TU-148 Long Range Interceptor
Work on deep modernization of air-missile system to intercept long-range based on the Tu-128 and gridlock with the design of the aircraft carrier for the new complex Tu-138, the OKB insistently demanded the search for new creative ways in the development of long-range heavy fighter-interceptors. Almost simultaneously with the beginning of the design of long-range missile with variable sweep wing aircraft "145", the bureau started designing aviation complex long-range interception. The heavy fighter-interceptor with variable sweep wing won the designation of aircraft design bureau "148" (Tu 148).
In parallel with the development of advanced interceptors and radars designed for them with antennas having mechanical scanning, the team of scientists and engineers under the direction of Professor BI Sapsovicha began to study ways of constructing FAS for aircraft weapon control systems. Based on these studies, in 1968, the Research Institute of Instrument has begun to create a system of "Barrier" to control headlamps designed to equip promising fighter-interceptor. Here it was found the original technical solutions, created highly effective methods of design and manufacturing technologies, allowed to create, to work and to organize the prospect of PAR.
To equip the new long-range interceptors with "Barrier" system ICD "Vympel" in the late 1960s. It began to develop a new missile R-33, equipped with semi-active RGSN. A special feature was the use of SD wing of small extension and folding handlebars, which ensured its comfortable accommodation in the ventral compartments of aircraft carriers. R-33 guidance head catches the target after launch, the missile guidance to the capture was carried out by means of an inertial system (the length of the flight before going to the homing should be 10-20% of the trajectory). The design of UR its creators are widely used titanium alloys. The ability to hit targets at a distance of 120 km was achieved. Aircraft enemy, maneuvering with an overload of 4, were destroyed with a probability of 0.6-0.8. The starting mass of the rocket was 491 kg (with weight of 55 kg warhead) Range of heights defeat 50-28000 m, the maximum speed of hitting targets - 3700 km / h.
In the second half of the 1960s. it became apparent that a radar with phased array can fully satisfy the customer's requirements. As a result, the Yakovlev Design Bureau. AN Tupolev offered the Tu-148-33 project "Barrier" system and SD-P 33. The complex is designed to combat enemy aircraft, flying at speeds up to 3500 km/h at altitudes of 26-28 km. The number of potential targets included the CD type and aeroballistic SRAM-type missiles.
Its design began in 1965. In the fall of 1965 the main characteristics of the complex and its possibilities of modification to reflect the new configuration of the aircraft carrier. The use of a variable sweep wing in flight, combined with two turbojet engines VD-19R2 can eliminate many of the contradictions of previous single-mode projects and greatly enhance the tactical use of the aircraft. In configurations maximum and expected to get a big sweep speed when flying at altitudes of 50-100 m - 1400 km / h and at altitudes of 16000-18000 m - 2500 km / h and a practical range at this speed - 2500 km.
For flights at altitudes of 50-500 m at speeds of 1400 km / h - 570 km at a speed of 1000 km / h - 1,850 km. With a sweep of the wing corresponding to subsonic cruise provides a range of 4800 km. In the case of in-flight refueling performance in range, depending on the mode of flight, increased by 30-40%. Takeoff and landing performance, even with an increase in take-off weight of the Tu-148 to 55-60 tons (for the Tu-128 - 43 tons) were obtained significantly better than the Tu-128: 800 m length of the runway and the ability to use a third-class airfields and unpaved runways (for the Tu-128 - 1350m and the second class, respectively).
In addition to the functions of long-fighter-interceptor Tu-148 after further conversion could be applied for violations of air transport in the operative behind enemy lines - samolet- "raider" to ensure the defense of surface ships at great distances from their bases as a carrier missiles "air-to-ground "for various purposes, including passive homing to destroy ground radar and AWACS aircraft, as a scout radio equipment, low-level and high-rise fotorazvedchika, tactical bombers carrying nuclear and conventional bombs and attack aircraft armed Nursi and guns, to strike by ground forces with a relatively weak defense and small ships. In fact, it was about creating a multi-purpose aircraft.
The second "highlight" of the project, along with a variable sweep wing, identify the person of the project and in many ways it was a proposal layout solutions used on the Tu-148 combined weapon control systems "Smerch-100" includes radar quasi-continuous radiation with a mirror diameter of the antenna 2.0 m (antenna phased array), thermal equipment channel detection and tracking of targets that transmitted radar, digital onboard computer and radar antenna side-view. The developers of the "Smerch-100" intended to provide a detection range of aerial targets Tu-16 when attacking from the front hemisphere to 300-3500 km detection range in side the search of 600 km detection range teplopelengator on free courses to 100 km. System "Smerch-100" was to provide start-up and management of missiles in the search mode with a range of 250 km when attacking from the front hemisphere.
By that time these characteristics looked on the verge of fiction and could in the case of the successful achievement of for many years to solve the problem of long-range aircraft interception. In the first phase planned to equip the complex with K-100 combined with teploradiolokatsionnoy GOS with different types of warheads with a range of up to 80 km, in the future, because the possibility of "Smerch-100" is enabled, it was supposed to go to rockets "air-to-air" more range. Weapons system made it possible to intercept and destroy targets flying at altitudes from 50 m to 32000-35000 m at speeds from 500 to 4000-4500 km/h.
The onboard equipment includes the most advanced features of the system: the system trajectory control, the PNA complex, providing autonomous navigation, single-board automatic system for receiving information about the different types of goals, commands from the control, guidance and transfer information to other aircraft system low-altitude flight. All weapons and equipment targeted at different variants of tactical use housed in fuselage payload bay [gruzootseke].
Multiple use of the Tu-148 implied a rapid transition from one model to another in the field. Gruzootseke with interchangeable module calculates the following download options: four missiles K-100; one X-22 or X-28 two or four K-100P; machinery electronic intelligence "Bulat" or "Sabre" or "Bend"; aerial camera (AFA) type "Diamond", panoramic AFA and AFA-42/20 plus an additional fuel tank or AFA-42/20, two AFA-54 and AFA-45; two tactical nuclear bombs or containers with Nursi, or containers with guns with ammunition.
In an embodiment of long-loitering interceptor complex Tu-148-100 could provide subsonic line interception 2150 km at a speed of 2500 km / h - up to 1000 km and combined cycle - up to 1700 km. Turn on time loitering 1300 km - 2 hours, and at 500 km - 4 hours. This made it possible to reliably cover the relatively small forces and means of the northern and eastern borders of the country. In case of success of the project defense could get a highly efficient system.
The project had a high degree of saturation of the super modern equipment. And this is how it turned out, was his weakest point, given the level of development of the electronic industry in the USSR in the 60s. Such a complex could actually occur under the most favorable conditions, at least ten years. Which has been confirmed in practice. Much simpler and less efficient system based on the system "Barrier" was released only in 1970s. Aimed at creating a multi-purpose machine capable of performing the functions and the interceptor, the frontal "shock" machine was not in line with the mainstream of domestic Air Force, which, unlike the US, always wanted to be armed with several types of aircraft narrowly targeted destination, rather than a multi-purpose combat vehicle. As a result of all these factors, the project Tu-148 in this configuration did not arouse the interest of the Air Force and was not developed.
Work on the Tu-148 came to life in the second half of the 1960s., When work began on a new weapon system "Barrier" with missiles K-33 (detection range 110-115 km, launch range 80-90 km), the structure of the building and functionally similar to the "Smerch-100", but which had a much more modest but real possibilities. It was decided to abandon the idea of creating a multi-role aircraft for the Air Force and was fully focused on further interception equipped with modern equipment which could come from Soviet industry.
Work on the Tu-148 was now regarded as the further modernization of the Tu-128. Expansion of combat capabilities and effectiveness of the complex as compared to the Tu-128C-4 was achieved by improving the flight and performance characteristics that reduce the minimum flight altitude intercepted goals with 8 km to 0.05 km, providing intercept low-altitude targets against the background of the earth, intercept small targets (air-launched missiles "Hound Dog╗, SRAM, SCAD and SCAM), expanding the range of speeds, intercepted goals in the forward hemisphere from 2000 km / h up to 3500 km / h and in the back - from 1250 km / h to 2300- 2,400 km / h, increasing the height of intercepted targets with 21000 m to 26000-28000 m, increase noise immunity of the complex, providing a simultaneous attack of two goals, providing group activities that increase the efficiency of the semi-autonomous and autonomous action, increased range and endurance, improved takeoff and landing characteristics , improved acceleration characteristics, the introduction of additional elements of the automation of the main phases of flight.
Improving the performance of the aircraft carrier was to be carried out by replacing the engine AL-7F-2 to more powerful RD-36-41, fuselage modifications, alterations, air inlets and canals, installation of a new wing with variable sweep in flight with slats and double-slotted inboard flaps, gain chassis design and implementation of a new type of wheel, the introduction of electron-intertseptornogo stability control and automatic way, the introduction of trajectory control, etc. It was assumed that in a modified form of the aircraft can be operated with the same airports as the Tu-128. Project Design Bureau presented Command air defense of the country. The new complex was supported air defense commander.
In OKB the work on designing aircraft and complex prepared a full-scale model of the Tu-148, which is several times examined by the customer. In May 1968 test pilot Kadomtsev died in a plane crash on one of the first E-155P. The new management of air defense relies on the modernization of the system under the "Barrier" serial MiG-25P, begin work on the E-155MP with "Barrier", a prototype of future serial MiG-31. Formally, a new air defense command of the Tu-148 project for some time refused. Still, it was a question of contacts with the largest and most prestigious in the country by air and with its chief designer AN Tupolev, opinion and expression is a lot of cost.
In 1968, a full-scale mockup of the TU-148-33 was built, but in the early 1970s. priority was given to the project of modernization of the deep-interceptor MiG-25P with "Barrier" system. Recommendations TsAGI on the aircraft had been issued in 1968, and in 1972 in OKB A.I.Mikoyan began full-scale work on the creation of the machine. The TTT main emphasis on customer did increase range and loitering time. Requirements for high-speed and high-altitude interceptor characteristics were regarded as a deep modernization of the MiG-25P, were compared to its predecessor almost unchanged. The fighter, designated MiG-25PM (E-155PM), had to have a line of interception of 700 km at a cruising flight speed of 2500 km / h (M = 2.35) and 1200 km - at subsonic speeds.
The aircraft carrier exhibited additional requirements, which largely were at odds with the basic concept of the aircraft and the complex (one of those requirements was the point to significantly improve maneuverability characteristics of the Tu-148 at low altitudes). Kolmogorov himself and his closest colleagues persistently tried to achieve a breakthrough related to the Tu-148 and a formal ruling on the complex, the allocation of money for the further design. But it was all in vain. In the early 1970s. Work on the complex had finally collapsed.
In the future, EDB was no longer engaged in specialized subjects of heavy aircraft carrier for long-distance air defense complexes interception. All work in the bureau in this direction in the future were limited to consideration of technical proposals for the creation of long-range heavy fighter interceptor class "raider" based on the Tu-144 and Tu-22M (projects complexes distant interception DP-1 and DP-2), but this work not out of the initial discussion stage projects.
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