By the time of the development of the I-15 (IstrebÝtel - "Fighter") fighter aircraft, designer Nikolai Polikarpov had a wealth of practical experience working in the industry, and was the author of several mass-produced aircraft. Polikarpov designed the I-1, I-3, I-5 fighters, which allowed him to objectively assess the scheme, construction and combat capabilities of the next promising machine.
The new draft fighter originally indicated more compact and tidy derivatinve of the I-14a. A notable difference between the new aircraft was the central part of the upper wing, made with a break of "The Seagull" This arrangement not only increased the view of the pilot forward, but also improved the aerodynamics and provide a better fighter maneuverability, especially in the deep bend.
When considering solutions, promising a new draft fighter aircraft Polikarpov N., promise high maneuverability and rate of climb, interested in the army leadership and the industry, so it decided to continue the development Dec. 8, 1932 at a special meeting of wooden mock polikarpovskogo biplane I-14a treated simultaneously with the layout monoplane I-14 design Sukhoi. He supervised meeting Deputy Chief of Air Force Yakov Alksnis, who offered to build two aircraft. And to avoid confusion the Polikarpov aircraft began to be called I-15.
When choosing a powerplant for the aircraft, Soviet designers were guided by the British engines Bristol "Mercury" and the American Wright "Cyclone". Polikarpov considered American motors most appropriate. In 1932 - 1933 years. Soviet representatives held talks with the firm Curtiss-Wright. The result was the acquisition engine plant with all the equipment and licenses for the production of engines "Cyclone" R-1820 F-3 with a capacity of 625 hp.
New Aircraft Engine Plant was built in 1934 in Perm in the Urals. Initially Perm "Cyclones" were assembled from US components. During 1935, the company, known as Plant No. 19, fully mastered the production license of engines which, in accordance with the Soviet system of notation became known as the M-25. By the end of the year it produced 660 engines.
On January 13, 1933 Chief of the aviation industry and P. Baranov signed a decree on the organization of the new Central Design Bureau based aircraft factory No.39. Head of the Central Technical Institute of the six project teams, appointed SV. Ilyushin. Polikarpov got number 2, the task was to develop fighter.
Using the technology of manufacturing the new fighter is a lot like the old I-5: wooden wings with fabric covering, dural tail and a steel truss fuselage. It was recognized that the I-15 was completely superior to the existing Soviet fighters, maneuverability and rate of climb, and ahead of all the known machines, but the maximum speed at an altitude of 5000 meters was behind some foreign models. This last drawback proposed to eliminate, and the fighter fully satisfying the requirements.
The Air Force recommended the serial production under the designation I-15 decided to build planes in two Moscow factories - No. 1 and 39. Preparation for serial production started immediately. The total number of I-15 produced amounted to 384 copies.
I-15bis (I-152) Fighter
The group of pilots and air commanders made a proposal to replace the serial-15 fighter upper wing of "The Seagull". The Polikarpov design team, having been instructed to do the job in 1936, passed the test on the new version of the fighter, called the I-15bis (I-152).
Under the scheme, the contours and design, which has been somewhat strengthened, I-15bis differed little from its predecessor. It, too, was a gooseneck biplane. Area his box of wings reached 22.5 sq.m. Installing a more powerful engine (M-25V 750 hp..) Allowed the board to strengthen the arms. Empty weight increased to 1310 kg, take-off - up to 1730 kg. During the test, the modified fighter showed a rate of 316 km / h - at ground level and 346 km / h at an altitude of five thousand. M. Range-15 bis reached 770 km, 270 km more than the I-15, the ceiling remains the same - 9500 m.
The modified version of the fighter was taken for serial production. The aircraft plant in the short term released more than 2,0000. Fighter aircraft of the type I-15bis were used in battles against the Japanese invaders in Khalkhin Gol in 1939, as well as a stormtrooper in the first months of World War II.
|Year of adopting||1937|
|Wing area, m2||22.50|
|- Empty aircraft||1310|
|- Normal take-off||1730|
|engine type||1 PD M-25B (M-25B)|
|Power, hp||1 x 750 (775)|
|maximum speed, km / h|
|- Near ground||329|
|- on high||370|
|Practical range, km||770|
|maximum rate of climb, m / min||625|
|Service ceiling, m||9800|
|Armament||4 7.62-mm machine gun PV-1|
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