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SMK-1 tank (Sergey Mironovich Kirov)

In the second half of the 1930s, it became clear to the Red Army command that the heavy five-turreted T-35 tank, which was in service with the Red Army, no longer met the requirements set for it, first of all for booking. Therefore, in July 1937, the Red Army's armored control department issued tactical and technical requirements for the development of the T-35 tank with more powerful armor (4075 mm) and weighing up to 60 tons to factory No. 183 in Kharkov. However, during the design it became clear that at the specified thickness of armor plates it is impossible to meet the weight of 60 tons. Therefore, the KhPZ designers began to look for another layout with a smaller number of turrets. It should be noted here that the KhPZ design bureau, which is already small, was greatly weakened by repression and could hardly cope with the production of the BT-7 tanks, not to mention the new design.

Therefore, in order to accelerate the design of a new heavy tank in April 1938, the Leningrad Kirovsky Zavod with its powerful production base and the experience of mass production of the T-28 tank and Plant No. 185 named after them were connected to this work. Kirov, whose personnel, in turn, had a wealth of experience in creating new types of combat vehicles. The first developed the SMK-1 tank ("Sergey Mironovich Kirov" - also seen as QMS = Qirov Mironovich Sergey), the second - the "product 100" (or T-100). According to the tactical and technical requirements set by the military, these tanks were to have three gun turrets and 60-mm armor each. On October 1011, 1938, a special commission chaired by Assistant Chief of the ABTU of the Red Army military engineer 1st rank Korobkova reviewed drawings and wooden models (full-size) of SMK and T-100 tanks, despite a number of deviations from the previously put forward tactical and technical requirements.

On December 9, 1938, projects of the SMK and T-100 were considered in Moscow at a meeting of the Defense Committee of the Council of People's Commissars (SNK) of the USSR. During the discussion, representatives of the factories said that with a three-turret pattern and armor of 60 mm, it was impossible to keep within a given weight of 60 tons. Therefore, it was decided to reduce the number of turrets to two and increase due to this thickness of armor. In addition, at the same meeting, representatives of the Kirov Plant made a proposal for the design of a single-turret heavy tank, "similar in its characteristics to the SMK tank."

In October 1938 a group of fifth-year students of the Military Academy of Motorization and Mechanization (VAMM RKKA) arrived at the design bureau of SKB-2 of the Leningrad Kirov Plant to carry out a graduation project. And since in the design bureau at that time there was work on designing the SMK tank, then as a diploma, the new arrivals were instructed to develop at its base a draft design of a single-turret breakthrough tank. Responsibilities were as follows: B. P. Pavlov and V. K. Sinozersky were engaged in a general layout and armament, G. A. Turchaninov - by the undercarriage, L. H. Pereverzev - by servo drives and motor group, S. M. Kasavin and Shpuntov - planetary transmission. The general management of the design was entrusted to L. S. Sychev and A. S. Yermolaev, SKB-2 engineers, Slutsman (drive control), K. E. Kuzmin (case), N. F. Shamshurin (transmission), S.V. Fedorenko (armament).

When designing a new tank, materials from the Czechoslovak Sh-2A tank were used at the Kubinka training ground (the Red Army commanders considered the acquisition of this vehicle). In particular, the design of mirrors, viewing devices, various seals, fasteners, as well as the planetary transmission scheme was borrowed. The design of a single-topped heavy tank conducted by the forces of VAMM graduates allowed the head of the SKB-2 Z. Ya. Kotin and the director of the Kirovsky plant I. M. Zaltsman to come forward with a proposal to manufacture a single-shot breakthrough tank at the USSR Defense Committee.

By February 1939, representatives of the ABTU RKKA developed tactical and technical characteristics for the development of a new tank. On February 27, it was approved at a meeting of the Defense Committee; at the same time, a good was given at the start of work on a new car that received the KV index - Klim Voroshilov. According to the requirements of the military, the new tank, in comparison with the SMK, was supposed to increase the thickness of the armor of the sides, the stern of the hull and turret by reducing the total length of the vehicle.

KV borrowed from its "progenitor" of the SMK the armored housing scheme, the suspension, the design of optical devices, transmission elements, etc. However, the car had some deviations from the approved TTH. Thus, instead of the planetary gearbox recommended by the Armored Directorate, the usual gearbox was installed.

The conclusions on the SMK noted the unsatisfactory performance of the engine cooling system and the air filter, as well as the unreliability of the gearbox. In conclusion, it was said: The tank corresponds to the specified TTX. It is inadvisable to recommend for adoption by the Red Army, since the plant manufactured and adopted the KV tank, which has more powerful armor and better TTH".

By the end of November 1939, the SMK mileage was 1,700, the T-100 more than 1,000 km, the KV about 600 km. But with the beginning of the Soviet-Finnish war (November 30, 1939), it was decided to send these tanks to the army to be tested in front-line conditions. At the same time, the armament of the vehicles was somewhat changed: the T-100 76-mm gun L-10 was replaced with a more powerful L-11 (for which the mask had to be redone), and the KV 45-mm gun was replaced with a DT machine gun. A company of heavy tanks participated in the attacks of the 90th tank battalion in the Summa-Hottinen region from 17 to 18 December 1939. During these battles, the KV tank was shot through the barrel of the gun, and the car was sent for repair. And the SMK was blown up on December 19th. On December 20, 1939, under the personal order of D. Pavlov, the head of the ABTU of the Red Army, an attempt was made to evacuate the damaged SMK. However, this was not possible. The SMK was only evacuated in early March 1940. With the help of six T-28 tanks it was towed to Perk-Yarvi station.

The SMK was delivered to the Kirov Plant, which, on the instructions of the ABTU of the Red Army, in 1940 was to repair the tank and "transfer it to the Kubinka range for storage." However, it turned out that the SMK repair was inexpedient - the state of the machine was very deplorable. All serviceable parts were removed from it, and the hull and turrets (without weapons) were sent to the Izhora plant. On December 21, 1940, Deputy Commissar of Defense of the USSR Marshal of the Soviet Union S. Budyonny signed a directive according to which it was supposed to transfer the unsuitable property of the GBTU KA located at industrial plants. According to the Izhora plant, in a summary of such property of January 31, 1941, among other things, it was stated:"Machine body SMK - emergency (sent from the front) - 1 pc., Approximate weight 20000 kg." In a similar report dated March 10, 1941, in which it was reported that the property of the GBTU had not yet been disposed of, the SMK hull was from the front, burnt, could not be used.

Combat weight, t 55;
Crew, pers . 7;
Overall dimensions, mm
Armor, mm
front of the hull60-75,
side of the hull60,
feed55, roof,
  • 76.2-mm gun L-11,
  • 45-mm gun arr. 1934-1938,
  • four 7.62 mm DT machine guns;
  • Ammunition
  • 113 rounds of 76.2 mm caliber,
  • 300 rounds of 45 mm caliber,
  • 5733 rounds of 7.62 mm caliber;
  • Engine AM-34, V-shaped, 12-cylinder, four-stroke, carburetor,
    power 850 liters. with. at 1850 rpm;
    Speed, km / h
    on the highway35.5,
    off road15.5;
    range, off-road, km 230;
    Overcoming obstacles
    rise, hail.37;
    pit width, m4.0;
    wall height, m 1.1;
    ford depth, m1.7
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    Page last modified: 20-04-2019 18:51:56 ZULU