TS-1 Shche-2 "Pike" OKB A.Ya. Shcherbakova
By the beginning of the Great Patriotic War, air armies of the TB-3 (G-2) and Li-2, as well as multi-purpose light-engine vehicles U-2 (Po-2), lay in the arsenal of the air force's transport aviation. They differed in order of magnitude in order of magnitude (TB-3 and Li-2 - 2000-4000 kg, Po-2 - 400 kg), and a light and economical aircraft for the average range of masses of goods transported (600-1,200 kg) is not actually It was. For this reason, there was a need to create a mass medium-weight aircraft to serve parts of the active army.
A group of engineers, led by Alexei Yakovlevich Shcherbakov, took up solving this problem on their own initiative. In 1941 AD. Shcherbakov was the director and at the same time the chief designer of the aircraft repair plant, which not only repairs aircraft, but also produced special wing containers for U-2 and R-5 aircraft for the transportation of small loads and fighter planes. Prior to that, he worked for many years in design bureaus, the first in our country to create hermetic cabs, tested on the serial fighters I-15, I-15bis, I-153, MiG-1, Yak-7B, La-5, airplanes VI-100, BOK, DVB-102.
In 1941 Shcherbakov proposed to create a special transport aircraft designed for the transport of medium-sized cargo. At first, only airborne aviation showed interest in the project. In the autumn of 1941, development was started, and in early February 1942 an experimental aircraft, which received the designation TS-1 (the first transport aircraft), made its first flight.
TS-1 was a monoplane, basically a wooden structure, with a top wing arrangement, a twin tail unit and a two-wheeled retractable landing gear. On the prototype, two M-11 engines (100 hp) were installed. TS-1 was intended for transportation of any aircraft engines (in-line and star-shaped), wings and aircraft assemblies, small anti-tank guns and other oversized cargoes weighing up to 1000 kg per landing sites of limited dimensions. Such transportation was very important in the conditions of war, when urgent repairs of combat aircraft had to be performed at field airfields and bases.
In 1943 unexpected support of new light transport came from A.S.Yakovlev. Respected expert in the light aviation and fighters, Yakovlev at the time experienced serious problems with his Yak-6 and had all reasons to distance himself from this class of aircraft. In August 1943, the flight tests were completed and the People's Commissariat of the aircraft industry decided to organize a serial production of aircraft under the Shche-2 brand. The launch began in October, and the head machine was ready in the summer of 1944. In total, up to the beginning of 1946, several hundreds of aircraft were built of this type.
Shche-2 was available and easy to operate for medium-skill personnel. However, the power of two engines of 100 hp. to carry a cargo weighing about 1000 kg was not enough. In fact, it was a motor-wing with unrealized capabilities of the aircraft. Shche-2 required engines in the 150-200 hp, but serially such engines were not produced.
Because of the forced installation of M-11 engines, the aircraft was very long run, sluggish acceleration, low rate of climb. Front pilots negatively reacted to the new aircraft. About Shche-2, which had a distinctive appearance, the following riddle was even invented: "The nose of Li-2, the tail of Pe-2, the U-2 engines, is barely flying."
Nevertheless, depending on the situation and the task at hand, Shche-2 was used as a transport (up to 1person), cargo (up to 1000 kg of cargo), sanitary (11 stretchers); It was also used to train paratroopers (9 paratroopers) and train bomber crews. In addition, in 1945 a single copy of the agricultural variant was created. This aircraft had a lightweight design with a reduced wing. It was installed GMC diesel engines from an American tank. Also, the design of a two-body Shche-2 with three M-11D engines was developed, but not implemented.
In May 1945, a newsreel of the latest street battles in Berlin was delivered to one of the Shche-2 aircrafts in Moscow. The aircraft was sometimes used for post-war transport.
|wooden construction. The chassis are not retractable.|
| Shche-2 aircraft produced at the plant No. 47 in the city of Chkalov in 1944-1946.
|Weight, kg empty airplane||2270;|
|maximum takeoff||3600- 3,700 kg ;|
|Wing area, m2||63.90|
|Engine type||2 PD M-11D .|
|Power, hp||2 x 115.|
|maximum speed, km / h||157-160.|
|Cruising speed, km / h||140.|
|maximum climbing speed, m / min||72.|
|Rate of climb (average)||1.25 m / s.|
|practical ceiling||3 000 m.|
|Practical ceiling, m||2400.|
|Distance range, km||2160.|
|Practical range, km||850.|
|Length of takeoff, m||275|
|length of landing run, m||160|
|Payload||up to 16 people or 9 paratroopers or 9 stretchers|
|maximum mass of the transported cargo||1000-1130 kg|
|cargo (maximum||1330 kg).|
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