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Military


Object 1020

In the early 1960s the Soviet defense industry was working on new projects for infantry fighting vehicles. The most successful development of this class was "Object 765", which later entered service under the name BMP-1. Other examples of armored vehicles were less fortunate. For example, several projects with the common designation "Object 1020", developed in cooperation of two large organizations, did not progress beyond the stage of design work.

In the late fifties to the program of creation of new protected vehicles for the infantry joined the Military Academy of Armored Troops and the Kutaisi Automotive Plant. For several years, they developed two draft wheeled armored "Object 1015" and "Object 1015?". These designs were in some respects inferior to the BTR-60, and therefore was not included into series production. However, developments on these projects was not cancelled, and the development of certain ideas continued. Armored personnel carrier "Object 1015B" was the main source of the best practices for projects "1020" in the first months of 1963. The command of Armored Troops of the Soviet army gave industry a new job, according to which, the Military Academy of Armored Troops and the Special Design Bureau of the Kutaisi Automobile Plant were to create a new variant of wheeled infantry fighting vehicles.

To simplify and accelerate the work it was proposed to use the ideas and solutions of closed projects line of "1015". On 13 April 1963 the SKB KAZ received the tactical and technical requirements developed by the Central Automotive Department of the Ministry of Defense. Among other things, requirements for a ready fighting module, designed for infantry fighting vehicles "Object 765" (the future BMP-1). They also had a few other special requests. After receiving the requirements of a new project, Kutaisi designers began to work. From the s SKB KAZ works were supervised by S.M. Batiashvili. The main representative of the military academy was A.I.Mamleev.

A prospective project was given the working designation "Object 1020". In the framework of the development work was proposed a few variants of such a machine. To distinguish them from each other was proposed with additional characters coming in figures. In accordance with the requirements of the customer, two organizations to work together was supposed to create advanced wheeled armored vehicle with cannon and machine gun armament and the ability to transport a few troopers.

The project would use some of the ideas and solutions previously tested in the creation of wheeled armored personnel carriers. It was supposed to implement and explore several new design solutions in the field of power plants, etc. The basis for a wheeled IFV was the project of the armored personnel carrier "Object 1015B", but it was planned to recycle it in the most serious way. The new machine was to keep some features of appearance, the overall design of the hull and some other features. But it had to completely redo the fighting and troop compartments, as well as to add new powertrains. "Object 1020" had to get a case with anti-bullet armor, welded from sheets with a thickness up to 8-10 mm.

The layout of the hulle was modified in accordance with the new role of technology: the front part of the internal volume of the retained functions of the office of management and immediately behind it there was the space for troops. In the center of the hull was placed a large combat unit with a turret basket, which also had a place for soldiers with guns. The aft compartment of the hull was intended for the engine, separate transmission units, and a couple of cannons. The general scheme of the infantry fighting vehicle "Object 1020", as in the previous project, had the fore of the hull formed of several straight and curved sheets of large dimensions, mounted at angles to each other.

The medium was located almost horizontally, and the top, equipped with inspection hatch, at an angle to the vertical. The hull consisted of several parts. The bottom sheet was vertical, and over it was placed slanted. In these sheets there were cutouts for niches, intended for the installation of suspension parts.

In connection with the use of two front steering bridge and the front part of the building was distinguished by a reduced width. Over the lower part of the side wheel housing had a well-developed niche. The board injune proposed to establish with a significant blockage inside. On top of the car was covered by a horizontal roof with chamfered back. The stern was formed a few smooth sheets.

The authors of the new project considered two options for the power plant and transmission. In the first case, infantry fighting vehicle was to be equipped with a petrol engine zil-375 180 hp, this project was designated as "Object 1020A". The second version of the project called for the installation of the engine "Ural-376" power of 225 hp this bmp called "Object 1020B". In the two projects called for the use of different transmissions built, however, under the same principles.

Both cases used the H-shaped scheme of the transmission. In the case of "Object 1020A" the gear box and transfer box was placed at the level of the third axis of the chassis. From lockable differential in the transfer case part of the departed pair of transverse drive shafts connected with side gears of the third axis. The latter was responsible for the torque on the shafts associated with the other three axes. Transfer case was also designed to drive the winch placed under the frontal plates, and a pair of stern water thrusters.

In the project "Object 1020B", which involved the use of the engine of the brand "Ural", and completed another layout for the transmission units. In this case, the transfer box was brought forward and placed directly under the crew compartment. Because of this, the shafts of the H-shaped distribution facilities are located at an angle to the longitudinal axis of the machine. Final drives second and third axes receive torque directly from the transfer box and handed it to the other two bridges. Just use a separate drive winch and water-jet propulsion. Both projects involved the use of four-axle wheeled chassis with different suspension types.

Both cases used coil springs, hydropneumatic or torsion shock absorbers in various combinations. In this pendant a pair of front axles were different from the devices rear. An interesting difference project "Object 1020B" was the suspension setup the front steering wheels in the niches of the advanced corps. Due to this, managed to get a small increase in the internal volume, which allowed to change the ergonomics of the crew compartments.

Infantry fighting vehicles of two types were equipped with tires of large diameter. All the wheels were connected with a total control system tire pressure. On either side of the engine at the rear was placed the water-jet propulsion. Water intake was carried out through windows in the hull, the ejection through the nozzles at the rear. For traction control used movable flap. The reverse was carried out using slit nozzles at the bottom. In the frontal part of the hull could be installed hinged flaps. The layout BMP "Object 1020A" in accordance with the requirements of the customer BMP "Object 1020" had to carry the fighting compartment, borrowed from the project "Object 765". This product was made in the form of a turret with turret basket. The dome thickness was up to 23 mm in the frontal part of which was paired installation for weapons.

The main weapon of the turret was a 73-mm smoothbore gun 2a28 "Grom". The auxiliary weapon was a PKT coaxial machine gun. Also the turret could be equipped with a rail launcher for anti-tank missiles "Baby". To control the weapon was used day and night sights. The fighting compartment on the "Object 1020" was in the center of the body.

Elevation angle, in general, was consistent with the original BMP-1: the construction of the hull of a wheeled vehicle does not interfere with the lower trunks. The project "1020" provided for the use of additional machine gun in the hull. Ball setting for it was on the top front of the compartment on the right, where in previous projects fit the inspection hatch of the commander.

The sides of the hull, as the armor and hatches, made it possible to accommodate up to six embrasures. They allowed troops to fire personal weapons. The crew of prospective BMPs consisted of three people. In the front of the hull sat the mechanic-driver and commander, also responsible for the use of a machine gun. The third crew member was in the turret and had to use the main armament. All the jobs of the crew were equipped with their own various hatches and observation devices.

The original element was the way it organized the placement of troops. Because of the presence of a large military department soldiers were located in two different volumes in front of the turret and behind it. Directly behind the driver and commander were two seats for the troops. In the project "1020A" they were sitting face forward in the direction of the movement, with the letter "B" face to the sides. Access to their sites provided its own hatches in the sides. Four places were between the driving compartment and power compartment.

In both machines the troops were to get into the machine through a couple of hatches in the roof in pairs and sit face-to-sides. The "Object 1020A" front pair their seats were near the longitudinal axis of the body, whereas in the "Object 1020B" the seats were moved to the sides. In addition, in the second version of the project there was a place for one more paratrooper: he was placed at the left side directly behind the crew compartment. The layout of the "Object 1020B" at the request of the military, "Object 1020" was to match the capabilities of military transport aircraft.

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Page last modified: 10-04-2019 10:16:48 ZULU