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State Defense Committee [GKO]

State Defense Committee [GKO]On June 30, 1941, a joint resolution of the Presidium of the Supreme Council, the Council of Peoples Commissars (SNK) and the Central Committee (CC) of the CPSU (b) in the USSR established the State Defense Committee (GKO, not Treasury Bills) - the highest emergency body in wartime. Prior to this, on June 23, on the second day of the war, by the decision of the Council of People's Commissars of the USSR and the Central Committee of the CPSU (b), the Headquarters of the Main Command of the Armed Forces of the USSR was created. The head of the bid was the Peoples Commissar of Defense, Marshal of the Soviet Union, Tymoshenko S.K. The management of military and economic issues was carried out through the GKO, and the management of military operations through the Supreme Command headquarters.

The formation of the GKO swept aside the balance between state and party that had existed before the war. In this unified political- military strategic command all authority was concentrated in the State Defense Committee (GKO) and strategic leadership was accomplished by the Stavka (General Headquarters) of the Supreme High Command, both of which were chaired by Stalin. The General Staff was routinely consulted by the Stavka before decisions were reached and provided all necessary planning and operational assistance to this body. The General Secretary of the Central Committee of the All-Union Communist Party (Bolshevik) I.V.Stalin became the chairman of the State Defense Committee, the Deputy Commissar of Foreign Affairs of the USSR became his deputy, the People's Commissar of Foreign Affairs V. Molotov. The State Defense Committee also included Beria L.P. Voroshilov K.E. (one of the true organizers of the Red Army) and secretary, head of the personnel department of the Central Committee of the CPSU (b) Malenkov G. M. In February 1942, the following persons were included in the composition: 1 st deputy chairman of the SNK N.N. Voznesensky, chairman Committee of Food and Apparel Supplies of the Red Army A. Mikoyan, Deputy Chairman of the SNK Kaganovich L. M. In November 1944, Deputy People's Commissar of Defense of the USSR N. Bulganin became a new member of the State Defense Committee, and Ye. Voroshilov was removed from the composition of the State Defense Committee. and put on a more difficult part of the work.

The GKO was vested with broad legislative, executive and regulatory powers. His decrees and orders had the force of martial law and were subject to unquestioning execution by all party, state, military, economic and trade union bodies. At the same time, the USSR Armed Forces, the Presidium of the USSR Armed Forces, and the Council of People's Commissars of the USSR, the people's commissariats continued to act, carrying out resolutions and decisions of the State Defense Committee. During the Great Patriotic War, the State Defense Committee adopted 9971 resolutions, about two thirds of them dealt with the problems of the military economy and military production; evacuation of the population and industry; the mobilization of industry, the production of weapons and ammunition; handling of captured weapons and ammunition; the organization of hostilities, distribution of weapons; appointment of authorized GKO; structural changes in the GKO itself, etc. The operational bureau, created on December 8, 1942, was among the most important units of the State Defense Committee.

The Operational Bureau consisted of L. P. Beria, G. M. Malenkov, A. I. Mikoyan, and V. Molotov. Its initial tasks were to coordinate and unite the actions of all the remaining units of the State Defense Committee. And in 1944, its bureau functions were expanded. The bureau began to monitor the current work of all the commissariats of the defense industry, as well as drawing up and executing plans for the production and supply of industries and transport. The operations bureau became responsible for the army supply. All members of the state short-term bonds had certain areas of work under their jurisdiction. So, Molotov was in charge of tanks, Mikoyan - the affairs of the commissary supply, fuel supply, Lend-Lease issues, and sometimes carried out separate orders of Stalin for the delivery of shells to the front. Malenkov was engaged in aviation, Beria - ammunition and weapons. Everyone came to Stalin with his own questions and said: I ask you to make such and such a decision on such a question ... , - commented the head of Logistics, Army General A. V. Khrulyov

To carry out the evacuation of the population and industrial enterprises from the front areas to the east, an Council for evacuation was established at the State Defense Committee. Also in October 1941, the Committee for the Evacuation of Food Supplies, Industrial Goods and Industrial Enterprises was established. Then these bodies were reorganized into the Office of Evacuation Affairs of the USSR SNK. Other important divisions of the State Defense Committee were: the Trophy Commission, established in December 1941, transformed into the Trophy Committee in April 1943; A special committee that has been involved in the development of nuclear weapons; Special Committee - dealt with reparations, etc.

The State Defense Committee became the main unit of the centralized leadership in mobilizing the country's human and material resources for defense and warfare against the enemy. Having fulfilled its functions, the State Defense Committee was dissolved by decree of the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet of the USSR dated September 4, 1945.




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