I-90 (Istrebítel-90 / "Fighter of the 1990s")
In Minaviaprom [MAP - Ministry of Aviation Industry], in the early 1980s, work was launched under three prospective programs: the B-90 (bombardment aircraft of the 1990s), the Sh-90 (attack aircraft of the 1990s) and I-90 (fighter of the 1990s). It was decided to involve Design Bureau of Moscow Aviation Institute [OSKBES] in the study of promising techical solutions, the use of which would significantly increase the performance characteristics of new generation attack aircraft and fighters.
An experimental aircraft on the subject of I-90 was performed according to the canard aerodynamic scheme and had two jet engines RU19A-300, which were equipped with flat nozzles with a controlled thrust vector. Such experimental nozzles for RU19A-300 were developed at that time in the design department of LII. In this configuration, elements of super-maneuverability were to be worked out on the plane according to a program similar to the one under which the experimental X-31 aircraft were going to be made in the USA. The Americans were just beginning to develop it. Our aircraft was distinguished by the fact that its wing was equipped with an ESPS system that was powered by engine compressors. To reduce the time and cost during the construction of the aircraft, it was proposed to use the bow, cockpit, keel, wing box and landing gear of the Czechoslovak training jet aircraft L-39.
The design of the aircraft suggested the possibility of replacing the wing: it could be either direct or reverse sweep. In the USA, by the way, the X-29 aircraft was created to study the maneuverability of a wing with a reverse sweep.
On the subject of I-90, the experimental aircraft was carried out according to the canard aerodynamic scheme with two RU19A-300 jet engines equipped with flat nozzles with a controlled thrust vector. These experimental nozzles for engines were developed in the design department of LII. On an airplane with such a configuration, elements of super-maneuverability were to be worked out according to a program that was similar to the one under which the United States was planning to create an experimental X-31. At that moment, the Americans were just beginning to develop it. The domestic aircraft was distinguished by the fact that the wing was equipped with an ESPS system, which was powered by engine compressors. To reduce costs and time during the construction of the aircraft, it was proposed to use the cockpit, bow, wing box, etc..
The design of the aircraft allowed for the replacement of the wing: it could be either reverse or direct sweep. By the way, in the United States, the X-29 aircraft was created to study the maneuverability of a wing with a reverse sweep. Engineer Vyacheslav Khvan participated in the development of the scheme, and shortly before that he graduated from the Moscow Aviation Institute and came to OSKBES.
After the scheme was approved, Simonov and Shkadovy made a demonstration model. Since the aircraft were going to be built in the interests of the I-90 program, it was necessary to coordinate its scheme with the leading company on this topic, namely Mikoyan Design Bureau. Yuri Alekseevich Ryzhov, vice-rector of the Moscow Aviation Institute for Science, phoned Rostislav Anollosovich Belyakov, general designer, and very unexpectedly received an invitation immediately to come to him with Zhidovetsky, since the Mikoyan design bureau is located not far across the institute across Leningradka.
Since it was necessary to bring an airplane model with him, Yuri Alekseevich suggested using his own Volga. Ryzhov’s “crusts” [security passes] allowed him to go to the sensitive area of ??the design bureau, but Kazimir Mikhailovich had not yet managed to get the certificate of the Chief Designer of the MAP, so difficulties could arise with his travel to the design bureau. The usual pass had to be ordered the day before, but who knew that the meeting with Belyakov would take place immediately. The solution was found sitting at the wheel Ryzhov. He gave his identity card to Casimir and said: "Tell them that I am a driver." They passed through unhindered.
Belyakov’s first reaction, after he saw the model brought in, was surprise, after which he tried to find out how information had leaked at the Moscow Aviation Institute about the promising fighter “1.42” being developed by his design bureau. He calmed down only after he noticed that the OSKBES machine had one keel while the “1.42” had two.
When the I-90 program started, later it led to the appearance of the MiG 1.44), then in parallel the Mikoyanites began work on a light fighter with one engine. The example of the Americans with their “couple” F-16 and F-15 turned out to be very successful, and the designers wanted to work out such an option for the USSR Air Force.
OKB Sukhoi was also noted in the subject of a light fighter with the S-54 project (and its ship version of S-56). This is perhaps the most elaborated of all the projects of the domestic lightweight single-engine fighter. There were models of both single and double versions of this machine. Most importantly, Sukhoi also worked on the ship-board version. As is well known, Russia's only aircraft carrier, the Admiral Kuznetsov TAVKR, had a disproportionately small hangar for such a large ship. This was due to the requirement to allocate large volumes inside the hull under the anti-ship cruise missile launchers, which are useless for such a ship. This problem was incorrigible, and the only way to increase the number of Kuznetsov air group is to reduce the size of the aircraft of which it consists. This can be effectively solved with the help of a new single-engine fighter, if its performance characteristics will meet the requirements of naval aviation and its tasks.
At the same time OKB them. Yakovleva also conducted work on a fighter with one engine and horizontal take-off and landing, however, with an eye to ship-based. This machine was supposed to contain a significant part of the systems developed for the Yak-41 VTOL aircraft (later the Yak-141) and today is known as the Yak-43 (in fact, such an aircraft was not accepted for service, such a "nickname" was given to the project by modern enthusiasts) . Then OKB them. Yakovleva conducted work on a promising VTOL aircraft, which is now known to researchers as the Yak-201 - this machine was not designed to the end, that is, its appearance was not even “frozen”, and we just can’t imagine what would have come out of the project, for except that a lot of ideas from it were later implemented in the American SUVVP F-35B. And most likely the correct designation is not Yak-201,
|Join the GlobalSecurity.org mailing list|