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Izhora Factory [Izhorskiye Zavod]

The Izhora Plant is a founding member of the St. Petersburg Military Industrial Corporation, set up in mid-1992 to earn capital for conversion of defense plants. A.A. Zhdanov Izhora Factory), a USSR enterprise building heavy-duty machines, located in the city of Kolpino, near Leningrad. The plant manufactures heavy-duty excavators, steel-rolling equipment, power-generating equipment, sheet metal, bar iron, and the like.

The Izhora Factory [Izhorskiye Zavod] originated from the Menshikov Izhora Sawmill, built in the early 18th century at the Izhora River. In 1712 sawmill was transferred under the control of the Admiralty, and supplied wood to St. Petersburg dockyards. The production was moved downstream by order of Tsar Peter the Great in 1719, and a new sawmill was founded in 1722 (the date is celebrated as the date of foundation of the Izhora Plants). The Factory was established in 1722 by ukase of Peter I and was registered to the Admiralty, thus becoming known as the Admiralty Izhora Factory. The plant was a government enterprise.

The Izhora Plant was reconstructed according to the project by architect V.I. Hastie and engineer K.K. Gascoigne (a dam on the Izhora River and the 19th century building of the plants directorate have been preserved to this day). An anchor plant and a copper plant were incorporated as a part of the future Admiralty Plant. By the late 18th century a pressing plant, a hammer plant and other plants were built.

A machine-building works based on the old factory was created in 1803. The first Russian bucket dredges, paddle-wheel steamers, and ship engines were built at the Izhora Factory. From 1803 to 1806 the plants produced anchors, anchor chains, iron and copper boilers, ship lights, pomps and other products for navy purposes. The production of guns started in 1806, the first steam engine was made in 1810, the Skory paddle steamer, one of the first in Russia, was built in 1816. From 1818 to 1858 there was a nautical instruments workshop on the Izhora Plants (manufacturing compasses, barometers, thermometers, etc.).

In the 1860s Izhora Plants were reconstructed again, in 1866 the first armour plates were made here with the use of the milling method for the first time in Russia, a steel-smelting workshop was built in 1892, a new armour plant - in 1910, a press with the capacity of 10,000 tons power was installed in 1912. Armor and shipbuilding steel were the main products of the plant until 1917. A separate steam electric plant was built to supply the plants with electric power. In 1906, the plant was awarded its own flag.

Some time in the early 1900s, the plant moved onto vehicle manufacture. The plant had a long career manufacturing naval goods including armor plates for their ironclad and pre-dreadnought ships. Barges, launches, mine boats and torpedo boats, and first Russian trawlers (1910) were constructed at Izhora Plants ship-houses. Balloon-cars and other construction details for three aerostats were made in 1912. Izhra Plants earned the honor of having their own flag for their achievements in fleet development in 1908. The production of missiles, shells, mortars, flame guns, dirigibles and armoured cars was mastered during the years of WWI. In 1919 6 armoured trains and 44 armoured cars were produced at the plant.

The workers of the Izhora Factory took an active part in the revolutionary movement. On the night of Oct. 2425 (Nov. 67), 1917, the Izhora Factory placed 17 armored cars at the disposal of the Military Revolutionary Committee. In 1919 battalions of Izhora workers selflessly defended Petrograd from the attack of Iudenich.

In 1919 the first Russian heavy tank was manufactured with the participation of the Izhora people. In the 1920-30s the plant was turned into a comprehensive metallurgical and machine-building company. It was here that drilling tools were produced for the first time in the USSR in 1929; the first Soviet blooming was made in 1931. The plant started producing drilling machines, press and forging equipment, cisterns and other tools.

During the prewar five-year plans (192940) the Izhora Factory produced the first Soviet blooming mills, manufactured crankshaft and disk-cam presses for automobile and tractor plants, and geared up for the production of large forgings.

Before the war, the Izhorskiye (Iszhorky) plant was one of Leningrads largest producers of vehicles. Izhorsky manufactured such iconic vehicles as the FAI, BA-I, BA-3 and BA-6. Izhorsky also manufactured armor plates for tank production, these plates were mostly used in the T-37A, T-38 and T-40 tanks. Izhorsky had a long and proud history of manufacturing armored vehicles, and on the eve of the Great Patriotic War, the plant was producing armor plates for the T-40 amphibious tank, as well as military and commercial trucks. In 1939 the production of heavy tank hulls was organized; presses for packaging and pressing of the charge, steam tugs "Izhorets".

In the autumn of 1941 the front line was only 4 km away from the plant, and the workers of the plant formed a number of volunteer detachments, which participated in the defence of Kolpino. A part of equipment was evacuated to the Urals, Siberia and to other Leningrad companies, where Izhora workers repaired and constructed military equipment. The plant produced tank armour, ship gun turrets, armor piercers, ammunition for artillery rocket launchers M-13 and M-31 and other military equipment. In 1941-44 the buildings of the plant were extensively damaged during bombardment and air strikes (soon after lifting the siege they were restored).

In 1942 a pipeline was laid from the Izhora pipes along the bottom of Lake Ladoga to supply fuel for besieged Leningrad. The Plant mastered the production of missiles of the type "Katyusha" and "Andryusha"; shields for 37mm anti-aircraft guns. During the Great Patriotic War (194145) the Izhora workers fought heroically in the ranks of the Soviet Army against the fascists at the approaches to Leningrad. The Izhora Factorys production included tank hulls, armored cars, ammunition, and armored turrets for reinforced-concrete pillboxes.

After the war, new metallurgical shops were built at the Izhora Factory, machine-assembly shops were rebuilt and expanded, highly efficient automated rolling mills were manufactured, the production of power-generating equipment began, and more than 100 types of new, technologically improved machines and products were created. In 1970 the plants output was more than 50 percent greater than in 1965. The Izhora Factory has been awarded two Orders of Lenin (1940 and 1971) and the Order of the Red Banner of Labor (1947).

In 1948-89 the plant was named after A.A.Zhdanov. Manufacturing of new steel grades, cycloid propulsion units for river and sea vessels, adjustable pitch propellers for fishing boats, mine excavators, chemical industry equipment was organised at the plant in the 1950s. Since 1957 Izhora Plants have been a major supplier of nuclear power station equipment (which was installed at 47 blocks of nuclear power stations of Russia, Ukraine, Finland, Iran, India, and China). In 1976-92 the plant was named Izhorsky Zavod production enterprise. Since 1998 the Plant became a part of United Machinery Plants (URALMASH-IZHORA group) OJSC, and produced equipment for metallurgy and mineral resource companies. The new products include containers for nuclear waste, and products for experimental programs in the field of high energy physics.

Public Joint Stock Company United Machine-Building Plants (Uralmash-Izhora Group) is one of the leading heavy engineering companies specializing in engineering, manufacturing and servicing equipment for the nuclear power industry, petrochemical and oil and gas, mining, as well as the production of special steels and the provision of industrial services. OMZ production sites are located in Russia and the Czech Republic. The main shareholder and financial partner of the OMZ Group is Gazprombank (Joint-Stock Company).

Kolpino is one of the most important industrial districts of St. Petersburg. Innovative productions are actively developing here, many enterprises are working on fulfilling state orders. The old Izhorskiye Zavody / Izhora Plant is being actively modernized and, in the conditions of modern technological competition, is confidently looking to the future, leading the city to prosperity.

 




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Page last modified: 10-04-2019 10:16:43 ZULU