Granit Engineering Design Bureau
This design bureau was founded in 1945 as OKB-45 by the two principal engine designers in the USSR, V Ya Klimov and A A Mikulin. It played a central role in copying the imported Rolls-Royce Nene turbojet, hastening it into production as the RD-45, and developing it into the VK-1. In 1963 it became OKB-45-165, being named MKB 'Granit' in 1966.
In 1982 it was reorganised as part of Lyul'ka Saturn. Today it is also a production plant, which delivered large numbers of the most powerful supersonic turbojets of the AL-7, AL-21 and R-15B families. It is also a leading design and production organisation for small gas turbines for the propulsion of manned aircraft, unmanned vehicles and cruise missiles, and for APUs. One of its own-design products was the MD-45 small turbojet (2.085 kN; 137 lb st) for targets and cruise missiles.
Today it continues on a reduced scale to develop aero-engines and gas-turbines rated at 20 to 500 kW (26.8 to 670 shp) and 20 MW (26,820 shp) for surface applications. Current small engines include two turbojets for unmanned vehicles, the MD-45 of 608 N (137 lb st) and the MD-120.
Still at the experimental stage are the TVD-150 family and the TVD-400 turboshaft. The Granit bureau states that different versions of the TVD-400 are being developed as turbofans, turboprops and turboshaft engines. These are hoped to find applications in civil and military aeroplanes and helicopters, as well as in surface applications. The core's basic simplicity 'should lead to low cost of ownership'.
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