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Small Artillery Ship [MAK malye artilleriyskie korabli]

An artillery ship is a surface ship of the Navy, the main weapon of which is tube artillery. It is intended for the destruction of enemy ships, ships and coastal objects (mobile and stationary) by artillery fire. Artillery on an artillery ship can be large, medium and small caliber. The number and caliber of guns and rocket launchers on such a ship characterize its capabilities. The presence of artillery fire control systems, target detection and tracking stations allows the artillery ship to successfully solve its tasks in difficult hydrometeorological conditions.

The Small Artillery Ship (MAK) is a "river-sea" ship designed to strengthen the surface and forces of the Caspian flotilla both in the near sea and in the river. It was designed specifically taking into account the features of the Caspian Sea and the Volga Delta, and the main requirements for its creation were high seaworthiness and the possibility of passing the ship at shallow depths of the northern Caspian Sea and the Volga River. One of the requirements of the tactic was also a set task of technical range of navigation, so that the ship was able to make transitions throughout the Volga and the Caspian Sea.

These ships are designed to conduct hostilities in the seas and on navigable rivers, as well as the solution of peacetime tasks in the area of responsibility of the association. Main missions include combat protection of convoys, destruction of artificial stationary and floating objects of the enemy; artillery support for the landing of naval assault forces, suppression and destruction of military equipment and manpower on shore; repelling air strikes by enemy air attacks tactical reconnaissance, patrol and sentinel service, delivery and landing of reconnaissance and sabotage groups on the enemys coast, participation in counter-terrorism operations, search and rescue of crews of ships, ships and aircraft in distress; and patrolling the territorial sea and special economic zone.

In the first post-war years, the last monitor of project 1190 and a series of armored boats of projects 186 and 1125 were completed. By that time, it became clear that the time of monitors as river ships with powerful artillery and low draft was over. It was impossible for them to provide the required reservation and establish effective means of protection against aircraft. Improvement of armored boats continued, in TsKB-19 (chief designer Yu.Yu. Benoit) several projects 191, 191M and 192 with a displacement of 53 to 65 tons were developed. The main armament was 85 mm cannons in tank towers, heavy machine guns. Such ships at the factory number 344 in Molotovsk and Izhora factory in 1947-1952. 120 units were built.

But soon, due to changes in foreign policy conditions related mainly to the environment of the Soviet Union by friendly socialist states, the need to strengthen river flotillas disappeared, and by 1958 they were disbanded, and their ships and boats were decommissioned.

Years passed in the early 1960s. In connection with the aggravation of the international situation, primarily on the border with China, work on the creation of river artillery boats was resumed. Therefore, in accordance with the technical specifications of the Navy in 1964-1965. TsMKB Almaz began the development of project 1204 Bumblebee (chief designer Yu.Yu. Benoit, L.V. Ozimov, M.V. Koshkin) armored boats with a total displacement of about 77.4 tons with the possibility of transportation by rail. It was armed with a turret gun mount of the PT-76B floating tank with a 76-mm D-56TS cannon with a coaxial 7.62-mm machine gun, one coaxial 14.5-mm large-caliber machine gun 2M-6 (or 25-mm 2M-3M gun mount) , 17-barrel launcher launcher multiple launch rocket system (MLRS) BM-14-17 (developer SKB-203, chief designer A.I. Yaskin) with ammunition in the cellar for 34 shells.

In the process of building boats of the series, the composition of weapons changed. Power plant of two diesel engines with a capacity of 1100 hp. provided a speed of up to 23-24 knots. They were built at the Gulf factories in Kerch, them. 61 Communards in Nikolaev. PA Almaz in Leningrad and at the Khabarovsk plant. In 1967-1972 handed over 118 units of the Navy and the naval units of the border troops.

In 1967, TsMKB Almaz began designing a larger river small artillery ship of project 1208 Slepin (chief designer M.V. Koshkin), preliminary designs and technical projects, working documentation were developed here. Later, in the mid-1970s. design, modernization and technical support of the construction of river ships were transferred to Zelenodolsk Design Bureau. Since then, this bureau has become the main designer of river artillery ships and boats. Here, N.P. Bobrov became the chief designer of the project 1208.

The appearance and combat effectiveness of any ship is determined by the composition of its weapons. Specially for river ships and boats, MLRS and grenade launchers were developed. The development of a complex of unguided rocket armament for the A-223 Snow ships was assigned to the Leningrad Design Bureau Arsenal by a decision of the military-industrial complex dated May 15, 1971. Two experimental PU ZIF-121M were made in 1974. Factory tests were carried out in 1974-1976, state tests were carried out on a Project 1208 ship (plant number 201) on the Amur River in the Khabarovsk region.

Almost simultaneously for the river and landing boats of the Navy, according to the Government Decree of March 15, 1971, the Moscow Design Bureau of Precision Engineering created a turret version of the BP-30 installation of the 30-mm automatic grenade launcher AGS-17. State tests of the system were carried out in 1974. And since 1975, ships of project 1208 "Slepin" have been equipped with 30-mm BP-30 marine installations with automatic grenade launchers. In 1975-1985 11 ships of project 1208 were built at the Khabarovsk plant (one of them in 1984 under the amended project 12081).

In 1974, Zelenodolsk Design Bureau began to work on the artillery river ship project 1248 "Mosquito". The following year, the bureau completed a preliminary design of 1248 (the main designer N.P. Bobrov, from 1980 - V.I. Yudin) a new generation of armored river boats, and in 1976, a technical project. Its displacement was about 220 tons, almost three times more than the project 1204. The ship was armed with a 100 mm D-10T2S tank gun and a 30 mm AK-630M machine gun, 12.7 mm Utes-M machine guns and a quick-firing launcher ZIF-121M installation for 140 mm NURS. Diesel plant with a capacity of 3x1100 liters. from. provides speed over 17 knots. In 1979-1991 a series of ships of project 1248 were built at the Sretinsky factory. Then, border ships of the project 1149 control were built at the Khabarovsk factory,

At the same time, a bureau for the export of a project 1248 was designed for export. The 12.7 mm machine gun was replaced with a second 30 mm machine gun, and the launcher for the NURS was replaced with the combat compartment of the BMD-3 Bahcha "(Object 950) as a part of a 30-mm automatic gun 2A42, 7.62-mm machine gun PKT and ATGM" Competition "with ATGM 9M113 (9M113M). In addition, the Design Bureau in 1980 developed a technical design for 12,240 boats for delivery to Vietnam.

Since 1986, Zelenodolsk Design Bureau to replace the boats of the project 1204 began designing a new transportable railway small-sitting artillery boat of the project 12130 Ogonyok (chief designer V.I. Yudin) with a displacement of 91 tons with the highest speed of up to 20 knots. The preliminary design was approved in 1989, and the technical design was adjusted in 1992. The armament of the boat consists of 30 mm gun mounts, 7.62 mm machine guns and MANPADS of the Igla type. It was intended to solve problems in port areas, on rivers and lakes. In the second half of the 1990s. The lead boat of project 12130 was handed over to the border guards. Designers prepared a version of the boat for export.

After the collapse of the USSR, not only the Black Sea Fleet, but also the Caspian Flotilla were divided. The fleet included armored boats of project 1204, the code "Bumblebee" (in the Navy, ships are designated "Artillery Boat" AKA). The time was troubled, some of the armored boats from the Caspian flotilla were transferred to the border troops of Uzbekistan, and several units were transferred from the Black Sea. In the Soviet period, as part of the Caspian flotilla, armored boats were to operate in the Volga Delta and on the Amu Darya River. But the political and military situations have changed.

River armored boats have a new zone of responsibility: the Volga Delta, the Volga-Caspian Canal (channel, connecting the deep-water section of the Bakhtemir River - the main channel in the Volga Delta and the deep-water part of the Caspian Sea through the shallow part of the Volga Delta) and the so-called 12-foot raid - the northern part of the Caspian Sea near the Volga Delta, used as a convenient anchorage. Small boats struggled to cope with such a zone of responsibility. In addition, they had weather restrictions, and their use in the autumn-winter period was problematic. All this prompted the military to issue a technical task for the industry to design a new ship. In fact, it was a gunboat, but in our time the ship received the class "Small Artillery Ship" IAC. The peculiarity of this project was that that it was a river-sea class ship.

In the 20th century, the USSR Navy had only one type of river-sea ship - three project 1190 monitors (Sivash, Khasan, Perekop). They operated in the lower reaches of the Amur River and in the Tatar Strait. The next ships were small artillery ships of project 21630 (code "Buyan"). The ships were very successful. Having a draft of about 2 meters, a flat bottom and jet propulsion, they could act both on the Volga and throughout the Caspian Sea. The ships were named Astrakhan, Volgodonsk and Makhachkala.



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Page last modified: 23-01-2020 17:46:55 ZULU