Sudan - Corruption
Sudan, South Sudan and Somalia were listed among the five most corrupt countries in the world in the December 2013 ranking by the global corruption watchdog, Transparency International. The index, which measures the perceived levels of public sector corruption, was conducted in 177 countries giving scores ranging from 0 which represents highly corrupt to 100, very clean. Somalia was ranked 177, Sudan 174 and South Sudan was placed 173. The three East African nations scored below 15. Somalia (8) Sudan (11) and South Sudan (14). The two other countries placed at the bottom five are North Korea at position 176 and Afghanistan at 175. Both scored 8.
Sudan’s public sector is perceived as one of the most corrupt in the world, ranking 173 out of 174 nations in the 2012 Transparency International Corruption Perceptions Index. In a November 2012 address to parliament, Sudan’s Auditor General declared 175 million dollars had been stolen from September 2011 – August 2012.
Sudan signed the UN Anticorruption Convention in 2005 and the African Union Convention on Preventing and Combating Corruption, but has yet to ratify either agreement. The law does not specifically address official corruption. However, officials and their spouses and children are subject to the Financial Service Audit law that calls for a special anticorruption attorney to investigate and try corruption cases. Criminal law provides punishments for embezzlement that may include prison or execution for public service workers, although these sanctions were almost never carried out. All bank employees are considered public service workers. Officials frequently engaged in corrupt practices.
In 2011 the president formed an anticorruption commission to address growing public concern about instances of misuse of official resources. However, the commission is a nominal body lacking any formal statutory powers of investigation or prosecution, and it has not prescribed penalties for those found to have abused official resources. The president similarly established the Financial Disclosure and Inspection Committee and charged the body with inspecting the financial assets of cabinet ministers and other constitutional officers. The law requires high officials, as well as their spouses and children, to disclose income and assets. The new Financial Disclosure and Inspection Committee and the Unlawful and Suspicious Enrichment Administration at the Justice Ministry both monitor compliance. There were no significant prosecutions during the year 2012. Despite three different bodies ostensibly charged with combating official corruption, there was no effective enforcement or prosecution of offenders.
Sudanese law does not provide criminal penalties for official corruption, and officials frequently engage in corrupt practices, to include cronyism, patronage, and embezzlement. The government does not investigate officials suspected of corruption. In January 2012, President Bashir established an ant-corruption committee. In January 2013 the President issued a Presidential Decree establishing a Financial Disclosure Inspection Committee to inspect the constitutional post holders. In April 2013 the Minister of Justice announced new investigations into corruption. There have been some but few convictions for corruption. In April 2013 a court convicted a government official at the Ministry of Guidance and Endowments to 10 years imprisonment and a fine of 3 million Saudi Riyal for embezzling public money (the Ministry’s rent in Saudi Arabia).
In December 2013 the ruling National Congress Party leadership office endorsed a matrix includes new policy aims at countering corruption, achieves transparency and justice in public service. The policy also aimed to maintain freedom and economic reform. This matrix was part of the ruling party’ historic reform document set for restructuring both the party and the state. Assistant to the president Ibrahim Ghandour told reporters that the leadership office meeting had recommended the importance of linking public freedom issue with national security and that should be included in the proposed constitution. Ghandur stressed that the meeting gave instructions to the party’s “Ten Committees” formed to gather the recommendations they made in one solid matrix. Therefore he said the matrix could be dispatched to the government and the party for implementation process.
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