NII Stali JAC
NII Stali research institute was established in May 1942 as an institution for design of tank armor. Nowadays NII STALI JSC is a leading Russian company for design of armor systems and materials for Army combat vehicles and equipment. The company is engaged in development of ballistic protection, ERA, electromagnetic protection, radiation protection and signature management systems. The company is designing innovative armor and composite materials, developing explosion-safe technologies, multi-media training software; it uses its own production facilities to manufacture a wide range of personal protection equipment including body armor, EOD suites, ballistic helmets, electroshock devices etc. The products are exported to quite a number of foreign countries.
The main advantage of NII STALI JSC is its diversified structure which includes research, engineering and complete production cycle departments. This structure ensures shortest periods from the initial design stage to commissioning of pilot batch products. And maximum concentration on the fields of competence where the company holds the leading position allows it to work out technical solutions which are far ahead of their time and which lay the groundwork for future development of protection systems for military equipment and personnel.
The company boasts the state-of-the-art production facilities including machining workshops, welding, painting and assembly shops, a sewing workshop etc., as well as its own testing facilities (Test Centre) which enable a complete test cycle of any ballistic protection structure against different types of rounds, bullets and fragments.
Being a research institution, the company pays a lot of attention to research and development of innovative protection structures and complex protection technologies. The experience accumulated during decades of successful activities enables the company to offer its customers products which meet the most up-to-date requirements related to increased terrorist threat and the changing nature of modern warfare.
Armor steels and composites based on ceramics and high-modulus polyethylene, aluminum and titanium armor, materials protecting against ionizing radiation and fire-proof materials are just a small list of materials-science problems that Steel Research Institute is working on today.
It is the new materials that allow the institute to move forward and create unique protection complexes of the next generations for the needs of the Ministry of Defense, the Ministry of Internal Affairs and other law enforcement agencies of the country. The experience gained over the decades of successful work allows scientific research institutes to offer consumers products that best meet current challenges, presented both by the changing nature of military operations and the increase in the terrorist threat.
Research Institute of Steel was created in May, 1942 in the midst of the Great Patriotic War. On May 22, 1942 in the tank industry Narkom V.A. Malyshev signed an order #203 on the creation of a group of armored personnel in Moscow to organize the production of armored steel at the factories of the country and study the lethality of domestic and trophy equipment.
The Moscow Group of 25 people included the leading specialists of the Leningrad Research Institute 48 (now the Research Institute "Prometheus"), its Mariupol branch. The backbone of the group consisted of experts-armored wikis, already manifested themselves in the pre-war time. So L. A. Kanevsky and O. F. Danilevsky were among the developers of the steel armor of high hardness of the brand "2P", which before the war began to be used for the anti-bullet booking, B. E. Sheinin and S. I. Smolensky were the authors of the armor of the average Hardness of grades 42 CM, 49, 52 S, used for anti-order booking, L.A. Kanevsky was a member of the author's team of technology of casting of turrets of tanks.
These and other employees of the Moscow group (MG NII 48) already in June 1942 have dispersed in the metallurgical plants of the Volga region, Ural, Siberia for the establishment of the armored case on them. Their task was not only to adapt the technology of smelting, rolling, welding armor to specific equipment available at a particular plant, they also solved the most important tasks of improving the design of armored units, increasing Performance, new technologies and new equipment.
Great work employees of the NII 48 were carried out directly in the active tank parts, on the fields of tank fights, investigating the damaged and broken domestic and trophy technique. Employees of the NII 48 V.P. Andreev, V.V. Ardentov, A.T. Larin and many others over the years of the war surveyed more than 14 thousand cars, collecting valuable material on their lethality. This allowed to quickly identify the most vulnerable units of domestic tanks and take measures to strengthen their protection, find weakened units of enemy tanks and give recommendations to combat this technique. Although this Work took place far from the front line, it was still fraught with danger. So in 1943, V.A. Andreyev, investigating the next trophy cars, blew on a mine, but remained alive. After The war, he headed the welding department of SRI Steel and supervised it until 1987. Under his leadership new technologies of welding of armored steels and armored aluminium were created, high-performance welding equipment, new welding materials were developed.
Dynamic characteristics, energy, and the permeability of military equipment have always been given great importance and their provision to date is carried out in the main selection of the relevant components: power units, elements Transmission and undercarriage. But security has always been a creative task, because, first, constantly improving the means of defeat and to ensure the non-penetration should constantly increase the armor properties of protective structures while maintaining or Insignificant increase in their mass, and secondly, the conditions of warfare are changing, which leads to the emergence of new requirements for the protection of military equipment.
The majority of experts in the field of armament and military equipment agree that security today is a vital component of any armored equipment and it should give priority to the implementation of new developments. The Fact that the constructors are already following these conclusions is well seen by how quickly security increases, for example, automotive equipment, where a new class of MRAP (Mine Resistant Ambush Protected) has appeared and is rapidly developing. BTR and BMP are heavier in front of The eyes, and the additional mass is spent mainly on increasing the level of protection. The concept of heavy BMP on tank base Appeared. Even the UNITED states, which has recently given priority to mobility, froze its FCS program and is also conducting a number of programs to create highly protected combat vehicles.
Trends in the protection of armored vehicles (BTTT) cannot be considered in isolation from the spectrum of threats on the modern and perspective battlefield. In turn, the range of threats is highly dependent on the scenarios of the use of BTTW. The majority of foreign experts consider TVT as a means of maintaining peace in asymmetric conflicts, for local wars, hence the corresponding spectrum of threats.
According to the English portal "Defence IQ", obtained on the basis of expert evaluations of 300 experts from different countries as the main threat today identified mines and improvised explosive devices (IEDS), in the second place-the threat from RPGS. The Next danger is the threat of small arms bullets. The Threat from heavy PTUR is even less than from only the nascent weapon of directed energy. On this Basis, in many countries, priorities are being formed in equipping their armored forces with appropriate equipment.
Mine protection is the most difficult and at the same time the most urgent problem. The Reason is that the military equipment of the previous generation, constituting the bulk of the samples, which are now in service with the armies of many countries, has a very limited mine protection, because the expected initial conditions of its use and, Protection requirements differed significantly from the modern. Protection of these BMP, BTR and WAT can be described as protection, first of all, from bullets of small arms and from fragments artillery shells. At best, this technique will provide protection against anti-personnel mines or grenades and increase its resistance to mines and IEDS by modernizing protection Is very problematic.
The Distribution of potential threats is estimated by 300 experts from different countries (data "Defence IQ", Great Britain). Here The dark color is marked by experts ' estimations from industry, blue-from military. Abroad earlier than in Russia have paid attention to strengthening of new threat for armored technics. Forced to make it the losses of the foreign coalition from mines and IEDS in Afghanistan, Iraq, Somalia, where they exceeded 60-70% of all losses.
Simultaneously with the beginning of development of the mine-protected machines abroad the intensive works on creation of the methodical apparatus on estimation of this mine protection have begun.
As early as in 2000, the first standards for evaluating this parameter appeared there. In them, the developers tried to develop criteria to assess the severity of the injury of the fighter in the mine detonation and the degree of maintainability of the machine. These standards, based on medical data, installed several levels characterizing the severity of the trauma. And these levels were determined by the impact of dynamic loads on individual parts of the person-head, legs, spine, chest, etc. As far as the technique is concerned, at least 3 levels, characterizing its serviceability after the explosion on a mine.
In January 2004, NATO developed and already in May of the same year adopted the standard STANAG-4569 "Levels of protection of crews of lightly armored military equipment", in which, along with the estimates of anti-bullet, antitheft and anti-fragmentation resistance were set Levels of mine protection for lightly armored vehicles. And adopted following (February 2006) methodical document AEP-55, vol. 2 (Allied Engineering Publication.
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