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Military


TB-1 (ANT-4)

In November 1924, the Special Technical Bureau for Military Inventions entrusted TsAGI with the creation of a heavy two-engine universal aircraft. The layout of the first aircraft of this type, which received the designation ANT-4, envisaged the installation of engines and the placement of petrol tanks in the wing, and not in the fuselage, as well as the use of a wing profile with a large relative thickness. For the new machine, a multi-lifter wing scheme developed by VM Petlyakov and VN Belyaev was used.

The appearance of the TB-1 (ANT-4) had an impact on the development of the entire aircraft construction. Like the Junkers aircraft, it was a one-piece monoplane with a free-bearing low-lying wing, truss power structure and corrugated skin. However, both in terms of external layout and internal design, it was significantly different from the Junkers. The aircraft was a twin-engine monoplane with engines at the leading edge of the wing. The wing had 5 spars in the form of trusses from interconnected pipes, stringers, 18 ribs in the center wing and 10 in each console. If on Junkers' planes the design of the wing had the appearance of a spatial truss with diagonal braces, in the corners of which tubular belts passed, the wing of Tupolev's aircraft was characterized by a more technological constructive-power scheme with flat spar rails.

Another difference was in the application of Tupolev developed plating in the Central Aerohydrodynamic Institute with steeper corrugation (the so-called "wave of TsAGI"). The consumption of such a cladding led to a certain increase in drag, but it allowed to increase the strength by 5-7%, and the stiffness - by almost a quarter in comparison with the "Junkers wave", but it allowed increasing the strength by 5-7%, and the rigidity - by almost a quarter compared with the "Junkers wave".

At the time of its appearance, TB-1 was the largest all-metal aircraft in the world: it had a length of 18 m, a wing span of 28.7 m and a wing area of ??120 m. To reduce the load on the control stick, the pilot could change the angle of installation of the horizontal stabilizer in flight. Fuel tanks, providing the aircraft with a range of 1,350 km, were in the center wing wing. Inside the fuselage there was a bomb compartment, seats for pilots, a bombardier (also a radio operator) and gunners (on the plane there were three mobile turrets for twin Lewis machine guns). The total number of crew was 5 people.

The assembly of the first experimental aircraft was completed in August 1925, and on November 25 test pilot AI Tomashevsky made his first flight to ANT-4. After a series of modifications, the aircraft was transferred to the acceptance commission of the Scientific-Experimental Aerodrome. In June 1926, a series of meetings took place on the bomber, as a result of which it was decided to place bombs inside the fuselage as well as on the suspension under the wing, and also to convert the ANT-4, being prepared for serial production, with 600-VI BMW-VI engines. s, later replaced by domestic M-17. The bomber crew consisted of 6 people. Defensive weapons of the machine represented a turret with three firing points of Degtyarev machine guns, the bomb load was 1000 kg.

In the summer of 1929, the serial production of ANT-4 began at the Fili plant and continued until 1932. At Taganrog Plant from 1929 to 1932, 66 aircraft TB-1P (float) were produced, used in military and civil aviation.

On August 23, 1929 an ANT-4, without installed weapons, made a historic flight crew consisting of S. A. Shestakov, F. E. Bolotov, B. V. Sterligov and D. V. Foufaev under the direction of V. M. Petlyakov on the route Moscow - New York. Over 137 flying hours, the pilots overcame a distance of 21,242 km of which 7,950 kilometers - over the water.

The universality of the bomber and the simplicity of the design made it possible to test the latest ideas in aircraft construction on it. All 216 ANT-4 aircraft built, entered into service with the Soviet Air Force, laid the foundation for the technical equipment of our domestic long-range aviation.

The construction of the first single-engine all-metal aircraft ANT-2 and ANT-3, headed by AN Tupolev, began in 1924 to design a twin-engine all-metal aircraft-bomber ANT-4 with two 450-liter NEPIR water cooling engines. At the end of 1925, the construction of this aircraft was completed, and the pilot AI Tomashevsky carried out the first flight on it. In 1926 ANT-4 successfully passed flight tests.

In the second half of 1929, a second specimen of this ANT-4bis aircraft was built with domestic water cooling engines-M-17 for 600 liters. from. each. In October, his flight tests were completed and he was put into serial production. Designers very successfully chose for a twin-engine aircraft a scheme of a free-carrying monoplane with a low wing position relative to the fuselage. This scheme provided a minimum of frontal air resistance, a good overview of the crew and a rational layout of the propeller-driven group. I must say that at the end of the twenties almost all foreign bombers were biplanes. Compared with these aircraft with a whole forest of racks and braces, the ANT-4 monoplane looked like a very progressive model of the device, representing a new stage in the development of aviation. The main material adopted for this aircraft was duralumin,

Since 1929, this aircraft began to come into service with the Red Army under the name of TB-1 ("Heavy Bomber First"). It was built serially from 1928 to 1932. In addition to the bomber TB-1, there was also a transport version of this aircraft, both on wheels and on floats. On one of the ANT-4bis aircraft, called the "Country of Soviets", in 1929 a big flight was made on the route Moscow-New York. This flight of 21,242 km continued from August 23 to November 2, was carried out by the crew of SA Shestakov (first pilot), FE Bolotov, BV Sterligov and DB Fufaev and took 142 flight hours. During this flight 8000 km were passed over the sea, while the aircraft was placed on the floats.

After this flight, the advanced aircraft construction company of the USA "Boeing" and then other aircraft manufacturers around the world began to build twin-engine aircraft according to the ANT-4bis scheme. This scheme, as is known, still remains the most common in aviation. In March 1934, on an ANT-4bis plane, A. V. Lyapidevskiy was the first to land on the ice in the area where the Chelyuskin steamer team camp was located.

In 1929, on an airplane TB-1, for the first time in the world, an experiment was successfully carried out to unhook from a plane-launcher in flight two fighter planes. This experiment was designed by engineer VS Vakhmistrov and was called the "aircraft-link". The main test in the flight of the "aircraft-link" on the plane TB-1 in 1929 was the outstanding pilot of the Motherland, VP Chkalov.

In the first year of the Great Patriotic War, a similar but slightly improved system was used with great success in the sudden bombardment of a railway bridge near the town of Chernovody in Romania. Two I-16 fighters were suspended under the wing of a four-engine bomber TB-3. He delivered them from Odessa to the Romanian coast, fueled them, and then after the combat operation the fighters returned to their own airfield.

The ANT-4 monoplane for a long time remained the best aircraft of its class in the world. After a successful flight on the Moscow-New York route, when the wheeled chassis was replaced by a float for the Petropavlovsk-Kamchatsky-Seattle section, it was decided to build a marine version of the car. With the help of TsAGI scientists, the designers developed all-metal floats. Seaworthiness and stability of the aircraft on taxi were good, landing - easy. Insignificantly changed and flight-technical data. During the tests, the sea version of the bomber, called TB-1P (float), showed a speed of 180 km / h and a ceiling of 3,600 m. The aircraft factories produced 218 TB-1 aircraft , including 66 types of TB-1P.

In the TB-1 (ANT-4) airplane, it was possible to combine for the first time, with maximum fullness, all the elementsof a monoplane bomber. Aviation specialists were delighted with the beautiful shapes and completeness of the design of the new aircraft. It became the prototype of all bombers of a free-carrying monoplane scheme. Many foreign designers copied the ANT-4 scheme.

The TB-1 (ANT-4) had high for their time flight data. With engines M-17 in 500/680 hp their speed at the ground fluctuated depending on the installed engines and weapons, and in connection with this and the take-off weight (6200- 7928 kg) - from 184 to 207 km / h. Excellent flying and performance ANT-4 demonstrated the crew of the pilot SA Shestakov, who flew on a serial copy of the "Country of Soviets" aircraft for 137 flying hours (from August 23 to October 30, 1929) on the route Moscow - Omsk - Khabarovsk - Petropavlovsk-on-Kamchatka - Seattle-San Francisco-New York with a total length of 21,242 km. A significant part of the route, almost 8 thousand km, was flying over the water. The replacement of the wheeled chassis by a float was made in Khabarovsk in a very short time.

The serial construction of the ANT-4 aircraft began in the second half of 1928. At the same time, his tests continued with various options for equipment and loading. With full small arms - 6 machine guns, ton bombs and a crew of 6 people, the aircraft developed a speed of 184 km/h, gaining a height of 4900 m.

By the new 1931 in the Air Force RKKA there were already 52 new bombers TB-1, 45 of them serviceable. Continued completing the 11th Brigade. Its crews began to receive planes in Moscow, at the factory airfield. So, in May 1931, the pilots of the 51st and 59th Squadrons flew the TB-1 from there. The task was set in the shortest possible time to bring the brigade to full combat readiness. The training flights were very intensive. It did not do without accidents. The commander of one of the detachments of the 51st Squadron Pavlov lost his orientation in space at night; the plane crashed into the ground. Fortunately, the crew got off only with injuries. In the Moscow region Monino, two brigades formed at once: the 17th and 23rd brigades. By this time, the heavy-bomber brigades began to have four squadrons of 12 planes each. By Nov 1931 in the Air Force of the RKKA there were already 52 new bombers TB-1, 45 of which were serviceable. The 57th Squadron received the first TB-1 in August 1930, the 55th in October. Continued completing the 11th Brigade. After the first crews were trained, the planes began to take over in Moscow, right at the factory airfield. So, in May 1931, from there, the pilots of the 51st and 59th Squadrons flew the cars. In the suburbs, in Monino, two brigades formed at once - the 17th and the 23rd. By this time, the heavy-bomber brigades began to have four squadrons; the total staff was 50 bombers.

TB-1 was built in a series in 1929-1932. and was in service until 1936. It was also used in civil aviation, participated in Arctic expeditions. In 1929, the Moscow-Petropavlovsk-on-Kamchatka-Seattle-San Francisco-New York flight with a total length of 21,242 km was carried out on the serial TB-1 "Land of Soviets" with dismantled weapons, of which 8,000 km were over the ocean ( see Figure 1.55). The crew was headed by the pilot S.A.Shestakov. TB-1 made a great impression on Americans, who assessed the superiority of the new scheme over wooden biplane bombers. "America's aviation specialists were delighted with the beautiful shapes and completeness of the airplane's design," the New York Times reported on November 2, 1929.

In 1932, Boeing launched a twin-engine B-9A bomber. It was an all-metal monoplane with a wing of a thick profile. By design, the aircraft in many ways resembled the Soviet TB-1, which was demonstrated in 1929 in the United States. At the same time, the B-9A had a number of features borrowed from the experience of designing the first high-speed passenger aircraft. These include retractable in-flight chassis, annular cowl for cylinder heads of air-cooled engines, smooth metal lining. In terms of speed, the bomber was superior to TB-1, but it was still inferior to new-generation passenger aircraft.

Crew 6 people.
Wing span 28.7 m
Length, m 18 / 58.5
Wing area, m2 120
Empty weight 4520 kg
Weight, normal, kg 6810
Maximum take-off weight 7750 kg
Engines 2 x 680 hp
Type of engine 2 x PD M -17
power, hp 2 x 680
Top speed 207 km / h
Cruising speed, km / h 178
Range of flight 1000 km
Maximum climbing speed, m / min 170
Practical ceiling 4830 m
Machine-gun three pairs of 7.62 mm PV-1 machine guns
Internal bomb load 1000 kg

TB-1 (ANT-4)

TB-1 (ANT-4) TB-1 (ANT-4)



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Page last modified: 07-09-2018 07:17:54 ZULU