P.I.Baranov Central Institute of Aviation Motors
Since its foundation in 1930, the P. I. Baranov Central Institute of Aviation Motors (CIAM) has been engaged in the development of nearly all the Russian aircraft engines. A number of world-leading research schools were created in CIAM. These schools have determined the aerospace engine industry development trends for many decades to come.
The years 1930-1935 were a period of the formation of the Institute and the Soviet aircraft industry as a whole. The CIAM consolidated the country's engineering efforts in the aircraft engine construction industry. Design departments were established to conduct a whole cycle of aircraft engines' development. In those years, the Institute developed the M-34, the most powerful Soviet aircraft engine at that time, which enabled epic heroic missions carried out by the Soviet air crews headed by Mikhail Gromov and Valeriy Chkalov, including the world's first ever nonstop flight from Moscow to the US Pacific Coast via the North Pole in 1937, as well as the AN-1 aircraft diesel engine. Later, those technologies were used for the famous B-2, the T-34 universal battle tank's engine.
From 1935-1945 the Institute proceeded from the individual engines design to the research in the area of general engine development issues, i.e. engine working cycle, mechanical strength, control system, fuel supply, superchargers and variable pitch propellers. Design tasks are transferred to new engine construction departments. Most of them are managed by the Institute's employees. A special issue is the work conducted by the CIAM during the World War II on improving the engine power and altitude performance, which resulted in enabling the Soviet aircraft engine industry to gain the qualitative superiority over the German one.
The period 1945-1953 began with the study and examination of the trophy German Jumo 004 at the CIAM's test rigs and capped with the development of the AM-3, the most powerful jet engine in the world at that time.
Jet aviation entered a period of rapid development 1953-1970, with 2nd and 3rd generation turbojet engines being the basis. During these years, CIAM's researchers participated in the development of such highlights as the NK-12, which is still the world's most powerful turboprop engine, and the R11F-300 afterburning turbojet engine. The most important event of this period is the establishment in 1953 of the CIAM Research and Test Center, Europe's largest experimental facility for aircraft engine development in Turayevo, Moscow region. By 1991, over 900 engines had been tested at the CIAM's Test Center.
The years 1970-1989 were a Golden age. The Soviet aviation was on the rise, reaching and often exceeding the overall world's level in virtually any area.
The period 1989-2000 was hard time for the country and for the Institute as well. The question of the industry survival in the new economic situation comes up. Thanks to the employees' devotion and the management's insistence, CIAM's main competences had not ionly been retained, but also improved according to the imperative of the time. This is a period of the CIAM's international cooperation growth. The period of overcoming the crisis had consequences. The PD-14, Russia's first 5th generation aircraft engine, became a symbol of the industry’s revival. CIAM aims its efforts on creating a scientific groundwork for this engine, as well as for the long-term perspective up to 2050.
CIAM's role as the industry's leading research institution is based not only on its official status, but also on its scientific prestige what cannot be stated by any normative act. It is a result of long-term activity of thousands of people, whose names had made Russian science and engineering famous. Among them there are academicians, general and principal designers of leading design bureaus, such as V. Avduyevsky, S. Balandin, A. Bessonov, V. Dobrynin, V. Dollezhal, K. Zhdanov, M. Keldysh, V. Klimov, P. Kolesov, V. Konstantinov, S. Kosberg, A. Lyulka, N. Metskhvarishvili, A. Mikulin, G. Petrov, G. Svischev, L. Sedov, S. Serensen, B. Stechkin, S. Tumansky, E. Urmin, V. Uvarov, O. Favorsky, A. Charomsky, V. Chelomey, G. Cherny, A. Shvetsov, V. Yakovlev.
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