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Yak-45I Light Fighter / Yak-47 heavy fighter

The second Yakovlev Yak-45 was a series of Yak-45I design studies in 1973-1974 for a single-seat fighter. It lost to the MiG-29. The Yak-47 lost to the Su-27 heavy fighter. In 1972, the Moscow plant "Zenith", "Pendant" and "Speed" preliminary designs provided the customer modified MiG-29, T-10, Yak-45I and the Yak-47, retained the predecessor scheme. But unlike its competitors Yakovlev Design Bureau specialists began to develop two types of fighters - the light Yak-45I and heavy Yak-47. The modified Yak-45I was intended to conduct air combat with enemy fighters and destroying its strike aircraft mainly on small and medium altitudes, at any time and under any weather conditions. The aircraft could intercept aerial targets and at high altitudes when you move it from the ground.

The Yak-45I reflect the concept of a multi-purpose aircraft, as intended, and to destroy ground targets, including those of small and mobile. By comparing the calculated data Yak-45I and MiG-29, by the way, performed by an integrated circuit, it is clear that the larger 500 kg take-off weight of the Yak-45I sample in 1972 had a large thrust-weight ratio and lower specific load on the wing. It promised better maneuvering characteristics, which is very important in close combat. The project documentation stated, inter alia, that "for air supremacy at all heights and depths across the frontline action Yak-45I fighter strip should be complemented by all-weather fighter with sophisticated weapons systems and equipment." In fact, it was the first step on the way to a heavy fighter Yak-47, a draft of which presented the military in 1972

The Yak-45I supposed to set sighting and navigation system of radar "Pearl", interfaced with teplopelengator and TV-optical sighting device. The complex provides a semi-automatic control of aircraft in combat on the route and landing, as well as an indication of flight parameters on the devices PKP-72, PNP-72 and the display on the windshield. Radar "Pearl" provides detection and target acquisition, target designation betrayed teplopelengator, opto-electronic and Scooter seeker missiles. Pilot also has a second channel targeting weapons systems from helmet-mounted viewfinder. Information polukompas, a part of the guiding control system calculated the autonomous landing trajectory and provide a semi-automatic flight at low altitude (200 m) above the ground with the terrain slopes up to 10-15 . Navigation system provides certain aircraft position relative to ground-based radio beacons in the polar coordinate system, piloted by the drive and broadcast radio stations and beacons, as well as the delivery of information in the ATC system. Communication equipment provided bespodstroechnuyu communication on VHF-UHF-band (radio station "Crane 10") and issue a response in the system identification gosprinadlezhnosti ( "Ozone" the defendant).

Defense Complex signaled the pilot to an irradiation of ground and airborne radar with the issuance of the bearing (station "birch-L") and advocated the creation of launch-plane leading away active and passive radio (active jamming station "Geranium-FSA" container-type) and IR interference (dipole ejection means and IR interference established on account of payload). Built-in electronics control system provides automated control of the airplane systems and registration of emergency settings (Recorder "Tester-E"). Total weight of the equipment is 1460 kg.

Two cannon GS-23 caliber 23 mm cannon were replaced by one TCB-645 caliber 30 mm. This artvooruzhenie "moved" from the forward fuselage in zakabinnogo compartment and shifted to starboard. Box 200 cartridges installed directly in front of the forward fuselage fuel tank. In addition, under the wing can be suspended four containers UPK-23 to GS-23 guns. Under the wing provided a four-point suspension of SD-class "air-air" melee K-60 (6 pcs.) And K-55 (4 pcs.) And K-13 (4 pcs.). To "work on ground targets" fighter weapons complemented bombs, incendiary tanks and NAR. The aircraft can carry up to four bombs caliber up to 500 kg, four 20-barrel gun unit 80 mm NAR family of C-8 (or gun unit 122 mm NAR C-13 family of four or a family of NAR C-25).

All this, according to the developers made it possible to easy front-line fighter Yak-45I successfully conduct a visual maneuver air combat with enemy fighters and destroy its strike aircraft at low and medium altitudes in IMC and SMU day and night. The materials of the project said that "the most important factors ensuring the Yak-45I fighter air superiority is its greater maneuverability, which is achieved due to the high power available, relatively low wing loading and availability of effective air brakes."

The Light Fighter Yak-45I was intended to "protect ground forces from air attack and destroy the enemy fighters at low and medium altitudes in visual visibility." Superiority in the air was carried out "by autonomous action using airborne sighting systems, as well as pre-targeting". Attack aircraft Yak-45 was intended to destroy the group and single of small and moving ground targets in the tactical and operational depth of the enemy. This assault actions he could conduct only when visual contact with the target.

The Yak-45 provided for special measures to enhance combat survivability. The fuselage ofthe attack aircraft consisted of separate, isolated compartments, and layout of compartments themselves screened vital units less important or less vulnerable units. Spaced along the wing engines reduced the probability of their simultaneous output down, fuel is also housed in two spaced compartments. In an emergency situation the engines can be powered by any of them.

To protect the fuel compartment from water hammer and reduce fuel through holes losses, internal compartments were covered with a surface of a two-layer coating. Furthermore, as the production of fuel tanks were filled with nitrogen. plane chassis for a normal landing when one of the tires of lumbago. To protect the pilot's cabin was welded from steel armor plates with a thickness of 4 to 8.5 mm. In addition, front and bottom-rear screened its various hardware units. Visor canopy protected by bulletproof glass front 45 mm thick, hinged part of the canopy is closed the two-layer armor (outer layer - 3 mm steel, internal - 5-mm titanium).

In 1978-1979 Yakovlev attempted to restart development of the Yak-45 by designing a V/STOL version with two vectoring thrust nozzles and two RD-38 jets. This aircraft was not developed because the problem of roll associated with the loss of one engine during VTOL operation was never solved.

Projects Yak-45I and the Yak-47, superficially similar to the Yak-28, had no chance.

Yak-45I Yak-47.
Engines R53F-300 R59F-300
engine thrust, kgf - 2x8200 2x12500
Wing area, m 2 40 65
Normal takeoff weight, kg - 13900 22800
Start thrust-to-weight ratio 1.18 1.1
Wing loading, kg / m 2 - 348 350
The maximum speed of flight at high altitude, km / h 2500 2500
Practical ceiling, m 21500 20000
The maximum rate of climb at sea level, m/s 340 275
Acceleration time with:
from 600 to 1100 km / h - 16 14.5
from 1100 to 1300 km / h - 7.7 6
Practical flight range without drop tanks, km:
at the ground 1000 1000
at high altitude 2500 2500
Estimated armament: medium-range missiles
  • 2 x K 25
  • 2 x K-25
  • short-range missiles
  • 2 x K-60
  • 2 x K-60

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