unlikely. Their contribution to the county’s freedom is immense. Their sacrifice should be celebrated as heroic. It will become historic."

The Azov Regiment is a separate special-purpose unit, initially rooted in ultranationalist soccer hooliganism, within the military unit 3057 of the Eastern Operational-Territorial Association of the National Guard. The Azov Battalion was established on May 5, 2014 in Berdyansk as a battalion of the special police patrol service (BPSMOP) of the Ministry of Internal Affairs on the basis of a decision of the Ministry of Internal Affairs of Ukraine. On September 17, 2014, by order of the Minister of Internal Affairs of Ukraine, the Azov Battalion was reorganized and expanded into the Azov Special Police Regiment of the Ministry of Internal Affairs. All the time since its establishment, the Azov unit has been involved in rapid response and patrol groups throughout the OOS (ATO) to counter-sabotage and prevent terrorism.

The Azov Battalion is part of the Ukrainian National Guard and thus subordinate to the Interior Ministry. Its fighters are well trained, but the unit is controversial because it is composed of nationalists and far-right radicals. Its very existence is one of the pretexts Russia has used for its war against Ukraine.

On 01 March 2022 Ukraine’s national guard tweeted a video showing Azov fighters coating their bullets in pig fat to be used allegedly against Muslim Chechens – allies of Russia – deployed in their country.

Azov originated from Biletsky’s national organization Patriot of Ukraine. Initially, Azov was a volunteer militia that formed in the city of Berdyansk to support the Ukrainian army in its fight against pro-Russian separatists in eastern Ukraine. Some of its fighters came from the small but active far-right group Pravyi sektor (Right Sector), whose core members were from eastern Ukraine and spoke Russian. Originally, they had even advocated the unity of East Slavic peoples: Russians, Belarusians and Ukrainians. Some were soccer ultras, others were active in nationalist circles.

Azov subsequently depoliticized itself, and that the toxic far-right leadership had officially left the regiment, founding what later became the far-right party called the National Corps. far-right parties, but even this united bloc "received a miserable 2.15% of the vote and thus failed to win even one seat in the Ukrainian parliament."

The Azov Regiment is said by some to be financed by the Ukrainian Jewish oligarch Igor Kolomoisky, the former governor of Dnepropetrovsk, who is also thought to be the financier of the nationalist militias of Pravyi Sektor. Kolomoisky was mentioned as a sponsor of President Zelensky in the Pandora Papers, in which $40 million appeared to have been paid to him on the eve of the elections by Kolomoisky.

In March 2015, Ukrainian Interior Minister Arsen Avakov announced that the Azov Battalion would be one of the first units to be trained by US Army troops, as part of their Operation Fearless Guard training mission. US training was discontinued on June 12, 2015, when the US House of Representatives passed an amendment banning all aid (including weapons and training) to the battalion because of its neo-Nazi past. The amendment was then revoked under pressure from the CIA and the soldiers of the Azov Battalion were trained in the United States.

In 2019, there was an attempt by US Congress to designate the regiment as a "terrorist organization" but this did not happen. Nevertheless, for years, Azov has maintained contacts with far-right movements abroad, including in Germany according to the German government's answer to a question related to this issue by the Left Party parliamentary group.

On 31 October 2019 the People's Deputies of Ukraine addressed an open letter to the Chairman of the Committee on Foreign Affairs of the US House of Representatives Eliot Engel over the statements of congressmen regarding the Azov Battalion. The parliamentarians noted the high level of cooperation between the Armed Forces of Ukraine and the United States in peacekeeping and counter-terrorism operations in Afghanistan and Iraq, as well as the importance of US support for the Armed Forces.

The deputies note that in the letter of the congressmen and some statements there were attempts to call one of the official and most mentioned units of the National Guard of Ukraine a terrorist organization, or "overseas violent white supremacist extremist group" on the basis of unverified facts. veterans and volunteers who took part in the war in Donbass and continue to defend Ukraine's independence from Russian aggression, "the statement said.

It was noted that since January 2015, the Azov Special Forces Detachment had been the official structure of the National Guard and is subordinated exclusively to the General Staff of the Armed Forces and the Ministry of Internal Affairs of Ukraine during combat missions. "During the existence of the unit, 26 servicemen died in the battles for independence and territorial integrity of Ukraine; 1414 servicemen were awarded for courage and heroism in combat missions, including 171 servicemen (23 of them posthumously, 123 - those who was wounded), awards of the Verkhovna Rada of Ukraine - 28 servicemen, awards of the Cabinet of Ministers of Ukraine - 10 servicemen, awards of the Ministry of Internal Affairs - 906 servicemen, departmental awards of the National Guard of Ukraine - 299 servicemen ", - the letter emphasized.

It would be a serious mistake and a gift for the Kremlin to recognize this unit as a "foreign terrorist organization in accordance with federal law," the according to well-known researcher of far-right and neo-Nazi movements Anton Shekhovtsov. He published an article in one of the leading American think tanks Atlantic Council with an expert explanation of why the Ukrainian unit of Azov should not be considered and recognized as a "terrorist organization." An article entitled "Why Azov Should Not Be Recognized as a Foreign Terrorist Organization" was published on the Atlantic Council's website on 24 February 2020.

In it, a lecturer at the University of Vienna responded mainly to a recent article in the New York Times entitled "We once fought jihadists. We are now fighting white supremacists" by Democratic Congressman Max Rose and former FBI Special Agent Ali Hally. . In their article, both authors reflect, in particular, on the role of transnational ties in the process of radicalization between different far-right groups.

One example cited in the article is the Azov Ukrainian Battalion, which the FBI calls a “paramilitary formation” known for its “connection to neo-Nazi ideology. ” Unfortunately, both this and other references to Azov , made in the article, make the whole example unfounded and, thus, damage all the important arguments of the authors, "- wrote Shekhovtsov. The expert pointed out that in his article the FBI congressman and ex-agent spoke about the "Ukrainian Azov Battalion", adding to its description the wording "paramilitary unit". part of the National Guard of Ukraine, which is part of the Ministry of Internal Affairs. And this means that Azov is neither a paramilitary unit nor independent of the state, but it is an integral part of official structures and carries out the orders of the Ministry of Internal Affairs, "Shekhovtsov wrote.

Its members participated in EuroMaidan and many of them joined the volunteer battalion. The unit was also supported by members of Automaidan and ultras of FC Metalist Kharkiv. The unit was reformed into a regiment in late 2014 and received military equipment from the government of Ukraine, including T-64B1M tanks, D-30 artillery, and various LAVs.

Azov, which in 2014 had an estimated personnel of 500-1500 people, was one of about 50 volunteer battalions formed by Maidan activists and ultranationalists of the Right Sector group. These newly formed units have been brought to eastern Ukraine to form the backbone of the forces fighting against the local self-defense militia advocating independence from Ukraine. The battalion was sponsored by Ukraine’s third-richest oligarch, Igor Kolomoysky. He was governor of Dnepropetrovsk region and sponsors a number of other paramilitary units. The Azov Battalion actively participated in Kiev’s so-called “anti-terrorist operation” and, like most of the volunteer and National Guards units, has been accused of committing war crimes against civilians.

On 11 November 2014, the Minister of Internal Affairs of Ukraine signed an order to transfer the Azov Regiment to the National Guard of Ukraine, followed by its completion to the combat standard of the National Guard brigades. Today, the Azov unit is a separate special unit of the Azov military unit 3057 of the National Guard of Ukraine.

Ukraine Ministry of Internal Affairs Special Forces was formed to combat illegal armed bandit formations in the Donetsk region. Battalion based in Berdyansk, Zaporizhzhya region. Feature packed "Ukrainian patriots who already have experience of military service." As the deputy battalion commander Jaroslav Potter, "the backbone of the battalion are those same people who came to the Maidan November 21. These are people with different hundreds of Avtomaydanu." The arms of the battalion were small arms, including automatic AKS-74, SVD sniper rifles and machine guns RMB.

As of 12 May 2014 the battalion consisted of at least 70 fighters. May 18 at Donbass second group of volunteers went to number 45 people. It was composed of men aged 20 to 46 years, among them Ukrainian native of Donetsk, Dnipropetrovsk, Kharkiv, Luhansk, and many of Kiev, are representatives of Western Ukraine. Some recruits were members of the party "Brotherhood" and of "Patriot of Ukraine", but many do not belong to any social movements. June 3rd oath brought more than 40 volunteers aged 20 to 30 years, by which time the battalion consisted of 250 people already. Fighter unit - came from different regions of Ukraine, as well as a citizen of Italy. In stock battalion group Ultras Kiev football club "Dynamo".

As part of the Ministry of Internal Affairs of Ukraine, the Azov unit took part in military operations on the territory of the Anti-Terrorist Operation (ATO), the Joint Forces Operation (JFO), as well as throughout Ukraine. In the summer of 2014, the modest forces of Azov participated in the recapture of Mariupol from pro-Russian separatists.

After the creation, the Azov police battalion conducted training in the Zaporizhia region near Berdyansk and patrolled the area around Mariupol. On May 7, 2014, terrorists fired automatic weapons at a bus of the Azov police battalion near the village of Mangush. The driver was injured. One of the attackers was killed and two others were taken prisoner, among them the "Minister of Defense" of the terrorist organization of the so-called "Donetsk People's Republic" Igor Khakimzyanov.

The battalion was actively involved in the confrontation in Mariupol. May 6 near the village Mangush during a clash with terrorists DNR was wounded a soldier battalion "Azov" captured "Defense Minister" NPT Games Kakidzyanov and shot one of the attackers. On the night of 7 to May 8th Battalion "Azov" was introduced in Mariupol, personnel of the battalion participated in the arrest of separatists, and then took the city administration building and began to dismantle barricades in the city center.

The morning of May 9th Battalion took part in battles in the city center, stormed the courtyard and first floor city police department, but then a few soldiers of the battalion were detained and disarmed soldiers arrived of Internal Troops of Ukraine. During the battle the battalion was shot fighter "Azov" Rodion Dobrodomov another - Alexander Kondrashev - was injured. Later, the deputy battalion commander "Azov" Yaroslav Potter announced staff Mariupol police traitors. On May 26th Battalion soldiers broke the base of terrorists on the territory of cottages son Yanukovych in Urzuf village, where they found a weapons cache.

On June 12, 2014, Oleksandr Fomenko, one of the terrorist leaders of the so-called Donetsk People's Republic, was detained by servicemen of the Azov Police Battalion in Mariupol. On June 13, 2014, servicemen of the Azov Police Battalion, with the support of the National Guard and the Armed Forces of Ukraine, liberated Mariupol from terrorists of the so-called Donetsk People's Republic. The terrorists lost 3 killed, 17 wounded and 38 were detained. On June 30, 2014, servicemen of the Azov Battalion detained Igor Guskov, a centurion of the pro-Russian Berdyansk Cossacks, who is an accomplice of one of the leaders of terrorists in the Donbas, Russian Igor Girkin.

Since the beginning of July 2014, the unit's servicemen have been conducting operations to block terrorist weapons supply channels in the Donetsk region. As of July 6, the coast of the Sea of Azov in the Donetsk region is fully controlled by the battalion, checkpoints have been set up. On July 12, 2014, one of the terrorist leaders from Druzhkivka, Vasyl Chernenko, was detained by the battalion's servicemen. The detainee was handed over to the SBU for investigation, accused of organizing terrorist groups and attacking the Ukrainian military.

On July 15, 2014, servicemen of the Azov Battalion detained one of the leaders of the so-called DNR terrorists, Oleksiy Pabushkov, a Greek, an accomplice of Andriy Borisov, the leader of the fighting wing of the DNR terrorists in Mariupol, nicknamed Chechen. The detainee was handed over to the SBU for investigation. On July 25, 2014, the Azov Battalion detained a DNR terrorist nicknamed "Flag" who was a gunsmith at a local terrorist cell. The detainee was handed over to the SBU for investigation. On August 4, 2014, the Azov Police Battalion, in cooperation with the Armed Forces of Ukraine, liberated the town of Marinka from terrorists and Russian mercenaries.

On August 10, 2014, the Armed Forces of Ukraine, in cooperation with the Azov Police Battalion, launched an operation to liberate the city of Ilovaisk and eliminate the fortified terrorist area. On August 18, 2014, the Azov Police Battalion, together with units of the Donbas Battalion and a separate company of the Dnipro Battalion, fought hard on the outskirts of Ilovaisk. On September 5, 2014, together with units of the Armed Forces of Ukraine, the Azov Police Battalion defended Mariupol and repulsed several attacks by the NPF.

On October 12, 2014, servicemen of the Azov Police Regiment and soldiers of the Armed Forces neutralized a terrorist tank that fired on Ukrainian military positions and a Tiger armored vehicle of the Russian occupation forces. In November 2014, the leadership of the Azov Police Regiment, together with the SBU and the State Border Guard Service of Ukraine, detained a Russian citizen who, on behalf of the Russian special services, was to join the unit and provide information on Azov's activities and operations. also to prepare an attempt on his leadership, for which he had components for the installation of remote control explosives.

On December 12, 2014, the Azov OZSP fought with terrorist groups of the so-called DNR and Russian troops for the settlements of Pavlopol, Granitne, and Kominternove. On February 10, 2015, a separate special unit "Azov" NMU conducted an offensive operation and liberated from the occupation of 5 settlements east of Mariupol: Shirokino, Berdyansk, Lebedinskoe, Kominternovo, Pavlopol. April-May 2016 - strengthening public order in Odesa.

A February 2016 report by the United Nations Office of the High Commissioner for Human Rights (OCHA) accused the Azov regiment of violating international humanitarian law. The report detailed incidents over a period from November 2015-February 2016 where Azov had embedded their weapons and forces in used civilian buildings, and displaced residents after looting civilian properties. The report also accused the battalion of raping and torturing detainees in the Donbas region.

In August 2016, at the initiative of the Commander of the National Guard of Ukraine, part of the Azov OZSP was assigned to guard the checkpoints in Zaporizhia. From the fall of 2016 to the present, the Azov OZSP NMU has been performing anti-aircraft defense (PDO) tasks on the coast of the Sea of Azov.

March-July 2017 - part of the Azov OZSP NMU in cooperation with the SBU serves at checkpoints in the CPVV area near Donetsk and takes preventive measures to prevent terrorism and other offenses. September 09, 2017 - May 5, 2018 - fulfillment of the task of special, all-military intelligence and counter-sabotage combat by sniper groups of the Azov OZSP NMU in the area of anti-terrorist operation (Anti-terrorist Operation), later OOS (Joint Forces Operation). During the task period, illegal armed groups suffered the following losses: 8 killed, 8 wounded, LNG-9 destroyed, 1 firing position destroyed, 1 dugout destroyed, 2 firing positions partially destroyed. On January 20, 2018, during the task of counter-battery combat by the Azov OZSP NMU, 1 unit was destroyed. "Nona-B" of illegal armed groups (NPF).

From January to September 2019, the Azov Battalion Tactical Group (BTGr) as part of the 30th OMBR of the Armed Forces of Ukraine performed a combat mission on the line of contact in the area of the Svetlodar Arc. During the task, the illegal armed groups suffered the following losses: 30 killed, 42 wounded, 1 captured, 1 Zoo 1 radar neutralized, 2 Eleron UAVs shot down, 8 BMPs, 1 MT-LB, 10 cars and trucks destroyed. cars, 8 PCBs, 9 dugouts, 11 barracks. The BTG forces advanced 1 km in different areas.

Battalion "Azov" initially lived on sponsorship money, but was accountable to the Interior Ministry. "Must be paid police officers (4600 USD), but until these payments were not. We live to help businessmen, MPs and ordinary people. So far, only enough for current needs and help, for example, pregnant wife. From the state received only weapon," - said Igor Mosiychuk in June 2014, who cooperated with the "Azov" battalion.

The ideology praised by fighters of the Azov Battalion was one estranged from mainstream European and American liberalism. The unit adopted as its logo a mirrored Wolfsangel (wolf trap) symbol that was widely used in the Third Reich and has been associated with neo-Nazi groups worldwide – Ukraine included. It was most widely known as an emblem of the SS Division Das Reich. Azov’s emblem also included the “Black Sun” occult symbol beloved by the Nazi SS. Azov used to use the symbol of the "black sun", but it would be wrong to associate it exclusively with "Azov", as the latter simply used the already existing and popular image among the far right.

Azov had been controversial from the outset because of its emblem, which bears the Wolfsangel symbol. "The Wolfsangel has far-right connotations, it is a pagan symbol that the SS also used," said Umland. "But it is not considered a fascist symbol by the population in Ukraine." The Azov Regiment wants the symbol from the Nazi era to be understood as stylized versions of the letters N and I, standing for "national idea."

In 2018, the FBI reported white supremacists from Scandinavia, Northern Europe, and the United States were training as foreign fighters with foreign paramilitary groups like the neo-Nazi Azov Battalion in Ukraine and in far-right "Partizan" training camps in Russia. They inflict terror the same way as foreign terrorist groups: bombing government facilities, planned interruption of critical infrastructure, using high-capacity military-style assault weapons against soft civilian targets, assassinations, and the use of vehicles to target crowds.

Investigative reports on Azov from Bellingcat and Radio Free Europe Radio Liberty pointed to the many ways Azov has reached out to like-minded American extremists. Azov reportedly had connections to the U.S.-based white supremacist group Rise Above Movement, whose members traveled in 2018 on a European tour to include a visit to Ukraine to meet key figures of the Azov movement. Bellingcat also reported on recent contacts between former members of the U.S. armed services and the National Corps, the political wing of Azov, which was allegedly trying to recrnit internationally in order to "defend the white race." A recrnitcr from Azov reportedly appeared ou the American white supremacist "Radio Wehrwolf" where he said that the National Corps wanted to help teach combat skills to Americans who wanted to join Ukraine in their fight against Russia.

The school of sergeants is named after Yevhen Konovalets (1891-1938), a Ukrainian military and political figure who dedicated his life to the struggle for the Ukrainian state at a difficult time, when the vast majority of Ukrainian politicians and the military despaired of the struggle. Following his example, the Azov Regiment took responsibility and initiative to reform the army during the crisis, without waiting for instructions and directives from above.

The first course was recruited from more than fifty volunteers of the Azov Regiment, who spent at least a year in the anti-terrorist operation zone and took a direct part in the fighting. The commanders submitted questionnaires to the most worthy fighters who expressed a desire to develop in this direction. Among those who wished, a serious selection was made on the basis of intellectual and physical indicators. The future sergeants were trained by experienced military instructors and specialists from Georgia, who at one time passed both the Soviet and NATO military schools and have years of practical service experience, including in hotspots. Some disciplines (humanities, media work) were taught by civilian teachers of Kyiv universities and journalists of leading Ukrainian media. About 40% of all cadets managed to complete a rigorous training course. The first graduates became school instructors and passed on their knowledge to future sergeants.

Special Purpose Regiment Azov
Armed Forces of Ukraine
Founded as Azov Territorial Defense Unit in Kyiv. The original unit, formed in 2014 as Azov Battalion. The first battalion is deployed to Mariupol, second battalion to Kyiv. On March 9, 2022, the unit was reformed into a regiment under the command of the Armed Forces of Ukraine.
225th Reconnaissance battalion Azov
127th Brigade, Armed Forces of Ukraine
Founded as Azov Territorial Defense Unit in Kharkiv. On March 12, 2022, the unit was reformed into 225th battalion of 127th Brigade under the command of the Armed Forces of Ukraine.
226th Reconnaissance-sabotage battalion Azov
127th Brigade, Armed Forces of Ukraine
Founded as Azov Territorial Defense Unit in Kharkiv. On March 12, 2022, the unit was reformed into 226th battalion of 127th Brigade under the command of the Armed Forces of Ukraine.
The times when there was just a single Azov Battalion are long gone. In 2022 Azov announced reformation of three units under the command of Ukrainian Armed Forces. The Azov Regiment was one of the first to defend the Ukrainian land and the Ukrainian people. Soldiers of the regiment are constantly training and improving their skills, military skills. Azov residents are respected by other Ukrainian soldiers and feared by their enemies. Behind the soldiers of the unit are successful exits and operations on the front line, where they demonstrate professionalism and coherence. Azov is a real family, where everyone is ready to help each other.

According to media reports, it had around 1,000 fighters before the 2022 Russian invasion of Ukraine, as well as artillery and tanks.

In 2022, the city of Mariupol, which has a population of 500,000, was primarily being defended by the Azov Battalion. This is one of the places, along with Ukraine's capital Kyiv and the country's second-largest city Kharkiv, where Russia is conducting its war particularly brutally. Since early March, the city has been under siege and subjected to heavy bombardment. There is no electricity, little water, and scarce food supplies.

The Armed Forces of Ukraine, the Azov Regiment, the National Guard, border guards, territorial defense, the Security Service and ordinary Mariupol residents do not allow Russian columns into the city. This was reported 04 March 2022 by the press service of the Environmental Protection Agency.

"Mariupol is fighting the Russian horde for the ninth day. Heavy fighting continues. Defenders of the city bravely fight with the overwhelming forces of the enemy. The Armed Forces of Ukraine, the Azov Regiment, the National Guard, border guards, territorial defense, the Security Service and ordinary Mariupol residents do not allow Russian columns. The enemy is furiously destroying the city, which refused to accept it with bread and salt, so that Ukrainian defenders would despair and stop resisting. However, this will not happen," the statement read.

It is noted that during this week the defenders of Mariupol had already destroyed more than 30 units of enemy armored vehicles: tanks, infantry fighting vehicles, "Tigers", gas stations and more. In addition, more than 100 infantry and two reconnaissance reconnaissance groups were neutralized. Our reconnaissance groups are successfully working in the rear of the occupiers. "Mariupol is standing! Mariupol is Ukraine!" - emphasize in OOS.

A separate special unit "Azov" reported 15 March 2022 the destruction of one of the units of the 22nd Special Brigade of the Armed Forces of the Russian Federation. "Azov" reported the elimination of Major General of the occupying forces.

On 09 April 2022 Japan removed the nationalist battalion "Azov" (an organization whose activities are banned in the Russian Federation) from the list of terrorists. “ We regret that the Azov Battalion (an organization whose activities are banned in the Russian Federation) was designated as a neo-Nazi organization in the Terrorism International 2021 directory ,” the Japan Security Service (PSIA) website states. The agency explained that the battalion was included in the directory based on information from Japanese and foreign media and without taking into account an independent assessment.

Canadian journalist Michael Colborne, who monitors the far right in Ukraine and around the world, recently wrote a book on the Azov movement: “From the Fires of War: Ukraine’s Azov Movement and the Global Far Right.” He concluded that the Azov Battalion and the entire Azov movement were almost completely untainted by antisemitism by 2022. “Not only for Azov but for all the far-right movements in Ukraine, especially since 2014, antisemitism has lost its importance. When I compare this to what is happening with the extreme right in other countries in Europe, the level of antisemitism and the open antisemitic rhetoric there is much higher than anything I have seen in the right-wing movements in Ukraine in recent years.”

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