Krylov State Research Centre
Krylov Central Scientific Research Institute
Krylov Shipbuilding Research Institute TsNII imeni akademika A.N. Krylova Moskovskoye Shosse, 44 196158 St. Petersburg, Russia Tel: (011-7-812) 291-9606, 291-9665 Telex: 121467 CNEPR SU Fax: (011-7-812) 127-9595,127-9632
Krylov is the principal shipbuilding research institute in Russia. This maritime research institute, involved in hydrodynamic and testing of ship designs, was formerly subordinated to the Ministry of the Shipbuilding Industry, and currently to the Shipbuilding Industry Agency. Originally it only did work for the Soviet Navy. Now work is done at Krylov for all disciplines of ship science. The institute is considered very similar in facilities and in organization to the David Taylor Naval Research and Development Center's laboratories in Carderock, Maryland. Krylov is the leading organization in Russia in academic knowledge of ship building and of testing structural components. For many years, the institute oversaw all of the ship building activity in the former Soviet Union.
A Mistral analog called Lavina is being developed by the Krylov State Research Center in St. Petersburg. The Lavina helicopter carrier would have a displacement of 24,000 tons. This would make the ship — whose name means “avalanche” in Russian — larger than the French Mistral vessels, which have a displacement of 21,000 tons.
The Baltsudoproekt Central Design Bureau, established back in 1925, is the oldest Russian design company. In 1999 the Bureau was incorporated in the Krylov State Research Centre as a branch, in 2008 it received the KSRC division status. Since the time of its establishment the Central Design Bureau has produced about 200 ship designs with over 2600 ships (of total displacement exceeding 11 million tons) actually built to these designs. All ships built to the designs of CDB are noted for their excellent seaworthiness and operational reliability. Baltsudoproekt produced a wide range of ship designs (in many cases being pioneers in the Russian and occasionally in the world shipbuilding), which for many decades were and remain to be now the backbone of the Russian marine fleet.
Established in 1894, total employment was about 10,000 in 1975, and about half that by 1995. The institute has a very large facility that covers 80 hectares. The institute has a wide range of tow tank facilities, including a 1,400 m long tow tank facility. It performs testing of full-scale and modelwarship and submarine designs, both model testing and full-scale testing. Facilities include deep water and shallow water towtanks; high speed tow tanks; basins for seakeeping, maneuverability and cavitation tests; ice modelbasin; cavitation basin; wind and cavitation tunnels; acoustic measurement tanks; tensile testingmachines; fatigue and vibration testing machines; hydraulics and propulsion plant testing facilities; equipment and ranges for full scale ship tests.
In 1882 the world’s first ship model basin built in England at suggestion of William Froude in 1872 convinces shipbuilders around the world in the benefit of ship model tests. Admiral A.A. Popov, a prominent naval architect, the designer of the first round ships (armoured batteries known as 'popovkas'), the Livadia royal yacht, the first Russian armor-clad battleship Petr Velikiy ('Peter the Great') and the world-first ocean armored cruiser General-Admiral, is one of the first voicing the need for a national model basin. The Naval Technical Committee of the Naval Administration in charge of all shipbuilding matters for the first time favored the idea of establishing a ship model tank in the country as initially suggested by a great Russian scientist D.I.Mendeleev.
The idea of setting up a model basin found active support from the Head of the Naval Administration, General-Admiral Great Duke Aleksey Alexandrovich. In 1892 a channel trough encased in concrete, a building over it and a two-storey block of office and auxiliary rooms were erected on the New Holland Island in St. Petersburg. A.A. Grekhnev, a lecturer (later professor) at the Naval Academy is appointed the superintendent of the new institution.
On January 3, after A.A.Grekhnev left the Tank, Naval Administration Order No.276 appointed Captain of the Admiralty A.N.Krylov 'the Acting Superintendent of the Tank'. A.N.Krylov suggests establishing a scientific institution that should include the towing tank, testing and physical-chemical laboratories for research on ship construction materials, a mechanical laboratory and an electrical engineering laboratory. The first Russian submarine Delfin ('Dolphin') design and model tests begin. The work goes on in the Towing Tank building and the project manager is I.G.Boubnov, the Chief Assistant to the Tank Superintendent. Thus, the Towing Tank became the birthplace of the Russian professional submarine design. In January 1908, A.N.Krylov was appointed the Chief Naval Ship Construction Inspector and on February 13, 1908 I.G. Boubnov is following A.N. Krylov’s recommendation approved as the Tank Superintendent.
From 1909 to 1914 the Towing Tank was heavily involved in work on almost all designs of surface combatants and submarines built under the main and additional construction programs of the Russian Imperial Navy. Those projects included Sevastopol- and Imperatritsa Marija ('Empress Maria')-class battleships, Izmail-class battle cruisers, Novik-class destroyers, Bars-class submarines, and hydroplanes for the naval aviation that was just at that time starting its development in Russia.
The Model Basin survived through the Civil War and the post-war disruption. Practical operation of the facility resumes only after the Government approves the first five-year construction programs for commercial (1925) and naval (1926) ships. The Basin tests models of Uragan ('Hurricane')-class escorts, submarines of Dekabrist ('Decembrist') and Schiuka ('Pike') classes and some other designs. The best naval architects whoever survived these hard times are pooled together, many of these become leading scientists and engineers in the field of shipbuilding.
In 1931 the Naval Shipbuilding Research Institute (NIVK) is established emerging from the Model Basin and related laboratories. In the early 1930s NIVK begins to shape up a new line of research — forward-looking ship design studies covering formulation of ship specifications, conceptual design as well as in some cases basic design of practically all newly emerging naval ships in this country. Establishment of special-purpose civil engineering company Sudbasstroi intended for design & construction of a new family of test basins and experimental facilities for NIVK on Srednya Rogatka (location on the southern outskirts of the city). The construction started in 1936. In 1938 the Naval Shipbuilding Research Institute (NIVK) was transferred under the authority of the USSR People’s Commissariat of Defence Industry (Ministry) and took the role of a leading ship research institute NII-45. Establishment of the People’s Commissariat of Shipbuilding Industry headed by I.F.Tevosyan who initiated the decision to transfer NIVK from the authority of the «Workers’ and Peasants’ Red Fleet» (Navy) to the industry, while the Institute’s naval officers remained in active military service.
In 1939–1940 the major part of the Research Institute of Shipbuilding & Ship Standards (NII-4) is taken over by NII-45, the Institute acquires the status of the Central Research Institute — TsNII-45. Design of the first national aircraft carriers is started (Project 71). TsNII-45 was the first and sole establishment of the People’s Commissariat of Shipbuilding Industry which worked on this project. Additionally the Institute was involved in the development and manufacturing of ship catapults for deck aircraft.
From almost 500 employees of the Institute not called up for military service 400 people were evacuated to Kazan. About 80 people remain in the sieged Leningrad and work in the Leningrad branch of the Institute. Their task is to keep up experimental facilities and provide technical assistance to shipbuilders as well as the Navy and Army. In particular, the Institute laboratories are used to set up a workshop to repair engines for torpedo boats where 96 engines have been repaired. The Institute staff takes part in the repair and renewal of combat ships based in Kronshtadt and Leningrad.
In 1944 TsNII-45 was named after academician A.N. Krylov (supervisor of the Model Basin in 1900 to 1907, thereafter actively involved in the Model Basin investigations); the Institute was awarded with the Order of the Red Banner of Labour (in 1963 and 1984 the Institute was respectively awarded with Order of Lenin and Order of October Revolution). The first post-war ten-year program was adopted in 1945 which envisaged the design and construction of new ships of practically all types (including battle ships and heavy cruisers). Design of the first prototype nuclear submarine, Pr. 627, started in 1952. RADM V.I. Pershin, Director of the Institute and engineer by profession, is in charge of the scientific part of the project. In the 1950s the Institute performed a range of studies looking at propulsion, maneuverability and strength aspects of the nuclear submarines.
In the 1950s ships and submarines started to be armed with nuclear-guided missiles and the roles and missions of various ship types are re-examined. In the context of a wide range of alternative engineering solutions related to the advent of new weaponry, innovative structural materials and power plant configurations the Institute was lead to develop the methodology for quantitative evaluation of engineering solutions in ship design using cost-effectiveness criteria based on the operations research theory. In 1967 commissioning of the first nuclear submarines of the second generation and submarine-hunting cruiser/helicopter carrier Moskva (Project 1123) ushers a new phase of the country’s shipbuilding. By 1970 the Krylov Institute is actively engaged in the design of the first domestic air-capable ship with VTOL airplanes (Yak-38 ?), Project 1143.
In the period 1971–1982 the Krylov Institute was actively involved in the build-up of the ocean nuclear-missile naval fleet as well as capable merchant & fishing fleet. Comprehensive R&D support to the development of marine strategic nuclear deterrence system, air-capable ships, first Russian nuclear-propelled surface ships, world’s largest dynamically supported vessels and other leading edge technologies. In 1975 G.A. Matveev is appointed Director of the Krylov Institute. One of the most important contributions of the Institute at that time is a package of acoustic stealth measures elaborated for submarines so that domestic submarines (Projects 971, 945, 877) achieved state-of-the-art performance levels matching the best foreign submarines. The Krylov Institute is involved in the development of practically all surface ships built in the country including nuclear GM cruisers, Project 1144, the world’s largest air-cushion vehicles, Projects 1239 & 12322, combat ekranoplans (WIGs), Projects 903, 904, etc., the world’s largest hydrofoil ships with automatic foil control, Projects 1141 & 1145. The Krylov Institute was actively engaged in the development of the first Russian aircraft carrier, Project 1143.5.
After the year 2000 projects for the Russian Navy remained the main priority of the Institute research efforts. The Institute performed R&D in support of all projects of Russian surface warships and submarines under development, construction or commissioning.
The work for oil & gas industrial complex becomes increasingly important. It includes research, design & engineering studies in the field of offshore technologies to provide for the development of advanced offshore platforms, ice-resistant marine structures, offshore terminals and special-purpose marine processing & shipment systems.
In pursuance of the Russian Federation President’s Decree of 21.03.2007, No. 396 «On the Federal Unitary Enterprise Krylov Shipbuilding Research Institute» the Ministry of Industry and Trade of the Russian Federation issued Order No. 1289 of 14.09.2012 re-naming the Federal Unitary Enterprise Krylov Shipbuilding Research Institute into the Federal Unitary Enterprise Krylov State Research Centre and approving its new Statute. The Krylov Centre affiliates the Ship Electric Engineering & Technology Research Institute (TSNII SET).
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