Mil V-3 Light Helicopter
In the second-half the 60's by the specialists of firm Mil were undertaken the attempts to modernize light helicopter Mi-2 or to develop taking into account experience of its tests and operating the new more advanced machine. However, they all proved to be futile because of the absence of finished light engines and large overloading of plant by the design of the helicopters of average and heavy classes. In 1970. the governments of the USSR and Poland concluded agreement about the replacement those of in series constructing at the aircraft plants of this friendly country of the flight vehicles for Soviet construction those by more advanced. At the helicopter construction plant OF WSK PZL "[Svidnik]" was provided for the replacement of those become obsolete Mi-2 by the apparatuses for fundamentally new construction. In engineers " [MVZ] [im]. Of [m].[L].[Milya] " appeared the possibility to design the light multipurpose helicopter of the next generation. It was assumed that its technical and economic characteristics, first of all speed, distance and flight altitude, will be considerably better than in predecessor.
With the creation of the new helicopter of [milevtsy] was used the reserve, accumulated in the previous years with the development on the base Mi-2 of the modernized helicopter V- Z (Mi-3), "by the inheritance" from which project and preserved its name. Designers studied several versions of layouts, including with different arrangement of power plants. Traditional diagram with two engines, located above the cab from the front from the main rotor gearbox as before proved to be most rational, which recommended well itself in the existing transport and multipurpose machines. On the helicopter it was intended to establish two engines GTD (gas-turbine engine) -850, projected in OKB [S].[P].[Izotova], and by four-blade the rotor with a diameter of 14,5 m, which promised significant advantages in comparison with the three-bladed. Takeoff mass V- Z was evaluated at 4,2-4,4 t, load capacity - into 1-1,2 t, passenger capacities of 12-13 people. After conducting of the corresponding weight and aerodynamic designs the proposal, prepared " [MVZ] [im]. Of [m].[L].[Milya] ", was sent out for the assertion into the institutes of the ministry of the aircraft industry and customers.
In January 1972. in accordance with the prisoner on December 1, 1971. by the agreement between the governments of the USSR and PNR "about the technical collaboration in the field of creation and organizing the production in PNR of the new articles of aviation equipment" to Moscow on " [MVZ] [im]. Of [m].[L].[Milya] " arrived the group of Polish engineers -[vertoletostroiteley] with WSK "Of [svidnik]" headed by [Z].[Kodlubaem]. On the order [M].[N].[Tishchenko] in the territory of OKB with it was isolated the accomodation, equipped with all with necessary for the design activity. In the process of the joint operation on the design of the helicopter V- Z [MVZ] in accordance with "the agreement" transmitted license and the know-how to design and production of helicopters to plant "[Svidnik]". After half a year intensive work Soviet and Polish specialists with the active participation and under the management of the designers OF [MVZ] prepared preliminary design, plan- avenue and project of operational requirements (TTT) for the light multipurpose helicopter, which received Polish designation W -3. In this first version TTT the helicopter V -3 was close to Mi-2. However, already at the stage of the assertion of requirements customer advanced merciless term - to increase the payload of helicopter. It was necessary to alter project, and on its dimensionality (transportable load and installed power) helicopter V -3 began more to correspond Mi-4. In parallel with this in OKB were studied the possible versions of helicopter, preliminary mock-up was prepared, and at flying station one of the plant Mi-2 was re-equipped into the flying testing laboratory of the four-blade rotor.
In 1973-1974 yr. the type of the power plant V -3, which composed two engines GTD -10 with a power of 870 hp each, developed in by Omsk motor-building KB under the management Of [v].[A].[Glushenkova], finally was determined. They were intended for the installation to the promising aircraft An-28, which it was planned to produce in Poland. Respectively for series output GTD -10 began to be prepared the Polish engine-building plant WSK PZL in [Zheshuve]. The specialists of this plant on the basis of license documentation created together with Omsk KB the helicopter version of engine, named GTD -10[v] (PZL-10W). It was possible to increase his takeoff power to 900 hp, power in the extraordinary regime was 1150 hp a margin of power it was intended to use for providing of flight safety in the case of failure of one of the engines. By [zheshuvskimi] motor constructors was projected the main rotor gearbox V -3. For convenience in the maintenance and repair the engines and reducer were united in one unit - [motobloke], whose opened cowlings served as ladders for the mechanics. The installation of mushroom-shaped dustproof devices was provided for at the engine inlets. The arrangement of the cooling-system fan became the original solution of power plant V -3 from below under the engines.
In 1974 the chief designer and the leader of program V -3 assigned Polish engineer [S].[Kaminskiy], and the toward the end following year the mixed group of Polish and Soviet [vertoletostroiteley] finished the preliminary design of the rotary-wing apparatus, after assertion of which all further works conducted already in Poland. After transfer to the Polish associates of programs and procedures of calculation and design, and also technologies the specialists [MVZ] left into [Svidnik] for the consultations. Furthermore, [milevtsy] ensured agreement and conducting of all joint operations with NII (Scientific Research Institute) of the Soviet aircraft industry and suppliers of finished articles.
In 1976. commission, which consists of the representatives of the command of the Soviet Air Force and management of civil aviation affirmed mock-up V -3, after which Polish designers approached the working design of aggregates and systems of helicopter. Specialists " [MVZ] [im]. OF [M].[L]. mile " generously shared with Polish associates by wide experience. They participated in the consideration of working drawings, they consulted in the process of static, flying and firing tests, they helped to calculate strength and resonance characteristics, loads in control system. " [Milevtsy] " carried out design characteristics of the blades of carrier and tail rotor, calculation for the ground resonance, the calculation of the aeroelastic characteristics of tail rotor and the like, after ensuring the successful completion of the program of the creation of Soviet-Polish helicopter W-3.
Unfortunately, for a number of reasons, in essence of nontechnical nature, the development of new helicopter was tightened. The first copy of an experimental series (of five apparatuses) was assembled on PZL "Of [svidnik]" only in summer of 1979 g. it was the light multipurpose helicopter of classical single-rotor design. In the extrinsic ethos, the layout and the overall sizes looked through the features of predecessor Mi-2; however, this was the completely new machine, which relates to the helicopters of the third generation. The semimonocoque fuselage of metal construction included elements from the glass-fiber-reinforced plastic. Two-place flight deck had dual control with the newest complex of flight equipment, which ensured the twenty-four hour operation of helicopter. The access into the flight deck was effected through the lateral sliding doors. The installation of navigation radar was provided for under the nose fairing of the helicopter.
Cargo-passenger cab the size of 3,21 X of 1,55 X of 1,38 m was roomy. In it was possible to place in the all-passenger layout - 12 people (on three armchairs in four rows), in the version of comfortable salon - five passengers, in the sanitary version - four patients on the stretchers even two accompanying medical workers. The high level of comfort in the cabs was ensured grow prettier by soundproofing, and also by the heating systems, ventilation and conditioning. Load by mass to 2100 kgf could be transported both inside the cargo-passenger cab and during the external suspension. In particular, the suspension of tank with the water was provided for dealing with the fires. From behind cargo-passenger cab was arranged the luggage compartment with capacity 180 kg. at the end of tail boom was fixed stabilizer.
Four-blade rotor V-3 had classical triple-hinged bushing with the hydraulic dampers and glass-plastic blades. For a reduction in the loads in control system they gave trapeziform form to the end parts of the blades. Subsequently Polish [vertoletostroiteli] installed on the bushing of helicopter the vibration damper, which significantly lowered vibration level in the cab. The pushing tail rotor had three glass-plastic blades. They, as the blade of rotor, were equipped with the thermoelectric system of anti-icing.
Three-strut landing gear V -3 consisted of two basic supports with the counters of the lever type and front support with the self-adjusting wheel. Low-pressure tires permitted implementation of landing and taxiing on the soft ground. Tail strut protected tail rotor with the landings at the high angles of attack. Fuel system ensured the independent nourishment of each of the engines. The total capacity of four fuel tanks was 1750 l. for the overflights up to the great distances in the cab it could be established additional tank. The hydraulic system of assisted control consisted of basic and duplicating. In control of helicopter the artificial stability installation, substituted subsequently to the four-channel autopilot, was included.
The first tests of prototype V -3 were conducted on the leash. In their course the reliability of the operation of aggregates and systems of helicopter was checked. On November 16, 1979. plant test pilot [V].[Merchik] accomplished the first free lift into air. The interruption, caused by political events in Poland, came following this in the tests V -3. Only in spring 1982 g. Of [merchik] tested in air the second version of the helicopter, specially intended for the flight tests according to the complete program. At the beginning 1985 g. after the completion of plant flight program the helicopter V -3 was directed toward the state and running tests in the USSR. They provided for a study of technical flight characteristics both in the normal and extreme operating conditions, including under the conditions for high mountain region, low and high temperatures, high humidity, icing, and also with the high winds and so forth simultaneously on "[Svidnike]" began preparations to the series production.
Long-standing running tests in different regions of the USSR confirmed high technical flight characteristics V -3 and reliability of its systems in any climatic zones. It can be exploited under the conditions, not accessible for the foreign helicopters. In 1992. V -3 obtained the Soviet certificate of airworthiness in accordance with the standards [NLGV]-1, and in the following year the equipped with new equipment modification W -3a "falcon" was past certification according to the American standards FAR-29.
It was assumed according to the original plans that V -3 will replace the enormous park of helicopters Mi-2 in the USSR and the friendly countries. However, "reconstruction" and subsequent after it disintegration of the Warsaw Pact and entire "socialist camp" changed plans. After losing Soviet market, instead of the expected thousandth series the plant OF WSK PZL "[Svidnik]" let out since 1988. only one-and-a-half hundred machines (of them two ten on the Soviet orders). Besides Poland they are supplied to Vietnam, Germany, Italy, Korea, [Myanmu], Nigeria, United Arab Emirates, Portugal, Russia, Czech Republic and Republic of South Africa. For increasing the competitive ability V -3 on the World Market at present Polish [vertoletostroiteli] together with the specialists " OF [MVZ] [im]. Of [m].[L].[Milya] " perform work on its modernizations, directed in essence toward an increase in the resource of aggregates and simplification in their maintenance.
Basic base modifications V -3 and W -3a provide for the use of a multipurpose helicopter in the following versions: passenger, cargo, training, sanitary- evacuation, rescue, and also in the version of crane with the external suspension. Furthermore, Polish [vertoletostroitelyami] developed the special modifications: [pyatimestnyy] salon for the Pope; resuscitative with the equipment for intensive care; mine-rescue with the ski landing gear and the winch by load capacity 270 kgf; the sea rescue (W -3Rm "of Anaconda"), equipped with pneumatic ballonets in the case of splashdown, by the system of the search for those suffered shipwreck, by winch and by other rescue equipment; policeman with the system of automatic following and transmission of data of FLIR, with the headlight of blinding and other special equipment; pour on helicopter for the measurement of the stresses of electromagnetic; the armed version (W -3Wb "Of [khusar]") and other.
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