Tu-184 / Tu-194
The Tu-184 designation was first applied to a 1970s project for a short-haul passenger aircraft with 140-160 passengers powered by 2 x d-30KP, D-30M (D-30A) engines. The Tu-194 designation was then applied to a 1973 project for passenger aircraft with 116 passengers, powered by 2 x D-30A engines.
The Tu-184 designation was applied to an early 1970s project for a large capacity (200-220 passenger) medium-haul passenger aircraft project, powered by 3 x D-18 engines. The Tu-194 designation was applied to a variant with a longer fuselage (at 320-350 passengers) powered by 3 x D-18 engines.
In a class of large-capacity aircraft as the main option in the early 70s OKB AN Tupolev proposed creation of Tu-184 with three engines of the D-18 with a takeoff thrust of 18 000-20 000 kg each. Wing, landing gear and tail were unified with the Tu-154. Fuselage - new, 5.6 m in diameter was calculated on the airplane transportation 200-220 passengers up to 4500 km.
On the basis of the aircraft Tu-184 project by lengthening the fuselage (two insertions before and after central) bureau planned to get medium-haul passenger aircraft - "airbus" Tu-194, designed to carry 320 - 350 passengers over a distance of 2,200 km.
Using an elongated fuselage project mid-mainline passenger aircraft Tu-184 in combination four-engine D-18, placed on pylons under the wings, afforded long-haul passenger aircraft Tu-214, intended to replace the operation of Tu-114. The project involved the creation of machines capable of carrying 250-280 passengers for 6,500 km.
|Tu-184||two D-30KP engines|
|aircraft length||39.1 m;|
|height of the aircraft||12.85 m;|
|Wing area||52.144 sq. M;|
|take-off weight||60000-62000 kg;|
|commercial load||16,500 kg;|
|cruising speed of flight||990 km / h;|
|flight range||1700-2000 km.|
Advantage of the central three-seater unit in comparison with the four-seater is the convenience of placing the passenger in the middle armchair and providing him with an alternative in using the aisles and luggage racks. The wide fuselage of the aircraft allowed in the under the floor racks of 54 cubic meters. m place 7 standard containers 1ATA A1, which should significantly simplify the inclusion of Tu-184 in the international air transportation system. The profitability of the Tu-184 aircraft was ensured by a high weight-load on commercial load, efficiency of the engines mastered in series production, high cruising speed, low cost of the airframe due to maximum unification with the Tu-134A aircraft, fast turnaround of the aircraft, its independence from airfield facilities.
Airbus Tu-184 was considered as the further development of passenger aircraft Tu-124 and Tu-134. The aircraft had a tourist option for 140-160 seats, and a mixed version for 132 seats. According to the initial design, the
|Takeoff weight||66000 kg;|
|mass of the empty aircraft||33,000 kg;|
|normal commercial load||14000 kg;|
|number of passengers|
step of the seats is 810 mm
|flight range |
with normal commercial load
|cruising speed of flight||820 km / h;|
|Cruising altitude of flight||11000 m;|
|Required runway length||3000 m.|
Passenger cabin aircraft was calculated for 140-150 passengers, the crew of the aircraft consisted of 2 x pilots and 3 flight attendants. The low position of the fuselage above the ground provided easy access, without the use of ladders and other devices, to the technical and luggage compartments of the aircraft, which allowed obtaining a high level of operational technology. This was also facilitated by the maintenance system of the aircraft, conceived as a completely autonomous system with a wide application of automated systems of built-in control. The design of the airframe of the aircraft should have been performed taking into account the requirements of modern technologies with the mass application of glued structures.
Modified low-noise D-30M engines were designed on the basis of serial D-30s, their take-off thrust of 8500 kgs they kept to a temperature of plus 30 degrees on the runway, located at sea level. The engine was equipped with an air start system and a constant speed drive for AC generators of stable frequency. Later, D-ZOM was slightly modified and received the designation D-30A. In this version, it was intended for the Tu-134D aircraft.
During the modernization of the Tu-134A, the D-30M and D-30A were planned for installation on the serial Tu-134A. Such an integrated approach allowed to reduce the cost of development and production of the Tu-184 with the modernization of the fleet of serial Tu-134s. There was a preliminary project of the Tu-184 with three D-36 engines: two engines on the wing, one in the tail of the fuselage. On the basis of this project, a variant with two D-36s on the wing and with a shortened fuselage designed for 70-80 passengers for flights for a range of the order of 1000 km and operation from ground airfields was proposed.
Based on the serial Tu-184 variants, the OKB planned the creation of cargo or convertible cargo-passenger, transport-sanitary, staff, salon and other modifications of the original aircraft. The creation of the family of short-range Tu-184 airbuses with engines D-30M (D-30A) or D-36 according to the design of the OKB was to maximally unify the aircraft fleet for local and short-haul lines, to significantly ease the problems with spare parts in the " bear corners "of the USSR, and also to reduce the price of the repair and maintenance system. In 1976, the OKB offers one of the latest projects on the Tu-184 theme with two D-30A engines with a take-off thrust of 9500 kgf and a specific fuel consumption of 0.75 kg / kg.ch. The project envisaged the creation of an airplane to transport 150 passengers for a distance of up to 4000 km. This project was considered as another alternative to the Yak-42 aircraft. The airplane in its layout, the main data was close to the French "Airbus" MD "Mercury." The wing swept at 20 degrees, two engines on the pylons under the wing, the diameter of the fuselage was 3.8 m. For the wing, new supercritical profiles were selected, which allowed us to obtain a calculated cruising aerodynamic quality equal to 17.5 for the aircraft.
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