Win the adventure of a lifetime!

UNITED24 - Make a charitable donation in support of Ukraine!

Military


Russian Political Parties - 2003

In 1999, numerous political parties and movements were formed, in anticipation of the elections to the Duma in December of that year, for which the Central Electoral Commission approved a list of 26 electoral associations and blocs. Each electoral association was based on one registered political party or movement, while each electoral bloc represented an alliance of two or more parties or movements. All presented federal lists of candidates. In July 1996, there were 86 legally registered nationwide political parties. There were also many regional political organisations.

In 2001, political pluralism and civic freedoms in Russia were under greater pressure than at anytime since the Soviet era. The new law on political parties, passed by the State Duma, introduced restrictions on the role and structure of parties, limited the number of groups eligible to compete in elections, and gave the government authority over many aspects of party development that had previously been left to the electorate to decide. In accordance with a law signed by President Putin in July 2001, a political party must have at least 10,000 members, including no fewer than 100 members in over half of the 89 regions of the Russian Federation, in order to register and function legally.

Early in the year, the former “party of power” Our Home Is Russia (NDR) formally dissolved, and most of its members joined the pro-presidential Unity Party. In the second half of the year, Unity effectively absorbed the Fatherland-All Russia bloc, once an independent force in the State Duma. Unity and the Communist Party, now Russia’s two largest and most powerful political groupings, colluded to marginalize pro-democratic parties, chief among them Yabloko and the Union of Right Forces (SPS).

Public participation in the election process dwindled during 2001, as voters increasingly perceived local and regional elections to be dominated by the administrative resources of local incumbents. Elections were tainted by opaque and often corrupt campaign financing, as well asunbalanced public information about political candidates distributed by corrupt and/or biased media organizations.

AGRARIAN PARTY
(Agrarnaya Partiya Rossii)

Leader: Mikhail Lapshin. Founded in 1993; left-wing; supports agricultural sector; strongly opposed to private ownership of agricultural land; in favour of restoration of popular government through soviets (councils), and voluntary restoration of the Soviet Union. Referred to as "rural wing" of the Communist Party; won 20 seats in 1995 parliamentary elections, when it was allied with the latter; in 1999, announced it was joining centre-left Fatherland-All Russia bloc, following failure to reach agreement with the Communist Party; membership around 300,000.

COMMUNIST PARTY OF THE RUSSIAN FEDERATION
(Kommunisticheskaya Partiya Rossiiskoi Federatsii - KPRF)

Leader: Gennady Zyuganov. Successor to the Russian Communist Party, which was banned in 1991. Formally registered in March 1993; largest parliamentary group, winning 157 seats in the 1995 elections; between 550,000 and 600,000 members; largest political party in Russia which presents itself as the main opposition party. Advocates constitutional reform to reduce powers of president and give majority party or coalition in Duma the right to form the government; favours voluntary re-unification of republics of the former Soviet Union; opposed to Russia's financial reliance on international bodies such as the IMF and World Bank, and critical of NATO enlargement; has proposed an alliance of Russia, China and India, among others, to act as a counterweight. Won 113 seats in the December 1999 elections, remaining the largest parliamentary group.

CONGRESS OF RUSSIAN COMMUNITIES
(Kongress Russkikh Obshchin)

Leader: Dmitrii O Rogozin. Founded in 1994; concerned with Russian communities resident outside the Russian Federation, and the relations of Russia with states of the near abroad; contested 1999 elections as member of Congress of Russian Communities and Yurii Boldyrev Movement alliance.

DEMOCRATIC PARTY OF RUSSIA

Leader: Mikhail M Prusak. Founded in 1990; liberal-conservative; 12,086 members.

DERZHAVA
(Great Power)

Leader: Konstantin F Zatulin. Founded in 1994; alliance of right-wing and nationalist parties; contested 1999 parliamentary elections in association with Fatherland-All Russia. (also see FATHERLAND)

FATHERLAND
(Otechestvo)

Leader: Yurii Luzhkov. Founded by Luzhkov in December 1998; joined forces with All Russia regional movement to form electoral bloc for December 1999 elections; aims to fill space on the left between the Communist Party and Our Home is Russia; membership numbers not available, but collective members include Derzhava, the Union of Young Social Democrats, the Union of People's Power and Labour, and, since August 1999, Spiritual Heritage. Proposes reducing presidential powers, enhancing those of parliament, and re-defining the relationship between Moscow and the regions, bringing the rights of the regions into line with those of the republics, and promoting co-operation rather than confrontation; is disappointed with Western policy regarding Russia; favours strengthening links with other CIS states, and with India, China and Arab states. As part of the Fatherland-All Russia alliance in the December 1999 parliamentary elections, won 67 seats. In December 2001, merged with Unity and All-Russia to become the Unity and Fatherland-United Russia Party.

FORWARD, RUSSIA!
(Vpered Rossiya!)

Leader: Boris G Fedorov. Founded in 1995 on basis of 12 December Liberal Democratic Union; democratic party. Merged with Republican Party of the Russian Federation in 2002.

JUST CAUSE
(Pravoe Delo)

Leaders: Anatoly Chubais, Sergei Kirienko, Yegor Gaidar, Boris Nemtsov, Irina Khakamada. Founded in December 1998 as a liberal-right reformist coalition movement, aimed at preventing a split in the "democratic vote"; based around Gaidar's Russia's Democratic Choice party, it includes other high-profile reformers, such as those named above and their embryonic parties; contested the December 1999 parliamentary elections under the name, Union of Right Forces, and won 29 seats.

KEDR - CONSTRUCTIVE ECOLOGICAL PARTY
(Ekologicheskaya Partiya 'Kedr')

Leader: Anatoly Panfilov. Founded in 1992; officially registered as a party in 1994; advocates the resolution of social issues, and in particular protection of the family and the environment; between 10,000 and 12,000 members.

LIBERAL DEMOCRATIC PARTY OF RUSSIA
(Liberalno-Demokraticheskaya Partiya Rossii - LDPR)

Leader: Vladimir Zhirinovsky. Formally registered in 1992, although has been in existence (originally as the Liberal Democratic Party of the Soviet Union) since 1988; membership between 150,000 and 200,000; in favour of tougher laws on organised crime and corruption; highly nationalistic; advocates the establishment of a unitary state structure and the restoration of a Russian state within the borders of the former USSR; also in favour of restoring Russia to great-power status, and the establishment of an eastern military bloc to counterbalance NATO. Won 17 seats in the December 1999 parliamentary elections.

OUR HOME IS RUSSIA
(Nash dom-Rossiya - NDR)

Leader: Viktor Chernomyrdin. Founded in 1995 when it came third in parliamentary elections, behind the Communists and LDPR; membership around 250,000; advocates political reform, privatisation, and a strong Russian state, but opposed to nationalism and extremism. Won 7 seats in the December 1999 parliamentary elections.

PARTY OF ECONOMIC FREEDOM
(Partiya Ekonomicheskoi Svobody)

Leaders: Konstantin Borovoi, Sergei Fedorov. Founded in 1992; advocates economic liberalism.

REPUBLICAN PARTY OF THE RUSSIAN FEDERATION
(Respublikanskoi Partii Rossiiskoi Federatsii)

Leaders: Boris G Fedorov & Vladimir N Lysenko. Founded in 1990 by former members of the Democratic Platform in the CPSU; advocates a mixed economy, rule of law and free press; merged with Forward Russia! in 2002.

RUSSIAN ALL-PEOPLE'S UNION

Leader: Sergei Baburin. Founded as a party in 1994; right-wing, nationalist.

RUSSIAN COMMUNIST WORKERS' PARTY-REVOLUTIONARY PARTY OF COMMUNISTS
(Rossiiskaya Kommunisticheskaya Rabochaya Partiya-Revolyutsionnaya Partiya Kommunistov)

Leader: Viktor Tyulkin. Founded 2001 by merger. Advocates restoration of a planned socialist economy; RCWP contested 1999 parliamentary elections as Communists and Workers of Russia-For the Soviet Union.

RUSSIAN NATIONAL UNITY
(Russkoe Natsionalnoe Edinstvo - RNE)

Former leader: Aleksandr Barkashov. Founded in 1990; banned in 1993; re-emerged in 1994 when ban was lifted. Ultra-nationalist and anti-Semitic paramilitary organisation; reliable figures on membership not available as the movement is semi-clandestine. Due to non-registration, cannot contest parliamentary elections on its own party list, but in 1999 formed "National Bloc" with two smaller registered groups, Saviour and Renaissance.

RUSSIAN SELF-MANAGEMENT PARTY OF SVYATOSLAV FEDEROV
(Rossisskaya Partiya Samoupravleniya Imeni Svyatoslava Federova)

Leader: Levon Chakhmakhchyan. Founded in 1995 as Party of Workers' Self-Management; social-democratic.

SOCIALIST UNITED PARTY OF RUSSIA-SPIRITUAL HERITAGE
(Sotsialisticheskaya Yedinaya Partiya Rossii-Dukhovnoe Nasledie)

Leader: Aleksei I Podberezkin. Founded in 2002 by merger of Socialist Party, Spiritual Heritage and various other groups; moderate, nationalist; 11,363 members.

STALINIST BLOC FOR THE USSR (SB)

Leader: Viktor Anpilov. Founded in January 1999, specifically to fight the December 1999 parliamentary elections. Combines several far-left organisations: Working Russia, led by Anpilov, the Union of Russian Youth and the Officers' Union. Also has the support of Stalin's grandson, Colonal Evgeny Dzhugashvili; registered for 1999 elections as The Stalin Bloc: Working Russia, Officers for the USSR; aims to restore the USSR and communism, and abolish the office of president by non-violent means.

UNITY and FATHERLAND-UNITED RUSSIA (UF-UR)
(Yedinstvo i Otechestvo-Yedinaya Rossiya - YeO-YeR)

Leader: Sergei Shoigu. Founded in 1999, Unity came second in the December 1999 parliamentary elections, winning 72 seats. In December 2001, merged with Fatherland and All-Russia to become the UF-UR; centrist, reformist. Also known as the All-Russian Party, it forms a pro-Putin bloc that dominates the Duma.

WOMEN OF RUSSIA POLITICAL MOVEMENT (WOR)

Leader: Ekaterina Lakhova. Founded in 1993, as successor to the Soviet-era Union of Soviet Women; constituent parts are the Russian Women's Union, the Female Entrepreneurs' Association and the Union of Women Serving in the Navy; predominantly concerned with social issues; centrist; encourages equal opportunities for women; supports a strong family and the rights of children, including education.

YABLOKO
(Federalnoe Obshchestvenno-Politicheskoe Dvizhenie "Yabloko")

Leader: Grigorii A Yavlinskii. Founded in 1993; remained a loose coalition until March 1999, when officially registered as a party; democratic-centrist; Russia's strongest liberal movement; particularly concerned with economic matters; also advocates strong international role for Russia. Won 21 seats in the December 1999 parliamentary elections.



NEWSLETTER
Join the GlobalSecurity.org mailing list



 
Page last modified: 09-02-2014 20:08:34 ZULU