Subjects of the Russian Federation
Cities fed. zn.
The subject of the Russian Federation is a state - legal entity of the Russian Federation . The subjects of the Russian Federation together form the Russian Federation. The Constitution establishes six types of constituent entities of the Russian Federation: a republic within the Russian Federation, a territory, a region, a city of federal significance, an autonomous region, an autonomous district.
According to the Constitution, all constituent entities of the Russian Federation are equal in relations with federal government bodies.
In total, there are 85 regions in Russia - subjects of the Russian Federation, including 22 republics, 9 territories, 46 regions, 3 cities of federal significance, 1 autonomous region (Jewish Autonomous Region), 4 autonomous regions (Nenets, Chukotsky, Yamalo-Nenets and Khanty-Mansiysk Autonomous Okrug - Yugra). statistics are given both for the Tyumen region as a whole (including Khanty-Mansi Autonomous Okrug and YNAO) and separately. The same situation with the Arkhangelsk region - both together with the Nenets Autonomous Okrug, there and separately). Although the Tyumen region, Khanty-Mansi Autonomous Okrug and YNAO are separate regions. Also, the Arkhangelsk region and the Nenets Autonomous Okrug are separate regions.
The Tyumen region is a subject of the Russian Federation. The Khanty-Mansiysk Autonomous Okrug - Yugra (KhMAO) and the Yamalo-Nenets Autonomous Okrug (YNAO) are located on the territory of the Tyumen Region, which received the status of equal subjects of the Russian Federation in 1993, but are territorially part of the Tyumen Region [Wikipedia]. Nenets Autonomous Okrug - The subject of the Russian Federation. According to the Charter of the Arkhangelsk region, it is also part of the Arkhangelsk region, being both a subject of the Russian Federation and an integral part of the region.
Currently, the oblast [region] subjects of the Russian Federation do not have significant differences in their legal status. Oblasts are the most numerous constituent entities of the Russian Federation in terms of population. The territorial-administrative units into which Kievan Rus was divided were called volosts or regions. This was the name of a large territory with a central city, where one of the younger Rurik princes sat as a governor. The number of volosts into which Russia was divided in the 10th - early 12th centuries, depended on the number of simultaneously living princes and ranged from one to two dozen.
The process of formation of regions in the RSFSR and the USSR can be divided into two periods: before 1930 and after 1930. In the first period, large regions were formed, uniting several abolished provinces. In the second period, the previously created large regions and territories were divided into smaller regions, while some regions were abolished. In the RSFSR, this process went on almost continuously until 1957, and in the Union republics - almost until 1990.
During the Great Patriotic War , after the liberation of the territories, some "unreliable" peoples were deported from their original places of residence, including Chechens , Ingush and Crimean Tatars . In this regard, the Crimean ASSR in 1945 was transformed into the Crimean region , and the Chechen-Ingush ASSR was liquidated in 1944 and the Grozny region was formed on part of its territory . Later, the peoples were rehabilitated and returned to their lands, the Crimean region was transferred to the Ukrainian SSR , where it remained a region until 1991, and the Chechen-Ingush Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic was restored in 1957 , respectively, the Grozny region was liquidated.
During the first decade of the 21st century, a number of changes were made to the federal structure of Russia, which boiled down to the transformation of part of the autonomous regions from subjects of the federation into administrative-territorial units with a special status as part of the territories and regions to which they belonged. Legally, these changes were formalized as the unification of two subjects of the federation - the territory or region, on the one hand, and the autonomous region, on the other. At the same time, the united subject of the federation either inherited the name of the corresponding region or region ( Krasnoyarsk Territory , Irkutsk Region), or (in most cases of combining regions with autonomous districts) received a new name, becoming a region.
Krai [literally "Edge"] is the name of a territorial entity in the Russian Federation , as well as in the past in the Russian Empire and the Soviet Union. Modern Russia consists of 85 territorial subjects of the federation, 9 of them are called krais. The legal distinction between the krai and the region is not provided for by any laws and the Constitution of the Russian Federation. With the collapse of the USSR, all autonomous regions left the composition of the territories, but the name "krai" for the regions nevertheless remained, since in Russia the name and status of the subjects are determined independently.
The ethnic composition of the population of the regions is very diverse and constantly changing. In addition to ethnic diversity, Russian regions are very different in climate. Citizens of Russia of various nationalities live in 4 climatic zones - from polar to tropical - and actively move around the country. They are not afraid of a temperature difference of 100 degrees. In the Republic of Sakha (Yakutia) in the village of Oymyakon, the average January temperature is minus 48 degrees Celsius, and sometimes drops to minus 64! But in the Republic of Kalmykia in the village of Yashkul in summer the temperature often reaches plus 44 degrees Celsius. The strongest winds blow here in the Murmansk region. At 130 km from the capital of the Russian Saami - Lovozero - a wind speed of 187 km / h was recorded - this is 52 m / s.
Russian territory is washed by 13 seas from 3 oceans. The multinational people of Russia live in 10 time zones: when midnight in Kamchatka in Kaliningrad is only the middle of the day - 14 hours. The regions of Russia differ from each other in nature and cultural monuments, but each of them is multinational in its own way.
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